Several things will be immediately unclear to the reader. First, why is there a scarcity of information on scientific lie detection? Second, if lie detection technology is available, then why is it inadmissible in many courts?
One of the primary reason that information on polygraphy is suppressed is that lying is a besetting failure of mankind. We would reserve the right to deceive others in order to manipulate the world around us, and in order to gratify our covetousness. Sadly human depravity and the tendency to lie and deceive is the norm. Therefore, the idea of broadscale reform using hi-tech polygraph technology is suppressed and repressed by the naysayers. However, notice that, at the same time, the Federal Government, the military, and Border Control are among the biggest users of polygraph technology in the nation.
While making no exaggerated claims for infallibility, we believe that there is no other investigative tool which even approaches the accuracy of a polygraph examination. (Notice that fingerprints and DNA evidence are probably the most accurate forensic evidence. -- compiler) -- American Polygraph Association in The Brochure of the American Polygraph Association
Recent advances in neuroscience promise to bring lie detection technology far beyond the notoriously unreliable polygraph and into a realm that Greely said bears eerie resemblance to scientific mind reading." -- Emily Saarman, in New lie detection technology too much like scientific mind reading
The inadmissibility of polygraph tests as evidence in the courts, because of claims of unreliability, are false according to polygraph experts (Ansley, in Truth and Science: A Bibliography). This is a myth that has probably been promulgated by special interests whose real objection is that polygraphs are to accurate. (The Brochure of the American Polygraph Association), Ansley, Lawrence, and Beaumont, Quick Reference Guide to Polygraph Admissibility, Licensing Laws, and Limiting Laws)
Reflect on the many uses of the polygraph. Notice the conflict of interest with the World System, the Deep State, the Establishment, and the Shadow Government is staggering. Powerful forces seeking to discredit the use hi-tech polygraphs include lawyers, judges, politicians, heads of state, corporate leaders, businessmen, the military/industrial complex, educators, scientists, religious leaders, and so forth, and so on. Consequently, one must carefully discern between truthfulness and deception in literature on lie detection.
If the subject of a polygraph test is stressed or incited to fear by an unethical polygraph operator, then the results are falsified, because polygraph machines measure body functions influenced by stress. This has been one of the major factors leading to claims of unreliability. The integrity of the polygraph operators becomes a deciding factor in accuracy with conventional lie dector technology.
False claims of unreliability of lie dector tests bring to mind the irrational modern myths of evolution, non-duality, the Hegelian dialectic, relativism, situation ethics, values clarification, and so forth, and so on. But, although early polygraph technology was relatively unreliable, it should be noted that huge technical advances have been made in recent years driven, in part, by the threat of terrorism. (See "Bibliography" and "Related Weblinks" below).
Admissibility of lie dector tests as evidence in court would dramatically speed up trials, eliminate case backlogs, eliminate dishonesty on the part of lawyers, clients, and witnesses, and eliminate the wrong conviction of the innocent.
Notice that the admissibility of lie dector tests in court and in employment screening, is a moot question. It can be argued that there are many ways and means to use modern polygraph test results to influence a suit of law. So state laws regarding the admissibility of polygraph examination results in court, and the federal law of 1984 prohibiting use of polygraph test in pre-employment screening of employees, do not preclude the use of polygraphy in either case.
One of the great advantages of the polygraph examination is the high percentage of voluntary confessions associated with the examination. (Ansley and Garwood, Accuracy and Utility of Polygraph Testing)
If only truthfulness might be demanded in our leaders and in our courts, then imagine how life might change. Christianity is the highest ethical standard known to mankind. The impact of new, accurate, hi-tech polygraphy on the selection of covenant heads for positions of leadership and authority could be historic. Both the Christian and the non-Christian electorate know the vital importance of honesty to the future stability of our nation.
If candidates were to submit to questioning on a PCASS machine, for example, then questioning could go beyond the typical platform issues to include vital issues so often intentionally avoided during a campaign. If results were made public to voters, then it could be expected that this might influence the election of the most truthful candidates.
Ansley, Norman, and Marcia Garwood, Accuracy and Utility of Polygraph Testing. (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 1984).
Ansley, Norman, Frank Horvath, Gordon Barland, and American Polygraph Association, Truth and Science: A Comprehensive Index to International Literature on the Detection of Deception and the Polygraph (Lie Detector) Technique, 1983.
Cites over 3500 works.
Ansley, Norman, S. Lawrence, and J.D. Beaumont, Quick Reference Guide to Polygraph Admissibility, Licensing Laws, and Limiting Laws, 16th edition, 1992 (Severna Park, MD [American Polygraph Association, P.O. Box 1061, Severna Park 21146]: American Polygraph Association).
In the state of Virginia polygraph evidence is admissible in court on stipulation that it is agreed upon by the bench, the prosecution, and the defense. Use of polygraph examinations by civil service was upheld on appeal to Circuit Court -- Salas v. Civil Service Commission, Docket L-74-455 February 21, 1975. The current trend seems to be toward greater admissibility of polygraph evidence in court.
Balmer, Andrew, Lie Detection in Practice: Torture, Technology, and Truth, ISBN: 9781138855632 1138855634.
Craig, David, Lie Catcher: Become a Human lie Detector in Under 60 Minutes, 2011, ISBN: 9781458738684 145873868X.
"LIE CATCHER, is Dr David Craig's easy-to-read guide that demonstrates through practical examples how to apply 'lie detecting' skills in your day-to-day life. From the simple skills of bargaining, making a purchase, or dealing with children through to negotiating a contract or identifying infidelity, he delivers simple but effective tips and techniques we can all use to see behind the facade and get to the truth. LIE CATCHER is the culmination of over twenty years of practical criminology and hundreds of hours of academic research. Dr David Craig has used these techniques extensively. LIE CATCHER is an easy-to-read, light hearted and academically credentialed guide on how to detect lies. It is a practical and useful tool to support law enforcement, education, parents, relationships, workplace interviews and business activities." -- Publisher
*Halperin, James, Truth Machine, didactic fiction, ISBN: 0345412885 9780345412881.
"I believe that James Halperin is an extraordinarily talented futurist. The concepts put forth in this plea for sanity in our world dangerously teetering into the new millenium are important and beautifully stated and played out by the characters in THE TRUTH MACHINE.
"It is a remarkable first novel. The characterization is excellent and compelling. The story is an equal partner to the ideas that abound. There are several sub-plots that are almost as satisfying as the major theme about the societal impact of a device that compells truthfulness in all aspects of human interaction. Pete's complex character and his relationships with women and with his life long friends David and Diana West are well portrayed as are his relationships and interaction with his demons Reece and Scoggins. I even enjoyed the character of 22g CP-TLMos, the super computer reporter who relates the major part of this work.
"My great regret is that we don't have our own phenomenally gifted Pete Robinson to create a Truth Machine for us and to usher in the new era of world wide understanding and communication.
"This is a thoughtful, absorbing, highly readable and most important statement about our possible future or lack thereof. Very highly recommended." -- Reader's Comment
Hilliard, David Craig, Lie Detecting 101: A Comprehensive Course in Spotting Lies and Detecting Deceit, 2015, ISBN: 9781632200228 1632200228.
"Lying is a normal part of human communication and is sometimes necessary to protect someone's feelings, but there are also malicious lies meant to deceive, cheat, and defraud. You can't always rely on what comes out of someone's mouth. It doesn't take mind reading superpowers to be able to tell when someone is lying -- but it does take special skills and a little practice. In LIE DETECTING 101 international expert in undercover operations, Dr. David Craig, provides readers with an easy-to-follow guide on applying lie-detection skills to your everyday life. From the simple skills of bargaining, making a purchase, or dealing with children, to the more serious business of negotiating a contract or identifying infidelity, Craig delivers simple but effective tips and techniques we can all use to see behind the facade and get to the truth. LIE DETECTING 101 is the culmination of over twenty years of practical criminology and hundreds of hours of academic research. Split into three parts, the book looks at understanding lies and how to detect lies, and includes an easy reference section that summarizes all the main points. With full-color photographs and practical examples, LIE DETECTING 101 provides anyone with the tools to be a human lie detector. The mystery of what a person is really thinking is finally unlocked in this fascinating and informative book." -- Publisher
Jewell, Jessica Dawn, Computerized Screening System: An Application of the Relevant Comparison Test in the Detection of Deception, Ph.D. dissertation, 2016.
MatteŽ, James Allan, Forensic Psychophysiology Using the Polygraph: Scientific Truth Verification, Lie Detection. Supplement 2002-2012, ISBN: 9781469907932 1469907933.
Pogue, David, Scott Tiffany (director), Christopher Rife, Joshua Seftel, and Erika Frankel, Can Science Stop Crime? a DVD, ISBN: 9781608838035 160883803X.
"Looks at some cutting edge forensic technologies with the potential to make great strides in the prevention of crime."
Sullivan, John F., Gatekeeper: Memoirs of a CIA Polygraph Examiner, 2008, ISBN: 9781597970464 1597970468.
"I learned more about the workings of the CIA's polygraph program from reading GATEKEEPER than I learned during the twenty-seven years I served in the Agency's Directorate of Operations. The polygraph is the CIA's most important tool for validating the intelligence information it collects and for protecting itself from hostile penetration and peddlers of false information. This book provides a wealth of detail about the growth and maturation of the Agency's polygraph program." -- Merle Pribbenow, former CIA case officer and translator of Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the People's Army of Vietnam, 1954-1975
"John F. Sullivan was a polygraph examiner with the CIA for thirty-one years, during which time he conducted more tests than anyone in the history of the CIA's program. The lie detectors act as the Agency's gatekeepers, preventing foreign agents, unsuitable applicants, and employees guilty of misconduct from penetrating or harming the Agency. Here Sullivan describes his methods, emphasizing the importance of psychology and the examiners' skills in a successful polygraph program. Sullivan acknowledges that using the polygraph effectively is an art as much as a science, yet he convincingly argues that it remains a highly reliable screening device, more successful and less costly than the other primary method, background investigation. In the thousands of tests that Sullivan conducted, he discovered double agents, applicants with criminal backgrounds, and employee misconduct, including compromising affairs and the mishandling of classified information.
"But Gatekeeper is more than Sullivan's memoirs. It is also a window to the often acrimonious and sometimes alarming internal politics of the CIA: the turf wars over resources, personnel, and mandate; the slow implementation of quality control; the aversion to risk-taking; and the overzealous pursuit of disqualifying information. In an age when the intelligence community's conduct is rightly being questioned, Sullivan contributes a fascinating personal account of one of the Agency's many important tasks.
"John F. Sullivan retired from the CIA's polygraph division after thirty-one years of service. His previous book is Of Spies and Lies: A CIA Lie Detector Remembers Vietnam. He lives in Reston, Virginia." -- Publisher
United States Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) Scientific Validity of Polygraph Testing: A Research Review and Evaluation, 2004, ISBN: 1410210707 9781410210708.
"This technical memorandum presents the results of the Office of Technology Assessment's (OTA) review and assessment of the scientific evidence on the validity of polygraph testing. OTA has limited this technical memorandum to issues directly related to the scientific validity of the polygraph. OTA did not consider utility, privacy, constitutional, and ethical issues, among others that have been raised in the debate over polygraph testing.
"We first discuss the various types of polygraph testing procedures and ways in which the polygraph is used, and then summarize the judicial, legislative, and scientific controversy over polygraph testing validity. Next, we review and evaluate both prior reviews of the scientific research on polygraph validity and the individual research studies. Finally, we discuss the range of factors that may affect polygraph validity and the possibilities for future research, and present OTA's conclusions about the scientific evidence for current and proposed Federal Government polygraph use.
"In preparing this memorandum, OTA has drawn on research information available from a wide variety of sources, including the major Federal Government polygraph users, the American Polygraph Association, various private polygraph practitioners, and polygraph researchers both in the United States and abroad." -- Publisher
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Issues Surrounding the use of Polygraphs: Hearing Before the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, first session, [April 25, 2001], ISBN: 1410222667 9781410222664.
Verschuere, Bruno, Gershon Ben-Shakhar, Ewout Meijer, and ProQuest (firm), Memory Detection: Theory and Application of the Concealed Information Test.
"Traditional techniques for detecting deception, such as the 'lie-detector test' (or polygraph), are based upon the idea that lying is associated with stress. However, it is possible that people telling the truth will experience stress, whereas not all liars will. Because of this, the validity of such methods is questionable. As an alternative, a knowledge-based approach known as the 'Concealed Information Test' has been developed which investigates whether the examinee recognizes secret information -- for example a crime suspect recognizing critical crime details that only the culprit could know. The 'Concealed Information Test' has been supported by decades of research, and is used widely in Japan. This is the first book to focus on this exciting approach and will be of interest to law enforcement agencies and academics and professionals in psychology, criminology, policing and law." -- Publisher
Vrij, Aldert, and Bruno Verschuere, Lie Detection in a Forensic Context, 2013-.
Document, Updating database, Internet resource
Bobo, Jeff, Mount Carmel Police Using High-tech lie Detector, March 30, 2009
"MOUNT CARMEL -- Police in Mount Carmel will be catching burglars and other small-town crooks using the same lie detector technology that the U.S. Department of Defense uses to catch terrorists.
"It's called Digital Voice Stress Analysis (DVSA), and four years ago the training and software cost just shy of $10,000.
"Mount Carmel Police Chief Jeff Jackson said that's why he was attempting to get several area departments to go in on the DVSA together at that time, but it was still too expensive to attract enough partners.
"Today the entire DVSA package has come down to $1,500, and earlier this month Mount Carmel Police Department Lt. Kevin Ewing completed training and became a certified DVSA operator."
Buys, Elize, Polygraph Testing: Truth or Dare, October 2008
Combined Interactive Contents for The Web Edition of Biblical Counsel: Resources for Renewal
Complex Brain Imaging is Making Waves in Court, Reyhan Harmanci, October 17, 2008
"Science and the American legal system historically have had a complicated relationship. While good science has driven solid law, junk science like eugenics and phrenology have influenced due process with often terrible consequences.
"Over the past decade, researchers have made huge advances in neuroscience, developing brain-imaging techniques that show not just the structure of the brain but its inner workings. According to experts in a new field called neurolaw, the effect of these breakthroughs on the legal system could be revolutionary."
Epistemology of Theology, The Theory of Knowledge
Henig, Robin Marantz, Looking for the Lie, February 5, 2006
A very detailed article that appeared in the New York Times.
Hi-tech Polygraphy as a Means of Broadscale Reform
Lies Wide Open / Researchers say technology can show when and how a lie is created inside the brain, Vicki Haddock, August 06, 2006
"Imagine a day when a machine can perform a search and seizure of your mind, pronouncing judgment on whether you are telling the truth -- in court, at your job interview, to your boss or to your lover. A world in which lying has become passe.
"That day may be closer that you think."
New Anti-terror Weapon: Hand-held Lie Detector (April 9, 2008)
"The algorithm that makes the decisions was tested in the lab by its creators at the Johns Hopkins University Advanced Physics Lab. The university was paid $1.2 million for its work. . . .
"For every 100 deceptive people, the researchers reported, the device would detect 86 (red) with two false negatives (green) and 12 uncertain (yellow), [a 98 percent accuracy of reading, accurate enough to chose leaders. -- compiler]
"For every 100 truthful people, they said, it would detect 50 (green) with eight false positives (red) and 42 uncertain (yellow)." [a 92 percent accuracy of reading, accurate enough to chose leaders -- compiler]
"The Army has bought 94 of the $7,500 PCASS machines, which are sold by Lafayette Instrument Co. of Lafayette, Ind. The algorithm, or computer program that makes the decisions, was written by the Advanced Physics Lab at Johns Hopkins University. Besides the Army, other branches of the U.S. military have seen the device and may order their own. The total cost of the project so far is about $2.5 million."
What is the PCASS and how Does it Work?
Saarman, Emily, New lie detection technology too much like scientific mind reading, ethicist says companies plan to begin selling fMRI services by end of year, but, with no regulation, utility of technique need not be proved
"Recent advances in neuroscience promise to bring lie detection technology far beyond the notoriously unreliable polygraph and into a realm that Greely said bears eerie resemblance to scientific mind reading. . . .
"During the seminar, Greely discussed five emerging lie detection techniques. These include electroencephalograms (EEGs) which measure brain waves using electrodes taped to a subject's head and claim to detect patterns related to specific brain processes, including recognition of a scene or person. Another technique uses facial microexpressions, facial expressions lasting just a fraction of a second that can be captured on film, to reveal otherwise invisible emotions or reactions. A thermal imaging technique, claiming that the area around the eye gets warmer when a person lies, attempts to reveal deception by measuring the temperature of the eye area. Finally, two different techniques use images of brain activity to highlight lying-specific brain patterns, Greely said. Near infrared laser spectroscopy shines invisible infrared light through the skull and reflects it off the brain to reveal activity on the surface of the brain. And functional magnetic resonance imaging, or fMRI, uses powerful magnets to build a map of activity throughout the brain.
"But companies who hope to profit from new lie detection techniques are not so cautious. Two private for-profit companies -- No Lie MRI Inc. of La Jolla, Calif., and Cephos Corp. of Pepperell, Mass. -- plan to begin selling fMRI-based lie detection services by the end of the year. And because there are no regulations to control lie detection technology, Greely cautioned, they can sell lie detection services without ever proving how well they work."
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