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The Spirit of the LORD spake by me, and his word was in my tongue.
The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me, He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God.
And he shall be as the light of the morning, when the sun riseth, even a morning without clouds; as the tender grass springing out of the earth by clear shining after rain.
Although my house be not so with God; yet he hath made with me an everlasting covenant, ordered in all things, and sure: for this is all my salvation, and all my desire, although he make it not to grow.
But the sons of Belial shall be all of them as thorns thrust away, because they cannot be taken with hands:
But the man that shall touch them must be fenced with iron and the staff of a spear; and they shall be utterly burned with fire in the same place.
-- The Last Words of David (2 Samuel 23:2-7)
Psalm 72 is thought to be the last Psalm of David because of verse 20 [Psalm 72:20]. See Psalms 2.

And, behold, God himself is with us for our captain, and his priests with sounding trumpets to cry alarm against you. O children of Israel, fight ye not against the LORD God of your fathers; for ye shall not prosper. (2 Chronicles 13:12)

There is no counsel, nor prudence, nor strength against the Lord." (Proverbs 21:30)
Unless the blessing of God be present, from which alone we may expect a prosperous issue, all that we attempt will necessarily perish. Since, then, God declares that he is at perpetual war with the unmeasured audacity of men; anything we undertake without his approval will end miserably, even though all creatures above and beneath should earnestly offer us their assistance. -- John Calvin commenting on Genesis 11:7

I am the LORD, and there is none else, there is no God beside me: I girded thee, though thou hast not known me. (Isaiah 45:5)

Remember the former things of old: for I am God, and there is none else; I am God, and there is none like me, Declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times the things that are not yet done, saying, My counsel shall stand, and I will do all my pleasure. (Isaiah 46:9-10)

For I will give you a mouth and wisdom, which all your adversaries shall not be able to gainsay nor resist. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Luke 21:15 )

Associate yourselves, O ye people, and ye shall be broken in pieces; and give ear, all ye of far countries: gird yourselves, and ye shall be broken in pieces; gird yourselves, and ye shall be broken in pieces. Take counsel together, and it shall come to nought; speak the word, and it shall not stand: for God is with us. For the LORD spake thus to me with a strong hand, and instructed me that I should not walk in the way of this people, saying, Say ye not, A confederacy, to all them to whom this people shall say, A confederacy; neither fear ye their fear, nor be afraid. Sanctify the LORD of hosts himself; and let him be your fear, and let him be your dread. And he shall be for a sanctuary; but for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offence to both the houses of Israel, for a gin and for a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem. (Isaiah 8:9-14)


The simple and obvious notion that false teaching is the indicator by which we recognize false teachers clarifies and explains the meaning of this whole passage. In the verses immediately prior to verse 21 [Matthew 7:21], Jesus had been warning of false prophets. He said,
Beware of false prophets who come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravenous wolves. You will know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes from thornbushes or figs from thistles? Even so, every good tree bears good fruit, but a bad tree bears bad fruit. A good tree cannot bear bad fruit, nor can a bad tree bear good fruit. Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire. Therefore by their fruits you will know them. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Matthew 7:15-20).
The trees that are cut down and thrown into the fire in verse 19 [Matthew 7:19], are the men Jesus commands to depart from him in verse 23 [Matthew 7:23]. They are the men who have done spectacular works in the name of Jesus on Earth. This implies, please note, that the fruit by which we are to know them is not primarily their works, perhaps not their works at all, but their doctrine, their teaching. We have become so accustomed to thinking of "fruit" as behavior that we have missed Jesus' point in his warning against false prophets: They are recognized by their doctrine. What they teach is their "fruit." That is why John gives us a doctrinal test in 2 John 1:7,9-11,
For many deceivers have gone out into the world who do not confess Jesus Christ as coming in the flesh. This is a deceiver and an antichrist. . . . Whoever transgresses and does not abide in the doctrine of Christ does not have God. He who abides in the doctrine of Christ has both the Father and the Son. If anyone comes to you and does not bring this doctrine, do not receive him into your home or greet him, for he who greets him shares in his evil deeds.
The notion that fruit is doctrine or teaching, rather than works or behavior, is so clearly taught in Scripture that the dominance of the incorrect view must be attributed to our inability to read. For example, Jesus in Matthew 12:32-37 says,
Either make the tree good and its fruit good, or else make the tree bad and its fruit bad; for a tree is known by its fruit. Brood of vipers! How can you, being evil, speak good things? For out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaks. A good man out of the good treasure of his heart brings forth good things, and an evil man out of the evil treasure brings forth evil things. But I say to you that for every idle word men may speak, they will give account of it in the Day of Judgment. For by your words you will be justified, and by your words you will be condemned.
Fruit is a metaphor for words, doctrine, speaking, teaching. Evil fruit is false teaching; good fruit is true teaching; and we are to judge men by their fruit, that is, their teaching. This is entirely consistent with the tests prescribed in the Old Testament (Deuteronomy 13 and 18 [Deuteronomy 18]), for false prophets: The tests were doctrinal. The Israelites were to disbelieve false prophets even if they performed miracles and foretold the future.
Jesus prescribes a doctrinal test for false prophets because a behavioral test is unreliable. We all have known unbelievers whose behavior is better than that of some Christians. And if fruit means behavior, and we must judge them by their fruit, then we must conclude that they are Christians, despite what they say. In fact, this misunderstanding of fruit as behavior has led people to say such foolish things as "That Mormon is such a godly man"; or "He is a good Christian man," when all he is is considerate. -- John W. Robbins in a sermon on Matthew 7:21-23, "Justification and Judgment"

For a good tree bringeth not forth corrupt fruit; neither doth a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit. For every tree is known by his own fruit. For of thorns men do not gather figs, nor of a bramble bush gather they grapes. A good man out of the good treasure of his heart bringeth forth that which is good; and an evil man out of the evil treasure of his heart bringeth forth that which is evil: for of the abundance of the heart his mouth speaketh. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Luke 6:43-45)

Can the fig tree, my brethren, bear olive berries? either a vine, figs? so can no fountain both yield salt water and fresh. Who is a wise man and endued with knowledge among you? let him shew out of a good conversation his works with meekness of wisdom. (James 3:12-13)

Wherefore I say unto you, All manner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men: but the blasphemy [against] the [Holy] Ghost shall not be forgiven unto men.
And whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the [world] to come.
Either make the tree good, and his fruit good; or else make the tree corrupt, and his fruit corrupt: for the tree is known by [his] fruit.
O generation of vipers, how can ye, being evil, speak good things? for out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh.
A good man out of the good treasure of the heart bringeth forth good things: and an evil man out of the evil treasure bringeth forth evil things.
But I say unto you, That every idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the day of judgment.
For by thy words thou shalt be justified, and by thy words thou shalt be condemned.
-- The Lord Jesus Christ (Matthew 12:31-37)

Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these; Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, Idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, Envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such like: of the which I tell you before, as I have also told you in time past, that they which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God. But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, Meekness, temperance: against such there is no law. (Galatians 5:19-23)

Ye stiffnecked and uncircumcised in heart and ears, ye do always resist the Holy Ghost: as your fathers did, so do ye. (Acts 7:51)

Hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world? (1 Corinthians 1:20b)

Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men; and the weakness of God is stronger than men. (1 Corinthians 1:25)

For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written, He taketh the wise in their own craftiness. (1 Corinthains 3:19)

Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men; and the weakness of God is stronger than men. (1 Corinthians 1:25)

Therefore, all candidates for public office shall be required to give a public account of their works for Christ and the fruitfulness of those works.

This account shall be thoroughly and impartially investigated by an independent council. Only candidates with a fruitful Christian life will be considered true to Christ, and therefore qualified to hold public office.

If Christians in America continue to permit non-Christians to govern the country, to usurp the authority of God in matters of the State, and to make decisions according to their own wills instead of according to the will of our Sovereign God, then there will be no relief from the negative sanctions and judgment of God upon this country (Deuteronomy 28:15-68).

The First Amendment clearly was intended to, and has lead to, pluralism in this country, not just acceptance of multiple Christian denominations, but also of false religions.
Furthermore, the explicit rejection of a religious test oath to hold office [Article VI, Section 3 of the U.S. Constitution] is telling as to the Framers' intent. -- A social media post

See also: The sovereignty of god, The doctrine of man (human nature, total depravity), Individual responsibility for corporate faithfulness and sanctification, The covenanted reformation of scotland background and history, Hypocrisy, Absolute truth and relativism, The sovereign grace of god: his everlasting mercy and lovingkindness, God's deliverance of nations, The inspiration and infallibility of scripture (the doctrine of revelation, the doctrine of plenary inspiration, the doctrine of divine inspiration, the doctrine of verbal inspiration, theopneustia, sufficiency of scripture), Epistemology of theology, the theory of knowledge, The ten commandments: the moral law, Christ's kingdom, Ethics, computer ethics, cyberethics, Sex ethics, sex education, Heresy and apostasy (apostacy, old english), Selection of covenant heads for positions of leadership, Bible magistracy turns back the wrath of god, The doctrine of the lesser magistrates, The government role of punishing wrongdoers, Toleration, liberty of conscience, pluralism, "religious freedom," and neutrality, Oaths, ensnaring vows, promises, and covenants, bonds with the ungodly, Tyranny, and so forth, and so on.


Bibliography

*Brown, John (of Haddington, 1722-1787), A Compend of the Letters of the Rev. John Brown, Late Minister of the Gospel in Haddington: On Authoritative Toleration of Gross Heresy, Blasphemy, Idolatry, Popery in Britain, and on National Covenanting; In Which the Doctrine of the Westminster Confession of Faith . . . and of the National Covenant and Solemn League are Candidly Represented and Defended, 1797. Alternate title: THE ABSURDITY AND PERFIDY OF ALL AUTHORITATIVE TOLERATION OF GROSS HERESY, BLASPHEMY, IDOLATRY, POPERY, IN BRITAIN. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #7, #25, #26.
The Absurdity and Perfidy of all Authoritative Toleration of Gross Heresy, Blasphemy, Idolatry, Popery, in Britain
http://archive.org/details/absurdityperfidy00brow

Brown, John (of Haddington, 1722-1787), and Justin A. Rawson, A Refutation of Religious Pluralism, ISBN: 9781597123471 1597123471.
"Mr. John Brown's manifesto shatters the glass walls that have been erected (not only by political leaders, but also by religious leaders) around the 'sacred' doctrine of religious pluralism (or religious toleration) within the political realm.
"Mr. Brown argues that for a nation to tolerate gross heresy and blasphemy (and even false religions in their entirety) is not to take a neutral position with regard to religion, but is rather to protect and promote false religion (contrary to God and His Moral Law, which perpetually bind all people in the world to its obedience -- including political leaders). For God is not morally neutral and does not grant a so-called 'religious liberty' in the civil realm to violate His Moral Law (as summarized in the Ten Commandments). For that which is truly a moral wrong can never be a civil right.
"In the two Letters found in this volume are summarized Biblical, historical, and logical arguments against the toleration of gross heresy and blasphemy in the constitutions and practices of nations (and especially those nations that are engaged by way of lawful National Covenants to God). In addition, Mr. Brown has cited numerous objections against the magistrate's God-ordained duty to legally and morally prevent religious toleration and pluralism within a nation, and has provided answers to the objections that manifest a consistent Scriptural reasoning revealing the fantasy of 'religious liberty' and 'religious pluralism' in the civil realm.
"If Mr. Brown had written his book in the United States (rather than in Scotland), an appropriate title might have been, THE RELIGIOUS PLURALISM GRANTED IN THE FIRST AMENDMENT IS NOT GRANTED IN THE FIRST COMMANDMENT.
"Dear reader, be ready to have your political worldview shaken and turned right-side-up!" -- Publisher

McClure, Alexander D., The First Amendment: A Masterpiece of Satan.

*Moore, Edwin Nisbet, Our Covenant Heritage: The Covenanters' Struggle for Unity in Truth as Revealed in the Memoir of James Nisbet (1667-1728), and Sermons of John Nevay (d. 1672), ISBN: 1857926188. Includes bibliographical references and index.
"A new book, OUR COVENANT HERITAGE, examines the rise and fall of the Scottish Church. It rose when men placed the rights of God above the rights of man. It fell when men abandoned unity in truth. It is written by Ed Moore, who spent several years examining why the Covenanters, particularly those who lived near Loudoun Castle, were willing to die for their understanding of God's truth. The answer is found in the sermons of their minister John Nevay on God's Covenant of Grace and in the Memoirs of James Nisbet, one of their number who survived their epic battle for truth only to face the age-old struggle of Christ's church for unity in truth." -- Publisher
Our Covenant Heritage, Edwin Nisbet Moore
http://www.covenanters.com/

*North, Gary, Conspiracy in Philadelphia: The Origins of the U.S. Constitution, an e-book.
"In addition to primary sources, North relies on the work of the most well respected members of the historical community -- Bailyn, Wood, Mcdonald, Gaustad, Boller, Koch, Adair, and Rakove to name a few.
"The thesis of the book is that the key U.S. Founders -- the ones who pushed through the ideas upon which America declared independence and then constructed the Constitution -- were secret theological unitarians, whose heterodox religious creed inspired them to found American government upon the notion of religious neutrality, and consequently break the tradition of covenanting with the Triune Christian God. His book focuses on Article VI Clause 3 of the U.S. Constitution (no religious tests) as the device for achieving secular government.
"From what I have researched, North is correct in his essential claim. Other scholars have noted something similar. For instance, in this post I noted Thomas Pangle and Cushing Stout, whose work North cites, concluding that there is a connection between the U.S. Constitution's benign approach to religion and the key Founders' enlightened and benign personal religious creed. Indeed, one could argue, as does Dr. Gregg Frazer, that the Founders' unitarianism or theistic rationalism was the political theology of the American Founding.
"Ideas have consequences and it was these heterodox unitarian ideas, not orthodox Christianity, that drove the U.S. Founding's approach to religion and government. However, such heterodoxy or heresy wasn't a popular creed, but rather was disproportionately believed in by the elite Whigs. Whatever the religion of a majority of the U.S. population (either nominal Protestant Christianity, which itself can tend towards Deism, or orthodox Protestant Christianity), orthodox Churches held a great deal of institutional power. With such power, they had to essentially consent to the elite Whig's new plan on government. And they did. But not all of them, for instance, the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America (Covenanters) to whom North dedicates his book. From the very beginning they smelled a rat in Philadelphia.
"So the notion that there was a secret coup, a bait and switch as Michael Zuckert put it, to sell a Christian audience non-authentically Christian ideas is not new. James Renwick Willson was one of those covenanters who in 1832 made arguments very similar to North's. And he was burned in effigy for this sermon which called all of the Presidents from Washington to Jackson infidels and not more than unitarians. I think Willson got at the truth, but did so by shattering a sacred cow -- a social myth. The kernel of truth that David Barton et al. have is that many folks in the 19th century did believe in the Christian America social myth as a cultural prejudice. And many of their bogus, unconfirmed quotations source back to 19th century places that pushed this social myth.
"Now the non-respectable has become the respectable and secular scholars more or less agree with the claims of James Renwick Willson and Gary North that America didn't have an authentically orthodox Christian founding. . . ." -- Jonathan Rowe, June 8, 2008 (http://www.positiveliberty.com/2008/06/gary-norths-ebook.html).
Download a copy at:
Conspiracy in Philadelphia: The Origins of the U.S. Constitution
https://www.garynorth.com/philadelphia.pdf
Conspiracy in Philadelphia, an article by Gary North
http://www.lewrockwell.com/north/north291.html

*Rutherford, Samuel (1600-1661), A Free Disputation Against Pretended Liberty of Conscience: Tending to Resolve Doubts Moved by Mr. John Goodwin, John Baptist, Dr. Jer. Taylor, the Belgick Arminians, Socinians, and Other Authors, 1649. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #9, #25, and #26.
"Rutherford's FREE DISPUTATION, though scarce, is still one of his most important works with maybe only a few copies of the actual book left in existence. Though Rutherford is affectionately remembered in our day for his LETTERS, or for laying the foundations of constitutional government (against the divine right of kings), in his unsurpassed LEX, REX his FREE DISPUTATION should not be overlooked for it contains the same searing insights as LEX, REX. In fact, this book should probably be known as Rutherford's 'politically incorrect' companion volume to LEX, REX. A sort of sequel aimed at driving pluralists and antinomians insane. Written against 'the Belgick Arminians, Socinians, and other Authors contending for lawless liberty, or licentious Tolerations of Sects and Heresies,' Rutherford explains the undiluted Biblical solution to moral relativism, especially as it is expressed in ecclesiastical and civil pluralism! (Corporate pluralism being a violation of the first commandment and an affront to the holy God of Scripture). He also deals with conscience, toleration, penology (punishment), and the judicial laws, as related to both the civil and ecclesiastical realms. Excellent sections are also included which address questions related to determining the fundamentals of religion, how covenants bind us, the perpetual obligation of social covenants (with direct application to the Solemn League and Covenant and the covenant-breaking of Cromwell and his sectarian supporters), whether the punishing of seducing teachers be persecution of conscience, and much more. Walker adds these comments and context regarding Rutherford's FREE DISPUTATION, 'The principle of toleration was beginning to be broached in England, and in a modified shape to find acceptance there. Samuel Rutherford was alarmed, or rather, I should say, he was horrified, for he neither feared the face of man or argument. He rushed to the rescue of the good old view . . . It is not so easy to find a theoretical ground for toleration; and Rutherford has many plausible things to say against it. With the most perfect confidence, he argues that it is alike against Scripture and common sense that you should have two religions side by side. It is outrageous ecclesiastically, it is sinful civilly. He does not, however, take what I call the essentially persecuting ground. He does not hold that the magistrate is to punish religion as religion. Nay, he strongly maintains that the civil magistrate never aims at the conscience. The magistrate, he urges, does not send anyone, whether a heretic (who is a soul murderer -- RB), or a murderer, to the scaffold with the idea of producing conversion or other spiritual result, but to strengthen the foundations of civil order. But if he gives so much power to the king, he is no lover of despotism withal: the king himself must be under law. To vindicate this great doctrine is the object of another book, the celebrated LEX, REX; of which it has been said by one competent to judge, that it first clearly developed the constitutionalism which all men now accept.' (Theology and Theologians . . . pp. 11-12). In our day Francis Schaeffer, and numerous others, have critiqued many of the problems found in modern society, but most have spent little time developing explicitly Biblical solutions especially regarding the theoretical foundations that Rutherford addresses here. Rutherford's FREE DISPUTATION provides a detailed blueprint for laying the foundations that must be laid before any lasting, God-honoring solutions will be found. Furthermore, Rutherford and his writings were the enemies of all governments not covenanted with Christ. This book will give you a very clear picture as to why 'the beast' (civil and ecclesiastical), has reserved his special hatred for such teaching. As Samuel Wylie noted 'the dispute, then, will not turn upon the point whether religion should be civilly established . . . but it is concerning what religion ought to be civilly established and protected, -- whether the religion of Jesus alone should be countenanced by civil authority, or every blasphemous, heretical, and idolatrous abomination which the subtle malignity of the old serpent and a heart deceitful above all things and desperately wicked, can frame and devise, should be put on an equal footing therewith." -- The two Sons of oil; or, The Faithful Witness for Magistracy and Ministry Upon a Scriptural Basis. Can our generation swallow Rutherford's hard, anti-pluralistic, Covenanter medicine, poured forth from the bottle of the first commandment, without choking on their carnal dreams of a free and righteous society divorced from God (and His absolute claims upon everyone and everything)? Not without the enabling power of the Holy Spirit -- that is for sure! In summary, this book answers all the hardest questions theonomists (and their wisest and best opponents), have been asking for the last 20-30 years (and these answers are much more in depth than any we have seen in the last couple of millennia. [less about a century to account for the apostles]). As the reader will discover, Rutherford was a wealthy man when it came to wisdom (and much advanced theologically), and those who take the time to gaze into the King's treasure house, as exhibited in this book, will find that they are greatly rewarded. Furthermore, because of its uncompromising stand upon the Word of God, this book is sure to be unpopular among a wicked and adulterous generation. However, on the other hand, it is sure to be popular among the covenanted servants of King Jesus! This is one of the best books (in the top five anyway), for advanced study of the Christian faith. We have now obtained an easy-to-read, amazingly clear copy of this very rare, old treasure. Great price too, considering that a copy of the 1649 edition, containing this quality of print, would likely cost upwards of $1000 on the rare book market -- though it is unlikely you would ever see a copy for sale!" -- Publisher
A Brotherly and Free Epistle to the Patrons and Friends of Pretended Liberty of Conscience, Samuel Rutherford
http://www.truecovenanter.com/anti_toleration/rutherfurd_epistle_against_pretendedlibertyofconscience.html
Chapter 21 From Samuel Rutherford's 1649 Edition of A Free Disputation Against Pretended Liberty of Conscience being Rutherford, Samuel (1600-1661), Of the Samaritans, and of the Non Compelling of Heathens; How the Covenant Bindeth us
http://www.swrb.com/newslett/actualnls/FreeDis21.htm
Brutus, Junius, The Covenant Between God and Kings, from A DEFENSE OF LIBERTY
http://www.constitution.org/vct/vindiciae1a.htm

*Singer, C. Gregg (1910-1999), From Rationalism to Irrationality: The Decline of the Western Mind From the Renaissance to the Present, ISBN: 0875524281 9780875524283 and a reprint of the P&R Publishing edition of 1979 (Wipf and Stock, 2006), 479 pp.
"Now, frankly students, this course is presented from obviously the Reformed Theology. I hold unabashedly, unashamedly to the whole of Reformed Theology as we find it specifically in the Westminster Confession of Faith (1646) and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms.
"At the same time I hold to a position in regard to Apologetics generally known as Presuppositionalism, and particularly that view held by Cornelius Van Til.
"This book is an attempt to enlarge and to broaden the scope of Van Til's own Apologetical system, and also his Epistemology. By that I mean, and I worked this book with him, so anything that I say is not to be construed as a criticism of Cornelius Van Til. I might add he wrote me a letter. He is delighted with this book. But what I did was to take his principles, both of Apologetics and of Epistemology, and apply them to all realms of modern thought.
"Dr. Van Til, for good and sufficient reason, sought to limit to the main stream of what we might call pure Philosophy, that is from Saint Thomas, well even before them, back to the Greeks, but particularly in the more modern period, from Saint Thomas Aquinas, William of Ockham (Occam), down through Descartes, the Rationalists, the Empiricists, down to Kant and Hegel, and of course Modern Philosophy and Modern Theology. Very seldom has he gone into what we might call the arena of Political Philosophy, or the arena of Social Thought, or the arena of Psychology and Psychiatry, the realm of Educational Philosophy, and into Art, Music, and so on, to the Fine Arts.
"This book is an attempt to apply his system, and show what happens when the Western mind has forsaken his principles, or the principles which he has espoused, and turned into its own way. And thus the book called FROM RATIONALISM TO IRRATIONALITY. The thesis being that the Rationalism inherent in Saint Thomas and the post-Thomists, and more particularly, and more openly, in the Philosophy of the Renaissance, and Descartes, and Spinosa, and Leibniz has, as it's gained momentum in the modern world, brought Western Culture to its knees. We are living, as I would think, in the death throws of the Western Cultures, the Western Civilization." -- Dr. C. Gregg Singer, in the introductory address to his course in Apologetics soon after FROM RATIONALISM TO IRRATIONALITY came off the press in 1979
Apologetics: #01: Classical and Medieval Thought #1 [audio file]
Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Apologetics, 56 min.
http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=2250511453
"Locke endeavored to set forth a political philosophy which would anchor his democratic political thought on what he felt were the firm foundations of his empiricism. However, his insistence that nature has bestowed upon mankind certain basic and inalienable rights was an assumption quite contrary to his empiricism. His denial of conscience as an innate possession or quality makes it impossible for men to know that they possess the rights of life, liberty, and property. The very concept of a human right is moral in nature and has its basis of authority in the human conscience. It is thus impossible for men to know through the senses that they have these cherished human rights. Granted that it was far from Locke's intention to undermine or destroy the traditional English concept of personal rights, his empiricism removed from his political thought the necessary foundations on which a government could be built for the protection of these rights. His empiricism supported neither the idea that men have such rights nor that they are inalienable. (p. 61)
"Underlying the secular and naturalistic assumptions of the thought of the Enlightenment was a related and equally serious problem. In their political and economic thought the leaders of this era were passionately devoted to the pursuit of freedom, and yet they seemed to be completely unaware of this incompatibility between their quest for freedom on the one hand and their reliance upon natural law on the other. How can an impersonal and deterministic concept of law produce and sustain a meaningful concept of freedom? Blindly convinced that there was no problem involved in the contradiction, the leaders of the Enlightenment pushed boldly ahead in the quest for political and economic liberty. However, their failure to recognize the issues involved in this quest led not only to the disaster of the French Revolution but to the growth of the totalitarian political and economic philosophies which first appeared in Hegel and Marx during the nineteenth century and reached their culmination in the totalitarianism of the twentieth century." (p. 73) -- quoted at the blog, Imago Veritatis: Post-modern Reformed Paleo-orthodoxy
Singer used this as textbook for his course in Apologetics. Epistemology is a recurring theme throughout the textbook and the course. The series of 24 addresses on Apologetics is available free online. See: "Apologetics" under:
Works of C. Gregg Singer
http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr3ch.html#cgsinger


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