Chapter 9 (part 1)

Corporate Faithfulness and
Sanctification (part 1)


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Proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof. (Leviticus 25:10a)

If ye continue in my word, [then] are ye my disciples indeed; And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (John 8:31b,32)

If the Son therefore shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (John 8:36)

For other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ. (1 Corinthians 3:11)

And the multitudes that went before, and that followed, cried, saying, Hosanna to the son of David: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord; Hosanna in the highest. (Matthew 21:9)
This was the Lord's public claiming of authority over Israel. He was the son of David, and so He was by natural right the King of the Jews. If He had taken possession of His own, He would have been sitting on the throne of the chosen dynasty of David by right of birth. Also as the Messiah, the Christ, He was the King of His people Israel. Concerning Him it had been said by the prophet, Rejoice greatly, O Daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold! thy King cometh unto thee: he is just, and having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass (Zechariah 9:9). Our Lord Jesus literally came to Zion in this way. As King He rode to His capital and entered His palace. In His priestly royalty the Son of God went to His Father's house, to the temple of sacrifice and sovereignty. Among the tribes of Israel He is seen to be One chosen out of the people, whom the Lord had given to be a leader and commander for the people. They might afterwards choose Barabbas and cry that they had no king but Caesar, yet Jesus was their King, as Pilate reminded them when he said, Shall I crucify your king? And also His cross declared, it, bearing the legal inscription, This is Jesus the King of the Jews. Before His trial and condemnation He had put in a public claim to the rights and prerogatives of Zion's king, whom God has set on His holy hill. Would to God all fully recognized our Lord's kingdom, yielding to His sway! Oh, that you would bow before Him, and put your trust in Him! Part of His intent in riding through Jerusalem was that we also who dwell in the isles of the sea might know Him and reverence Him as King of kings and Lord of lords." -- C.H. Spurgeon commenting on Matthew 21:9 in Devotional Classics of C.H. Spurgeon. p. 86

Whereas, we all came into these parts of America with one and the same end and aim, to advance the Kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ, and to enjoy the liberties of the Gospel in purity and peace. -- The New England Confederation, May 19, 1643

The roots of liberty and limited government are in the Protestant Reformation. We believe the key to the maintenance of liberty and limited government is to be found in the Scottish covenanting struggle.

The question of Paul, Is Christ divided? is one to which professing Christians have not given sufficient heed, and the evil consequences are abundantly apparent.
It was deemed essential to the salvation of men that their Redeemer should possess the powers at once of a prophet, a priest, and a king. These offices, while essentially distinct, are necessarily and inseparably connected with one another. Such a union has been by some utterly denied; and its denial has laid foundation for some capital errors, which have exerted a pernicious influence on the Christian church. By others it has been criminally overlooked; and the neglect with which it has been treated has occasioned vague and conflicting conceptions regarding the great work of man's deliverance from sin and wrath by the mediation of the Son of God.
If, as we presume will be readily admitted, the whole of Christ's offices are necessary to the salvation of fallen man, it follows that they are all essential to the character of the Saviour, and that, of course, we can not suppose him to have existed for a moment without any one of them, as this would suppose him to have been, for the time at least, no Saviour. -- William Symington

Briefly stated, where Christ is demoted or limited, His Kingdom and crown rights are limited and demoted. There is then a shift of sovereignty from God to man, which means the triumph of the state. The state as the new sovereign becomes god walking on earth, and the result is the rapid death of all freedom. -- R.J. Rushdoony

A doctrine once held to be important by early Presbyterians and most Puritans that, today, is largely forgotten and even held in disrepute is social or national covenanting. The Presbyterians of the First and Second Reformation periods of Scotland were so dedicated to socio-religious covenanting as a biblical tool for reformation and solidifying national religious attainments that they came to be called Covenanters. They took seriously Jesus' command to disciple whole nations (cf. Matthew 28:18-20). They believed that this Commission is not fulfilled until every nation bows the knee to Christ and covenants with Him. The Puritans understood that the Bible presents Israel, including its covenant and covenant law code (excluding any laws that have been abrogated or set out of gear by the death of Christ), as a model for all nations (cf. Deuteronomy 4:5-8). The gospel of Jesus Christ is to transform individuals and even whole cultures and nations. It should result in progressive sanctification in society as people learn all that Christ has commanded. When the majority of people are committed to the Lord, they will formally recognize the Redeemer in their constitutions; will establish the true Christian religion on a national and local level; and will seek to base all their laws on the law of God revealed in Scripture.
In the book Rev. Schwertley not only sets forth the biblical case for social or national covenanting in a simple, organized and comprehensive manner, but also critiques the modern Presbyterian alternative to the original Presbyterian teaching on this and related topics. -- Back Cover, National Covenanting and Christ's Victory Over the Nations

In the final analysis, all modern ills, spiritual and temporal, are traceable to our continuing departure from the principles of the Second Reformation. . . . In particular, I am convinced that the Lord will not bless a church at peace with his enemies. Our departure from truth has led to our undernourished condition as a church; truth, as Thornwell argued, is the only food that the soul can digest.
It does no good to blame society or the church for our deficiencies before the Lord because Christ holds men, not churches and states, accountable. In the words of Hugh Miller, "Churches, however false and detestable, are never to be summoned to the bar of judgment. . . . To Christ, as his head and king, must every man render an account."
The great heresy of our times is that all men are children of God. Those within the church have lost their identity as a people of God, united in spirit and purpose. We have adopted the half-truths of our fathers for which Judah faced punishment: Because they have despised the law of the Lord, and have not kept his commandments, and their lies caused them to err, after which their fathers have walked (Amos 2:4b). Nevertheless, Christ loves his church, and he will see to it that his bride is prepared (Ephesians 5:27), for the great banquet. Based on the history of God's people, the needed corrections will result from either prayer or persecution, leading the people to renew their covenant promises. Let us pray that God's kingdom come, and let us covenant to fulfill our obligations to be his people. When persecution comes, let us pray that we would stand as firm as did the Scottish Covenanters. When covenanting comes, let us praise the Lord, for only in him will we stand firm. Let us ever strive to make it possible for our children to utter one of James Nisbet's praises, "O my soul! Bless and praise the Lord that I was born in a land where the glad tidings of the everlasting gospel are published and pressed with so much purity and plainness." This should be our prayer, Turn us again, O God, and cause thy face to shine; and we shall be saved (Psalm 80:3). -- Edwin Nesbit Moore from the conclusion to Our Covenant Heritage: The Covenanters' Struggle for Unity in Truth as Revealed in the Memoir of James Nisbet (1667-1728), and Sermons of John Nevay (d. 1672)

Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you on eagles' wings, and brought you unto myself. Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people: for all the earth is mine: And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and an holy nation. (Exodus 19:4-6a)
What a loving preface to the law! If anything could have engaged rebellious man to obedience, this would have done it, but, alas, the Lord has nourished and brought up children, and they have rebelled against him. -- C.H. Spurgeon commenting on Exodus 19:4-6a in Spurgeon's Devotional Bible. p. 92

The Treasury of David, Psalm 106, commentary by C.H. Spurgeon
Our fathers understood not thy wonders in Egypt. (v. 7)
Nevertheless he saved them for his name's sake, that he might make his mighty power to be known. (v. 8)
And he saved them from the hand of them that hated them. (v. 10)
They soon forgat his works. (v. 13)
And he gave them their request; but sent leanness into their soul. (v. 15)
They made a calf in Horeb, and worshipped the molten image. (v. 19)
Thus they changed their glory into the similitude of an ox that eateth grass. (v. 20)
They forgat God their saviour. (v. 21)
Thus they provoked him to anger with their inventions: and the plague brake in upon them. (v. 29)
Then stood up Phinehas, and executed judgment: and so the plague was stayed. (v. 30)
And that was counted unto him for righteousness unto all generations for evermore. (v. 31)
They did not destroy the nations, concerning whom the LORD commanded them. (v. 34)
But were mingled among the heathen, and learned their works. (v. 35)
Yea, they sacrificed their sons and their daughters unto devils. (v. 37)
Thus were they defiled with their own works, and went a whoring with their own inventions. (v. 39)
Therefore was the wrath of the LORD kindled against his people, in so much that he abhorred his own inheritance. (v. 40)
And he gave them into the hands of the heathen; and they that hated them ruled over them.(v. 41)
Their enemies also oppressed them, and they were brought into subjection under their hand.
(v. 42)
Many times did he deliver them; but they provoked him with their counsel, and were brought low for their iniquity. (v. 43)
Nevertheless he regarded their affliction, when he heard their cry. (v. 44)
And he remembered for them his covenant. (v. 45)
Save us, O Lord our God, and gather us from among the heathen, to give thanks unto thy holy name, and to triumph in thy praise. (v. 47)
Blessed be the Lord God of Israel from everlasting to everlasting: and let all the people say, Amen. Praise ye the Lord. (v. 48)
http://www.spurgeon.org/treasury/ps106.htm

Therefore was the wrath of the LORD kindled against his people, in so much that he abhorred his own inheritance.
And he gave them into the hands of the heathen; and they that hated them ruled over them.
Their enemies also oppressed them, and they were brought into subjection under their hand.
(Psalm 106:40-42)

Traditionally, law was never construed as legalist. It was always construed as a result of covenant. If we can define the word covenant as bond, that lovely four letter word, b-o-n-d, then it's a relationship, it's a solidarity with God or with another person. And from that relationship flows duty. So we can think of convent as that marvelous combination of promise and duty. And so I really see law as a response to a relationship. -- Joseph Kickasola

Bad men cannot make good citizens. It is impossible that a nation of infidels or idolaters should be a nation of freemen. It is when a people forget God that tyrants forge their chains. A vitiated [defective] state of morals, a corrupted public conscience, are incompatible with freedom. -- Patrick Henry

True, the state as the policeman can be corrupt; in fact, if the society as a whole is corrupt, the state will also be corrupt. In a healthy and godly society, the state will function successfully to restrain the minority of evil-doers. The key to the situation is not the state but the religious health of the society. -- Rousas John Rushdoony, in Institutes of Biblical Law, p. 470

If I profess with the loudest voice and clearest exposition every portion of the Word of God except precisely that little point which the world and the devil are at that moment attacking, I am not confessing Christ, however boldly I may be professing Him. Where the battle rages, there the loyalty of the soldier is proven; and to be steady on all the battlefront besides is mere flight and disgrace if he flinches at that point. -- Martin Luther

It is a poor and pitiful kind of knowledge, to know many loose parcels, and broken members of truth, without knowing the whole, or the place and the relations which they have to the rest. To know letters and not syllables, or syllables and not words, or words and not sentences, or sentences and not the scope of the discourse, are all but an unprofitable knowledge. -- Richard Baxter


How does a nation protect itself against terrorists who commit suicide to murder innocent citizens?
It is the presence of The Holy Spirit in society, The Third Person of the Holy Trinity -- it is His presence alone, that restrains evil in society. It is His presence alone that stops men from murdering their neighbors and from completely destroying society. See John Owen, God's Presence With a People the Spring of Their Prosperity; With Their Special Interest in Abiding in Him
In the absence of The Holy Spirit there is no restraint of evil.
Therefore, a nation that struggles to remove The Holy Trinity, The Father, The Son, and The Holy Spirit, from all public life, that nation will lose all restrain of evil, and will succumb to self-destruction from within. It will also succumb to destruction from enemies without. It is the presence in a nation of The Holy One of Israel, The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the presence of The Triune God, that restrains evil, and that gives society order and life.
Honored citizens of The United States of America, your willful rebellion against Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ has brought the judgment of God upon this nation. God punishes a people by putting godless leaders in command. All restraint of evil has disappeared from our nation, and our leaders are helpless to stop the spread of terrorism. Repent honoured citizens of this beloved nation, partake of Christ, for you are the terrorists.
And now may the Grace, the Mercy, and the Peace, of God The Father, The Son, and The Holy Spirit, rest and abide with you now and forevermore. Amen.



Contents: Chapter 9, "Corporate Faithfulness and Sanctification" (parts 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5), interactive

Part 1

The Protestant Reformation

Civil Government Chapter 9 (part 1) Related WebLinks


Part 2

Church and State

Covenant Theology and the Ordinance of Covenanting Chapter 9 (part 2) Related WebLinks

Part 3

The Westminster Confession of Faith (1646, Westminster Standards) and Related Works, The Westminster Assembly

Chapter 9 (part 3) Related WebLinks


Part 3

The Theology of Freedom

Acts of Faithful Assemblies
Separation
Slavery, Our Systems of Enslavement, Economic Enslavement
The Aristocracy of Wealth
Feudalism
Anarchy
Tyranny
Biblical Civil Government and The Basis for Civil Resistance
Reformation Eschatology
The Restoration of the Jews
The Christian Foundation of America, Colonial History
Covenanting in America
David Steele (1803-1887) and the Reformed Presbytery in North America
The Utter Failure of the U.S. Constitution as a Social Deed of Covenant
The Civil War of the United States, The War for Southern Independence, The War Between the States: The War of Northern Aggression
The Application of Scripture to the Corporate Bodies of Church and State
The Dutch Reformation
Modern Myths and Fallacies
Biblical Creationism and Evolutionism
Revisionist History
Justice, Judgment, God's Final Judgment, The Great White Throne Judgment, The Day of the Lord, Day of Judgment
The Decline of American Society, Irrationality
Meltdown 2008: The Greatest Depression in History
God's Deliverance of Nations
Chapter 9 (part 3) Related WebLinks


Part 4

The Scottish Covenanting Struggle, Alexander Craighead, and the Mecklenburg Declaration
The Covenanted Reformation of Scotland Short Title Listing
Chapter 9 (part 5) Related WebLinks


Combined Interactive Contents for THE WEB EDITION OF BIBLICAL COUNSEL: RESOURCES FOR RENEWAL
http://www.lettermen2.com/combtoc.html




Chapter 9 (part 1)

Corporate Faithfulness and
Sanctification



The Protestant Reformation

See the Theological Notes, "The Authority of Scripture," at 2 Timothy 3:16 in The Reformation Study Bible.

For I am not ashamed of the good news of the Christ, for it is the power of God to salvation to every one who is believing; both to Jew first, and to Greek. For the righteousness of God in it is revealed from faith to faith, according as it hath been written, 'And the righteous one by faith shall live,' for revealed is the wrath of God from heaven upon all impiety and unrighteousness of men, holding down the truth in unrighteousness. (Romans 1:16,17, YLTHB)

And may I remind you, and I would remind you of this for all times throughout your lives, that in the Western church there are only three basic theologies. There is Thomism (which held sway in the Roman church officially from the Council of Trent to Vatican II) . . . Lutheranism . . . and, thirdly, Calvinism. These are the three theologies which have dominated Western thought. . . .
I would remind you that all other theological systems are, to a lesser or greater extent, negation either of Thomism within the Roman Catholic system, or they are a negation of Lutheranism, or they are, to a lesser or greater extent, a negation of Calvinism. . . .
When enemies of Christianity unleash their attacks on Christianity, if they attack the Roman Catholic system, they always direct their heaviest guns against Thomas Aquinas. This is not an idle gesture. For if they can topple Thomas Aquinas, then the rest of the Roman Catholic structure will fall, because it depends upon Saint Thomas Aquinas. He was a great thinker, no question about it, and had a systematic approach to his position. So if they can destroy him, they can destroy the rest of it.
But within Protestantism, I would remind you, that the heaviest attacks against the Church always come against Calvinism. Now there is a reason for that, the same reason, in general, which I mentioned in regard to Thomas Aquinas. If the enemies of faith can destroy Calvinism, then those theologies which are, to a greater or lesser extent, negations of Calvinism, will fall under their own weight. Which is to say, that in Calvinism all these other theologies find their resting place, even though they may deny major aspects of the Calvinistic position, they still are supported by it, even though they will not admit it. . . . When they attack Calvinism they are attacking the citadel of the whole Protestant position, even as when they are attacking the Roman Catholic position, they are aiming their heaviest artillery at the fortress known as Thomistic Theology. -- C. Gregg Singer in his address Calvinism and the Reformation

The medieval structure of ecclesiastical authority could not withstand the Protestant idea of sola scriptura -- the Bible alone. One Christian man with a Bible was superior to any pope or council or tradition without it. Luther translated the Bible from Greek and Hebrew into German so the people could read it in their own language and not be subject to an ecclesiastical ruling class. By translating the Bible into the common language, Luther freed the German people from ecclesiastical totalitarianism: The Bible was the written constitution of the church, which the people could now read for themselves. His second major contribution to Western political thought was the idea of a written constitution -- the Bible -- limiting the power and authority of the church (and later political), leaders. There is a direct connection between the Reformation cry of sola scriptura and the American idea of the Constitution -- not any man or body of men -- as the supreme law of the land. -- John W. Robbins, in a tract, Civilization and the Protestant Reformation

Sola Scriptura, Sola Gratia, Sola Fide, Solus Christus, Soli Deo Gloria: the five Solas of the Protestant Reformation.

What distinguishes the arid ages from the period of the Reformation, when nations were moved as they had not been since Paul preached in Ephesus, Corinth, and Rome, is the latter's fullness of knowledge of God's Word. To echo an early Reformation thought, when the ploughman and the garage attendant know the Bible as well as the theologian does, and know it better than some contemporary theologians, then the desired awakening shall have already occurred. -- Gordon Clark

What the Reformation's return to Biblical teaching gave society was the opportunity for tremendous freedom, but without chaos. That is, an individual had freedom because there was a consensus based upon the absolutes given in the Bible, and therefore real values within which to have freedom, without these freedoms leading to chaos. The world had not known anything like this before. . . . -- Francis Schaeffer

Western civilization following the Reformation is the greatest example of Christian cultural conquest we have to date. The shameful abandonment of that heritage by the church has left us in our current desperate plight. That heritage will be restored only as the church awakens to reclaim her birthright and asserts the authority of the King of kings over every sphere of life -- including the political." -- Dennis Woods



Our protection is only in the Triune God, and in our individual and collective covenant relationship with The True and Living God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and in His Son The Lord Jesus Christ.

If my people, which are called by my name, shall humble themselves, and pray, and seek my face, and turn from their wicked ways; then will I hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin, and will heal their land. (2 Chronicles 7:14)

A diamond is perfectly showcased in black velvet. The horrendous cameo of total depravity of Islamic miscreants [and, apparently, treasonous factions within our own government, ie. Pearle Harbor -- compiler], on September 11, 2001, showcased, possibly better than any single event in history, the diametrically opposite teachings of The Lord Jesus Christ, the highest ethical standard known to mankind -- the basis of law and justice, and the teachings of Mohammed.

How sobering that, after the cataclysmic suicide airline bombing of the Twin International Trade Center Towers and the Pentagon, our politicians still equate freedom with toleration and license, a fatalistic and false presupposition. How sobering that we still can not see that conflict of will leads to death. Toleration is the enemy of truth, and no individual or nation can tolerate falsehood, or they will be destroyed by that falsehood. The issue is life and death. Absolute Truth leads to life, both temporal and eternal, and falsehood leads to death, both physical death and the Second Death. Nor can a republican form of government grant suffrage to anti-Christian factions and expect the protection and positive sanctions of the Triune God.

Among other things, the cataclysmic suicide airline bombing of the Trade Center Towers and the Pentagon was a clear example -- to our generation, seen around the world, and never to be forgotten -- of moral absolutes. Since September 11, 2001, no intellectually honest individual can make an assertion of moral relativism, values clarification, situation ethics, all paths lead to God, polytheism, toleration of all religions, neutrality, or non-duality.

How sobering that it takes a tragedy of the magnitude of September 11, 2001 to make us realize that justice and punishment are the only ways to suppress evil, evil that, among other things, results in suffering of the innocent.

How chilling to realize that, after God has used our enemy to chasten us, we are still apparently blind to our own sin as a nation, sins that collectively outweigh the sin of the Islamic Jehad's Holy War.

How sobering to realize that, after the war on international terrorism, this nation will then have to face the enemy within.

How sobering that it took the sudden devastation of September 11, 2001 to remind this nation and the world that we are all one, that the "many" are of equal importance to the "one."

Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Great men are almost always bad men, even when they exercise influence and not authority: still more when you superadd the tendency or the certainty of corruption by authority. -- John Emerich Edward Dalberg, Lord Acton (1834-1902), in a letter to Mandell Creighton, April 5, 1887, quoted by Gertrude Himmelfarb in Acton, Essays on Freedom and Power, pp. 335-36 (1972)

God be merciful unto us, and bless us: and cause his face to shine upon us: That they way may be known upon earth, thy saving health among all nations. (Psalm 67:1,2)



The Treasury of David, Psalm 130, C.H. Spurgeon
http://www.spurgeon.org/treasury/ps130.htm

*Acton, John E. (1834-1902), The Correspondence of Lord Acton and Richard Simpson, 3 volumes.

*Acton, John E. (1834-1902), History of Freedom, and Other Essays, facsimile edition.

*Acton, John E. (1834-1902), Lectures on the French Revolution.

Armstrong, William Park (editor), Calvin and the Reformation: Four Studies by Emile Doumergue, August Lang, Herman Bavinck, and Benjamin B. Warfield,

*Bainton, Roland H., Here I Stand: A Life of Martin Luther. A Christian classic.
"Available for the first time in trade paperback, this authoritative biography of the great religious leader was hailed by Time magazine as "the most readable Luther biography in English." This edition showcases the intricate woodcuts and engravings that enhance the text and give the flavor of the era in which Martin Luther lived. More than 100 woodcuts and engravings." -- Ingram
A scholarly presentation of Luther's part in the Protestant Reformation which changed the course of Western civilization. Highly recommended, especially for those seeking a deeper understanding of the theology of the Reformation. A scholarly work in which the Gospel is articulately presented. The story of Luther's conversion is, of course, presented in detail. Numerous editions of this book are available. Includes extensive bibliography.
Martin Luther
http://www.covenanter.org/reformed/author/martin-luther

*Bainton, Roland H., Women of the Reformation in Germany and Italy, ISBN: 0807056510.
"These frequently neglected women were faithful to their commitments and often displayed courage equal to that of the Reformers themselves." -- Cyril J. Barber

Barrow, Greg, Classical Protestant Doctrine of the Church (as read by Larry Birger for the The Covenanted Reformation Defended), series of audio files. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
"This tape, read by Larry Birger, is chapter 2 in Greg Barrow's The Covenanted Reformation Defended http://www.swrb.com/newslett/actualnls/misrep2.htm. It covers some of the most important (and often forgotten, in our day), aspects of the Reformation doctrine of the church. Numerous citations are included, from many Reformation leaders and the confessional statements of the best Reformed churches. Without the distinctions made here you are likely to misunderstand not only the Reformation view of the church, but also related questions (like why the Reformers accepted Roman Catholic baptism [it was the Anabaptists that rejected the baptism of Rome, because of errors related to these very questions]). Furthermore, as Barrow points out, the Reformed distinction regarding the 'being' and the 'well being' of the church is absolutely indispensable. Without an understanding of this crucial Scriptural distinction concerning the church you will not be able to fully understand the best Reformers on any issues about or related to the church." -- Publisher

Barrow, Reg, Books as Tools for Reformation, a tract.

*Beeke, Joel R., Assurance of Faith: Calvin, English Puritanism, and the Dutch Second Reformation, ISBN: 082041428X 9780820414287.
"In-depth studies and comparisons of William Perkins, Willem Teellinck, the Westminster Confession, John Owen, Alexander Comrie, and Thomas Goodwin convincingly demonstrate with fresh insights that the differences between Calvin and the English/Dutch Calvinism on assurance arose primarily from a newly evolving pastoral context rather than from foundational variations in doctrine. One of the best books on assurance, maybe even the best. 'This is a clearly-written study of the ways in which faith was related to the assurance of salvation by the Reformers, the Puritans and the their Dutch counterparts. Calvin, Beza, Perkins, Owen, Goodwin and the men of the Dutch Second Reformation are all considered. A most valuable book which bears scholarly scrutiny and is full of pastoral counsel'." -- Banner of Truth

Beeke, Joel, Calvin's Piety: The Heartbeat of the Reformation (MP3). Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.

Calvin, John (1509-1564), Defending the Reformation: John Calvin Debates the Romanist Sadolet. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #17.

*Calvin, John (1509-1564), The Institutes of the Christian Religion, 2 volumes, ISBN: 0664220207 0664220215. Considered to be among the ten greatest books in the English language. A Christian classic.
"Edited by John McNeill and translated by Ford Lewis Battles, this is the definitive English language edition of one of the monumental works of the Christian church -- Calvin's INSTITUTES.
"Still considered by many to be the finest explanation and defense of the Protestant Reformation available.
"The work is divided into four books: I. The Knowledge of God the Creator, II. The Knowledge of God the Redeemer in Christ, III. The Mode of Obtaining the Grace of Christ, IV. The External Means or Helps by Which God Allures Us Into Fellowship With Christ and Keeps Us in It. . . . THE INSTITUTES is praised by the secular philosopher, Will Durant, as one of the ten books that shook the world." -- GCB
Calvin spent a lifetime writing and perfecting INSTITUTES OF CHRISTIAN RELIGION. His Prefatory Address makes it clear that he intended the work to be a defense of Christianity to the King of France.
Therefore, plainly stated, one of the most influential works ever published in the English language is a defense of Christianity to leaders of State.
Prefatory Address to His Most Christian Majesty, The Most Mighty and Illustrious Monarch, Francis, King of the French, His Sovereign, John Calvin. Available in THE INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION.
"Indeed, this consideration makes a true king: to recognize himself a minister of God in governing his kingdom. Now, that king, who in ruling over his realm does not serve God's glory, exercises not kingly rule but brigandage. [Footnote: 'Nec iam regnum ille sed latrocinium exercet.' An echo of Augustine's famous phrase: 'When justice is taken away, what are kingdoms [[regna]] but a vast banditry [[magna latocinia]]?' City of God, IV. iv (MPL [[Migne, J.P., Patrologiae cursus completus, series Latina]], 41. 115; tr. NPNF [[A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, second series]], II. 66)]. Furthermore, he is deceived who looks for enduring prosperity in his kingdom when it is not ruled by God's scepter, that is, his Holy Word; for the heavenly oracle that proclaims that where prophecy fails the people are scattered [Prov. 29:18 (Proverbs 29:18)], cannot lie." (Battles translation)
"The characteristic of a true sovereign is, to acknowledge that, in the administration of his kingdom, he is a minister of God. He who does not make his reign subservient to the divine glory, acts the part not of a king, but a robber. He, moreover, deceives himself who anticipates long prosperity to any kingdom which is not ruled by the sceptre of God, that is, by his divine word. For the heavenly oracle is infallible which has declared, that where there is no vision the people perish (Proverbs 29:18), (Beveridge translation)."
See the entire Prefatory Address, Beveridge translation:
Considered to be one of the greatest prefaces ever written.
http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/institutes.ii.viii.html
"The doctrines of covenant liberty were rediscovered in the Reformation. John Calvin went further than anyone else in defining liberty and what Christians need to do to maintain it. Includes bibliographies."
It is recommended that INSTITUTES OF CHRISTIAN RELIGION be used for daily devotions and may be used in combination with Ford Lewis Battles and John Walchenbach, AN ANALYSIS OF THE INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION OF JOHN CALVIN and with CALVIN'S COMMENTARIES.
Calvin's Commentaries at BibleStudyGuide.org
http://www.biblestudyguide.org/comment/calvin/comm_index.htm
Calvin's Commentaries, complete
From the Calvin Translation Society edition.
http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/commentaries.i.html
One Hundred Aphorisms, Containing, Within a Narrow Compass, the Substance and Order of the Four Books of THE INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION
http://www.lettermen2.com/pringle.html
Calvin, Jean (1509-1564), Institutes of the Christian Religion; A New Translation by Henry Beveridge (1845), Volume: 1
http://archive.org/details/instituteschrist01calvuoft
Calvin, Jean (1509-1564), Institutes of the Christian Religion; A New Translation by Henry Beveridge (1845), Volume: 2
http://archive.org/details/institutesofreli02calvuoft
Calvin, Jean (1509-1564), Institutes of the Christian Religion, Beveridge translation
http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/institutes.iii.vii.html
Monergism: Commentaries
From Mongergism.com search "commentaries."
http://www.monergism.com

*Cambridge University Library, Acton Collection, Acton Collection . . .
"In October 1902 Viscount Morley of Blackburn presented to the University the library of the late Lord Acton . . . A full catalogue of this collection of nearly 60,000 volumes is in preparation; but it was thought that it might prove useful to issue during the progress of the work bulletins of some specially interesting sections of the library."

Cunningham, William (1805-1861), John Calvin. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #17.
"As Cunningham states, 'John Calvin was by far the greatest of the Reformers with respect to the talents he possessed, the influence he exerted, and the services he rendered in the establishment and diffusion of important truth.' Here we have a succinct account of Calvin's works and the leading principles that he maintained. Calvin is without a doubt one of the great men in all of human history, and as he often pointed out, he owed everything to the Lord Jesus Christ -- all his talents, all his influence, his very salvation, etc. -- for that is the nature of 'Calvinism,' giving God all the glory!" -- Publisher

*Cunningham, William (1805-1861), James Buchanan, and James Bannerman The Reformers and the Theology of the Reformation, 2 volumes.

*D'Aubigné, J.H. Merle (1794-1872), Discourses and Essays (1846). Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
"A great part of these productions were presented to the public for the first time, in English, when this volume first appeared. President of the Theological Seminary of Geneva, Merle D'Aubigné is best know for his massive history of the great reformation. [HISTORY OF THE REFORMATION IN EUROPE IN THE TIME OF CALVIN -- compiler]. Concerning this book, Baird, in the introduction, writes, 'it would be hard to find in any language an equal number (of essays), that can be compared with them.' Furthermore, he notes that they 'possess one grand characteristic: that of a glorious baptism, if I may so express myself, into the spirit of the Reformation.' Includes Merle D'Aubigné's 'Family Worship,' 'Lutheranism and Calvinism,' and fifteen more articles." -- Publisher

*D'Aubigné, J.H. Merle (1794-1872), History of the Reformation of the Sixteenth Century. 2 volumes. Available (HISTORY OF THE REFORMATION OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY, in 5 volumes, 1846), on the Puritan Hard Drive.
Originally published in five volumes. This paperback edition is unabridged and 867 double-column pages in length.
"This man will make you live through the thrills and chills of those days of battle between good and evil. You will see the providence of God preserving the saints as they were being attacked by world powers. And these who were tortured, burned, and pilloried would be the first to testify that God upheld them all during their ordeals, then took them to receive the robes of Heaven purchased for them by the Lord Jesus Christ. He is a superb author, one that will not let you go until you have read the entire book." -- Jay P. Green, Sr.

*D'Aubigné, J.H. Merle (1794-1872), The Reformation in England, 2 volumes.
"Provides an indispensable guide to the place of the Bible in the Reformation of England. No one can read the writings of D'Aubigné and be the same afterward." -- Cyril J. Barber
"The author devoted his lifetime to the study of the Reformation. His ability to convey the importance of the history of this historical transformation of the world is easy-to-understand, even exciting . . ." -- Jay P. Green, Sr.

Davis, D. Clair, The Issue of Biblical Authority in the Reformation.

Donaldson, George, The Scottish Reformation, ISBN: 0521086752.
"A brilliantly written treatment of the way in which Protestantism was established in Scotland." -- Cyril J. Barber

Eddy, A.D., The Republicanism of the Bible -- And the duty of free governments to the oppressed nations of central Europe. A discourse delivered, in the Park Church, Newark, N.J., January 4, 1852.

Edwards, Brian H., God's Outlaw: The Story of William Tyndale and the English Bible. Alternate title: WILLIAM TYNDALE, THE FATHER OF THE ENGLISH BIBLE and WILLIAM TYNEDALE: ENGLAND'S GREAT BIBLE TRANSLATOR, ISBN: 0842382186 9780842382182.
"This is the thrilling story of one who was forced to leave England and slip from city to city in Germany, Holland, and Belgium in an attempt to avoid the agents sent to arrest him. Tyndale's story is one of poverty, danger, and ceaseless labor, but he left a priceless heritage: The Scriptures in the English language." -- GCB
Vision Video, Rees, Roger, Ben Steed, Tony Tew, God's Outlaw: The Story of William Tyndale, a DVD.

Fountain, David, John Wycliffe: The Dawn of the Reformation, ISBN: 0907821022 9780907821021.
"There are those who believe that when Wycliffe was born about 660 years ago, he became the one man who changed the course of English history more than any other man." -- GCB Includes bibliography.

*Foxe, John (1516-1587), and Thomas Freeman (prefatory material), John Foxe's Book of Martyrs. Actes and Monuments of Matters Most Speciall and Memorable (unabridged). Alternate title: THE UNABRIDGED ACTS AND MONUMENTS ONLINE or TAMO (HRI Online Publications, Sheffield, 2011). A Christian classic. Available from: http://www.johnfoxe.org. Implemented by the Humanities Research Institute, University of Sheffield, England, and published by HRI Online Publications, Sheffield, 2011, Version 2.0, ISBN: 9780954260864.
"You can browse and compare the unabridged texts of the four editions of this massive work published in John Foxe's lifetime (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). Each edition changed significantly as Foxe sought to incorporate new material, answer his critics, and adjust its polemical force to the needs of the moment. . . .
"TAMO is both an instrument of scholarship and a tool for anyone who wants to explore this remarkable work, a milestone in the history of the English printed book and a signal achievement of its printer, John Day."
Foxe, John (1516-1587), John Foxe's Book of Martyrs. Actes and Monuments of Matters Most Speciall and Memorable, ISBN: 0197262252 9780197262252.
"This CD-ROM combines readable and printable images of 2,200 pages of text and woodcut engravings from the 1583 edition, the last for which Foxe was personally responsible."
Other editions: Acts and Monuments or Foxe's Book of Martyrs, 1554, 1843-49 edition, 8 volumes. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
" 'No book ever inflicted a wound so deep and incurable on the Romish system of superstition and bloody persecution . . . it was placed in . . . all churches and chapels throughout the kingdom, by order of Queen Elizabeth.' (Smith, Select Memoirs, p. 245). Contains much information not found in any of the liberally edited and severely shortened editions of this classic work which are in print today. Covering martyrs from the early church through to Foxe's day, it was one of the most influential books of the sixteenth century! It overflows with faith building testimony of the power of God to overcome the most cruel and barbarous acts of human depravity and demonic cruelty. 6890 pages. A very rare set, now back in print after 150 years!" -- Publisher
"After the Bible itself, no book so profoundly influenced early Protestant sentiment as the BOOK OF MARTYRS. Even in our time it is still a living force. It is more than a record of persecution. It is an arsenal of controversy, a storehouse of romance, as well as a source of edification." -- James Miller Dodds, English Prose
"When one recollects that until the appearance of the PILGRIM'S PROGRESS the common people had almost no other reading matter except the BIBLE and FOX'S BOOK OF MARTYRS, we can understand the deep impression that this book produced; and how it served to mold the national character. Those who could read for themselves learned the full details of all the atrocities performed on the Protestant reformers; the illiterate could see the rude illustrations of the various instruments of torture, the rack, the gridiron, the boiling oil, and then the holy ones breathing out their souls amid the flames. Take a people just awakening to a new intellectual and religious life; let several generations of them, from childhood to old age, pore over such a book, and its stories become traditions as individual and almost as potent as songs and customs on a nation's life." -- Douglas Campbell, The Puritan in Holland, England, and America
"If we divest the book of its accidental character of feud between churches, it yet stands, in the first years of Elizabeth's reign, a monument that marks the growing strength of a desire for spiritual freedom, defiance of those forms that seek to stifle conscience and fetter thought." -- Henry Morley, English Writers
"John Foxe was a prince among believers. He had his printing press on a cart, and had often to print at night, moving his press before dawn to escape capture and burning at the stake. He never faltered in his purpose to leave a voluminous written witness to the power of the Lord Jesus Christ to keep His saints in love and peace." -- Jay P. Green, Sr.
Text Encoding Initiative (TEI)
John Foxe's Book of Martyrs Variorum Edition Online
http://www.tei-c.org/Activities/Projects/jo01.xml
Foxe's Acts and Monuments (the original Foxe's Book of Martyrs): How to Obtain a Facsimile or a Print-on-demand Copy.
Compiled by Peter Reynolds, 29 April 2006.
http://www.peterreynoldsbooks.com/home/foxereview.htm

Gough, Henry (compiler), A General Index to the Publications of the Parker Society (1855), 811 pages. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
"An extensive general index to the works of the leading English Reformers of the sixteenth century, as they were published by the Parker Society. Some of these volumes have once again been republished in our day by Still Waters Revival Books. Works indexed here are mainly of a theological nature, but also 'include a considerable amount of historical and biographical information; they may also prove serviceable to the topographer and the antiquary; certainly they are not likely to be overlooked by any who may hereafter direct their attention to English lexicography'." -- Publisher

Hillerbrand, Hans J. (editor), The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation, 4 volumes, ISBN: 0195064933 9780195064933 0195103629 9780195103625 0195103637 9780195103632 0195103645 9780195103649 0195103653 9780195103656.
"The preface notes, 'THE OXFORD ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF THE REFORMATION seeks to do justice to the whole range of events and happenings of the sixteenth century. It uses the broadest possible definition of the Reformation in order to depict not only religious life but also the related societal phenomena that in one way or another had bearing on religion . . . the roster of contributors encompasses scholars not only from the United States and Canada but the United Kingdom, Norway, Hungary, the Netherlands, Denmark, Italy, Finland, Poland, and Australia, to mention but a few nations at random. If nothing else, the encyclopaedia represents the creative international guild of Reformation scholars.' The preface also notes that 'for far too long, many interesting and important personalities of the sixteenth century, because they were not major reformers, theologians, or rulers, have fallen into scholarly obscurity . . . One of our major intentions was to shed new light on these fascinating figures.' This set includes four beautifully bound, oversized hardcover volumes. Each volume contains about 500 double column pages. The final volume includes a massive index and maps." -- Publisher

*Himmelfarb, Gertrude, Lord Acton: A Study in Conscience and Politics, ISBN: 1558152709 9781558152700.
A scholarly work on the politics of the Reformation and Counter Reformation. Includes bibliography and index.
It was Acton who stated:

Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Great men are almost always bad men, even when they exercise influence and not authority: still more when you superadd the tendency or the certainty of corruption by authority. -- John Emerich Edward Dalberg, Lord Acton (1834-1902), in a letter to Mandell Creighton, April 5, 1887, quoted by Gertrude Himmelfarb in Acton, Essays on Freedom and Power, pp. 335-36 (1972)
See also:

Holborn, Hajo, Ulrich Von Hutten and the German Reformation, revised and expanded translation, ISBN: 0313201250 9780313201257.

Hospers, Gerrit Hendrik, The Reformed Principle of Authority: The Scripture Principle of the Reformation Set Forth in the Light of our Times.
Includes contributions by Abraham Kuyper.

*Kelly, Douglas F., The Emergence of Liberty in the Modern World: The Influence of Calvin on Five Governments From the 16th Through 18th Centuries, ISBN: 0875522971.
"Examines Calvin's influence on the civil governments of Geneva, Huguenot France, Knox's Scotland, Puritan England, and Colonial America. Shows how Calvin's legacy continues to bear upon the issues that guide and agitate Western nations today." -- Publisher

Kittelson, James M., Luther the Reformer, ISBN: 0806622407 9780806622408.
"Historically solid, factually authentic, psychologically sensitive, personally perceptive, socially aware, and above all theologically knowledgeable and persuasive." -- Lewis Spitz

*Knox, John (1505-1572), Appellation From the Sentence Pronounced by the Bishops and Clergy: Addressed to the Nobility and Estates of Scotland. Alternate titles: THE APPELLATION OF JOHN KNOX FROM THE CRUELL . . . SENTENCE PRONOUNCED AGAINST HIM BY THE FALSE BISHOPPES AND CLERGEY OF SCOTLAND, WITH HIS SUPPLICATION AND EXHORTATION TO THE NOBILITIE, ESTATES, AND COMMUNALTIE OF THE SAME REALME, and THE APPELLATION . . . TO THE SCOTTISH NOBILITY, and REFORMATION, REVOLUTION AND ROMANISM: AN APPEAL TO THE SCOTTISH NOBILITY, and THE APPELLATION FROM THE SENTENCE PRONOUNCED BY THE BISHOPS AND CLERGY: ADDRESSED TO THE NOBILITY AND ESTATES OF SCOTLAND, and THE APPELLATION. Cover title: REFORMATION, REVOLUTION AND ROMANISM: APPEAL TO THE SCOTTISH NOBILITY (1558). Available (singly as REFORMATION, REVOLUTION AND ROMANISM, in which key text have been underlined by a previous reader), on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available (REFORMATION, REVOLUTION AND ROMANISM), on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1 (MP3), #26. Available (APPELLATION FROM THE SENTENCE PRONOUNCED BY THE BISHOPS AND CLERGY: ADDRESSED TO THE NOBILITY AND ESTATES OF SCOTLAND), on the Library of Presbyterian Heritage Publications and Protestant Heritage Press CD-ROM Library. Available (APPELLATION FROM THE SENTENCE PRONOUNCED BY THE BISHOPS AND CLERGY: ADDRESSED TO THE NOBILITY AND ESTATES OF SCOTLAND), in THE WORKS OF JOHN KNOX, vol. 4. [John Knox; David Laing ((collector and editor)), THE WORKS OF JOHN KNOX, vol. 4, reprint of the 1855 edition printed for Bannatyne Club, Edinburgh (New York: AMS Press, 1966)].
"David Chilton notes, 'Of all the sixteenth-century Reformers, John Knox remains the most ardently loved and fiercely hated. No other leader of his day saw so clearly the political issues in the light of Scripture. Nor has any of his contemporaries had so much direct influence upon the subsequent history of the world. He transformed a land of barbarians into one of the most hardheadly Calvinistic cultures ever to exist, and his doctrines lie at the core of all Protestant revolutionary activity. While he is often considered merely one of Calvin's lieutenants, he was actually a Reformer in his own right. In some respects he was the greatest of them all.' ("John Knox," in The Journal of Christian Reconstruction: Symposium on Puritanism and Law [Vallecito, CA: Chalcedon], Vol. V, No. 2, Winter, 1978-79, p. 194)
"Furthermore, R.L. Greaves has noted that 'it has even been suggested -- and not altogether without merit -- that Knox was a key link in the development of political ideology that culminated in the American Revolution.' (Theology and Revolution in the Scottish Reformation: Studies in the Thought of John Knox [Grand Rapids, MI: Christian University Press, 1980], p. 156)
"Moreover, Mason [Roger A. Mason -- compiler], states that this APPEAL [APPELLATION FROM THE SENTENCE PRONOUNCED BY THE BISHOPS AND CLERGY: ADDRESSED TO THE NOBILITY AND ESTATES OF SCOTLAND -- compiler], 'is the most important . . . of Knox's political writings' (in the Introduction to his compilation of Knox's political writings entitled KNOX: ON REBELLION). [see annotation for KNOX: ON REBELLION elsewhere in this bibliography -- compiler]. It shows in a conclusive manner that Knox wanted a Theonomic Establishment which was careful to 'disapprove, detest, oppose and remove all false worship and all monuments of idolatry' (cf. Westminster Larger Catechism, #108). It also clearly demonstrates that Knox believed in and promoted the continuing binding validity of the Old Testament case laws and the penal sanctions attached to them, including the death penalty.
"Kevin Reed, in a editor's note, introducing this piece in his newly published SELECTED WRITING OF JOHN KNOX [available on the Puritan Hard Drive. -- compiler], also points out that 'the Westminster Confession provides a distinct echo of Knox, when it states that the magistrate ""hath authority, and it is his duty, to take order, that unity and peace be preserved in the church, that the truth of God be kept pure and entire, that all blasphemies and heresies be suppressed, all corruptions and abuses in worship and discipline prevented or reformed, and all the ordinances of God duly settled, administered, and observed"" (Ch. 23:3, original wording). One secular historian once described Knox as 'Calvin with a sword,' making one wonder if he had not just been reading this very book. For 'where Calvin merely permitted disobedience to an ungodly ruler or immoral law, Knox championed armed rebellion -- a type of Calvinism that made religious revolution in Scotland possible.' (Christian History, Issue 46, p. 35). This is the best of the best; don't miss it!" -- Publisher
Knox, John, Appellation From the Sentence Pronounced by the Bishops and Clergy: Addressed to the Nobility and Estates of Scotland
This is a character scan (OCR) of the modernized text published by Protestant Heritage Press. While text may be cut and pasted it is subject to copyright.
http://www.swrb.com/newslett/actualNLs/appellat.htm
Knox, John (1505-1572), The Works of John Knox (1846), vol. 4.
http://archive.org/stream/worksjohnknox07laingoog#page/n4/mode/2up
Reformation, Revolution and Romanism (1558), John Knox, MP3 file.
"This has been called John Knox's most important political writing. It also deals with Romanism, God's law, and much more.
http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?currSection=sermonssource&sermonID=1030075041
See also:
Goodman, Christopher, HOW SUPERIOR POWERS OUGHT TO BE OBEYED OF THEIR SUBJECTS: AND WHEREIN THEY MAY LAWFULLY BY GOD'S WORD BE DISOBEYED AND RESISTED, 1558. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #26. Available (HOW SUPERIOR POWERS OUGHT TO BE OBEYED), on the Library of Presbyterian Heritage Publications and Protestant Heritage Press CD-ROM Library.
"From 1555 to 1558, Christopher Goodman served as co-pastor, with John Knox, of the congregation of English exiles in Geneva. During the course of his ministry, Goodman preached upon Acts 4:19 and 5:29: 'Whether it be right in the sight of God, to obey you rather than God, judge ye. We ought rather to obey God than men'. . . . In this book, Goodman contends against both ecclesiastical and political tyranny." -- Publisher
Goodman, Christopher, How Superior Powers Ought to be Obeyed of Their Subjects
http://www.constitution.org/cmt/goodman/obeyed.htm
See also annotation for:
Knox, John (1505-1572), THE HISTORY OF THE REFORMATION OF RELIGION WITHIN THE REALM OF SCOTLAND. . . . TOGETHER WITH THE LIFE OF THE AUTHOR, AND SEVERAL CURIOUS PIECES WROTE BY HIM, . . . BY THE REVEREND MR. JOHN KNOX, . . . TO WHICH IS ADDED, I. AN ADMONITION TO ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND . . . BY ANTONI GILBY. II. THE FIRST AND SECOND BOOKS OF DISCIPLINE; . . . GLASGOW, 1761. Alternate title: THE HISTORIE OF THE REFORMATION OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND CONTAINING FIVE BOOKS: TOGETHER WITH SOME TREATISES CONDUCING TO THE HISTORY. EDITED, WITH A LIFE OF KNOX AND A PREFACE, BY DAVID BUCHANAN. INCLUDES: "THE APPELLATION OF JOHN KNOX, FROM THE . . . SENTENCE PRONOUNCED AGAINST HIM (pp. 1-33); "THE ADMONITION OF JOHN KNOX TO HIS BELOVED BRETHREN THE COMMONALTY OF SCOTLAND" (pp. 34-42); "A FAITHFULL ADMONITION MADE BY JOHN KNOX TO THE TRUE PROFESSORS OF THE GOSPEL OF CHRIST WITHIN THE KINGDOM OF ENGLAND, 1554" (pp. 43-79); "THE COPIE OF A LETTER DELIVERED TO QUEEN MARY, REGENT OF SCOTLAND" (pp. 80-97); AND "A SERMON PREACHED BY JOHN KNOX [AUGUST 19, 1565]," ISBN: 0851513581 9780851513584. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1.

*Knox, John (1505-1572), and David Laing, Ecclesiastical Tyranny, 1554. Alternate titles: AGAINST ROMISH RITES AND POLITICAL AND ECCLESIASTICAL TYRANNY, and A FAITHFUL ADMONITION TO THE PROFESSORS OF GOD'S TRUTH IN ENGLAND. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #15, #26. In SELECTED WRITINGS OF JOHN KNOX."
"Formerly titled A FAITHFUL ADMONITION TO THE PROFESSORS OF GOD'S TRUTH IN ENGLAND, this letter is said to be 'undoubtedly the most important' of Knox's writings (up to that time), by W. Stanford Reid in TRUMPETER OF GOD (p. 114). Furthermore Reid notes that Knox's 'views on the magistrate expressed in the FAITHFUL ADMONITION, were to have an important influence upon much of his future conduct, and upon the development of the Reformation in both England and Scotland.' The editor of KNOX'S WORKS states, 'the object of the ADMONITION was twofold. The one was to animate those who had made a good profession to perseverance, and to avoid the sin of apologetical, or appearing to conform to the 'abominable idolatry' re-established in England; the other, to point out the dangers to be apprehended in when the kingdom became subjected to the dominion of strangers.' Knox uses very strong language here, in the hopes of getting through to those who came to be termed Nicodemites (i.e. those who thought that they could 'keep faith secretly in the heart, and yet do as idolaters do,' in Knox's own words). Written at a time when the true church had been driven underground by Roman Catholic persecution, it was said concerning this letter that 'many other godly men besides have been exposed to the risk of their property, and even life itself, upon the sole ground of either having had this book in their possession, or having read it.' Kevin Reed gives an excellent summary of this letter in SELECTED WRITINGS OF JOHN KNOX, when, in part, he writes, 'while acknowledging the risk of persecution to the faithful, the reformer perceives a greater danger in compromising with idolatry. Government persecution may bring disfavour of men, loss of personal goods and, in some cases, physical death; but idolatry brings down the wrath of God, resulting in grievous punishments, now and through eternity. Idolatry also invites a curse upon the posterity of the nation. In an intense pastoral appeal, Knox strongly admonishes his readers to avoid conforming to the Romish rites of worship.' (p. 220). For those who would rather read many of these Knox items with contemporary spelling, punctuation, and grammar we highly recommend the SELECTED WRITINGS OF JOHN KNOX." -- Publisher
John Knox: Faithful Admonition (1554)
http://www.swrb.com/newslett/actualnls/FaithAdm.htm

*Knox, John (1505-1572), The History of the Reformation in Scotland, ISBN: 0851513581. Available (WORKS OF JOHN KNOX), on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available (WORKS OF JOHN KNOX), on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1. A Christian classic.
"It breaths with the spirit of excitement and expectation, being told by the author from his experience as an eyewitness and participant in the unfolding drama of the work of God in 16th century Scotland." -- Jay P. Green, Sr.
"Knox portrayed the origins and development of a movement and not a mere chronology of events . . . Knox based his arguments on original sources and he often cited the documents in full. When Knox's History is compared to the contemporary vernacular narratives of Bishop Leslie and Sir James Melville, the superiority of Knox's work becomes evident. For the most part, these writers were preoccupied with petty details and had no conception of the momentous issues that hung on the events they recorded . . . Knox used history to demonstrate his single-track philosophy. And his philosophy said: 'The hearts of men, their thoughts, and their actions are but in the hands of God.' Lee said Knox's History was a sermon without an audience, a preaching book, one long inflammatory speech in behalf of God's truth as the reformer saw it.' (Kyle, The Mind of John Knox, p. 13). Our editions of volumes one and two of Knox's Works contain the only full, unedited version of Knox's massive History of the Reformation in Scotland available today." -- Publisher

Knox, John (1505-1572), The History of the Reformation of Religion Within the Realm of Scotland: Containing, The Manner, and by what Persons, the Light of Christ's Gospel has been manifested unto this Realm, after that horrible and universal Defection from the Truth, which has come by the Means of that Roman Antichrist. Together with the life of the author, and several curious pieces wrote by him, viz. I. His Appellation from the cruel and most unjust Sentence pronounced against him, by the false Bishops and Clergy of Scotland; with his Supplication and Exhortation to the Nobility, States, and Commonality of the same Realm. II. His faithful Admonition to the true Professors of the Gospel of Christ within the Kingdom of England. III. His Letter to Queen Mary, Regent of Scotland. IV. His Exhortation to England for the speedy Embracing of Christ's Gospel. V. The first Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women. VI. A Sermon on Isaiah xxvi. 13 [Isaiah 26:13], &c. By the Reverend Mr. John Knox, some time Minister of God's Word in Edinburgh. To which is added, I. An admonition to England and Scotland to call them to Repentance, written by Antoni Gilby. II. The first and second books of discipline; together with some Acts of the General Assemblies clearing and confirming the same; And an Act of Parliament. With a large Index to the whole.

*Knox, John (1505-1572), The History of the Reformation of Religion Within the Realm of Scotland. . . . Together with the life of the author, and several curious pieces wrote by him . . . By the Reverend Mr. John Knox . . . To which is added, I. An admonition to England and Scotland . . . by Antoni Gilby. II. The first and second books of discipline; . . . Glasgow, 1761. Alternate title: THE HISTORIE OF THE REFORMATION OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND CONTAINING FIVE BOOKS: TOGETHER WITH SOME TREATISES CONDUCING TO THE HISTORY. EDITED, WITH A LIFE OF KNOX AND A PREFACE, BY DAVID BUCHANAN. INCLUDES: "THE APPELLATION OF JOHN KNOX, FROM THE . . . SENTENCE PRONOUNCED AGAINST HIM (pp. 1-33); "THE ADMONITION OF JOHN KNOX TO HIS BELOVED BRETHREN THE COMMONALTY OF SCOTLAND" (pp. 34-42); "A FAITHFULL ADMONITION MADE BY JOHN KNOX TO THE TRUE PROFESSORS OF THE GOSPEL OF CHRIST WITHIN THE KINGDOM OF ENGLAND, 1554" (pp. 43-79); "THE COPIE OF A LETTER DELIVERED TO QUEEN MARY, REGENT OF SCOTLAND" (pp. 80-97); AND "A SERMON PREACHED BY JOHN KNOX [AUGUST 19, 1565]," ISBN: 0851513581 9780851513584. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1.

*Knox, John (1505-1572), National Repentance and Reformation. Alternate title: A BRIEF EXHORTATION TO ENGLAND FOR THE SPEEDY EMBRACING OF THE GOSPEL, 1559. Available in THE WORKS OF JOHN KNOX. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #25.
"Formerly titled A BRIEF EXHORTATION TO ENGLAND FOR THE SPEEDY EMBRACING OF THE GOSPEL, 1559. Mitchell in The Scottish Reformation (p. 80), cites Dr. Merle D'Aubigné on Knox: 'The blood of warriors ran in the veins of the man who was to become one of the most intrepid champions of Christ's army . . . He was active, bold, thoroughly upright and perfectly honest, diligent in his duties, and full of heartiness for his comrades.' The warrior in Knox was certainly roused for battle in this production. Kevin Reed in SELECTED WRITINGS OF JOHN KNOX (p. 580), comments, 'Some historians have reflected negatively on the vehemence of Knox's remarks. Perhaps they should peruse the long list of the martyrs named in the appendix to this work. Critics may then find a clue for understanding the reformer's zeal. Knox is discussing serious matters of life and death -- spiritual issues which affect us deeply in this life, and for eternity.' Magistrates everywhere today need to hear this message again; God has not changed -- there are still corporate curses for disobedience at a national level and corporate blessings for those nations 'that kiss the Son' (cf. Psalm 2)." -- Publisher

*Luther, Martin (1483-1546), J.I. Packer (translator) and O.R. Johnston (translator), Bondage of the Will, ISBN: 0800753429 9780800753429. A Christian classic. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
"THE BONDAGE OF THE WILL is fundamental to an understanding of the primary doctrines of the Reformation. In these pages, Luther gives extensive treatment to what he saw as the heart of the gospel. Free will was no academic question to Luther; the whole gospel of the Grace of God, he believed, was bound up with it and stood or fell according to the way one decided it. . . This is the greatest piece of writing that came from Luther's pen. In its vigour of language, its profound theological grasp, and the grand sweep of its exposition, it stands unsurpassed among Luther's writings." Publisher
"Luther recognized this book as his most important work and even said that if all his other books perished, he would hope that this one, along with his SMALL CATECHISM, would be the only ones to remain. As noted above, this is one of the most important books of the early Reformation, for it deals with what Luther saw to be the heart of the Gospel. Luther here refutes the Romish notion of 'free will' in man and upholds the absolute sovereignty of God in the salvation of sinners -- as well as justification by faith alone. Luther clearly saw the issue of free will as the primary cause of his separation from Rome.
"In this book he replied to the Roman Catholic scholar, Erasmus, and his diatribe THE FREEDOM OF THE WILL. Though disagreeing with just about everything else Erasmus wrote, Luther commended Erasmus for recognizing the crux of the matter at issue between Rome and the Bible believers, the debate over 'free will.' In this regard Luther wrote,

that unlike all the rest, you alone have attacked the real issue, the essence of the matter in dispute [i.e. man's so-called free-will -- RB] . . . You and you alone saw, what was the grand hinge upon which the whole turned, and therefore you attacked the vital part at once; for which, from my heart, I thank you.
" 'This book is most needful at the present day,' noted Atherton in 1931, for 'the teachings of many so-called Protestants are more in accordance with the Dogmas of the Papists, or the ideas of Erasmus, than with the Principles of the Reformers; they are more in harmony with the Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent than with the Protestant or Reformed Confessions of Faith.'
"It is easy to see how a lack of doctrinal and historical study is leading many into serious compromise with the false ecumenical apostasy espoused by Rome and other idolatrous beliefs which cry up man's ability to save himself (as with Arminianism), and to devise his own methods of worship (as with those that oppose the Reformation's Regulative Principle of Worship in favor of their own will worship). In this area, many 'Protestants,' even now, bow down to Rome's humanistic, anti-Christian idol of free will.
"It is our hope that God will use Luther's classic to give you the strength to remain faithful to His Word; this being a great place to start a new Reformation, for as the translators write concerning this book, 'Nowhere does Luther come closer, either in spirit or in substance to the Paul of Romans and Galatians'." -- Publisher
"This classic is a reply to Erasmus, the famous Roman Catholic scholar. Erasmus had issued a book claiming that all men had 'free-will.' Luther points out that Erasmus does not give a true definition of 'free-will.' For free-will, says Luther, belongs to God only: 'You may rightly assigned to man some kind of will, but to assign to him free-will in divine things is going too far. . . .' Luther then points out that man has incapacitated his will by his sin, and so is not free to will to do good, or to please God, which is the same thing. In a very large section of the book he gives a thorough exposition of the bondage of man's will. This, together with Jonathan Edwards' FREEDOM OF THE WILL has always been considered a classic answer to all free-willers." -- Jay P. Green, Sr.
See the Theological Notes, "The Freedom and Bondage of the Will," at Jeremiah 17:9 in The Reformation Study Bible.
The Bondage of the Will, A Sermon on Christian Love, Two Sermons Upon the Fifth Chapter of Luke [Luke 5], God So Loved the World: Two Sermons on John 3:16-21.
http://www.covenanter.org/reformed/2015/7/8/martin-luthers-book-concerning-the-bondage-of-the-will

*Luther, Martin (1483-1546), Commentary on Galatians, English translation by Erasmus Middleton, B.D., edited by John Prince Fallowes, M.A., Pembroke College, Cambridge, ISBN: 0825431247. A Christian classic. Considered to be among the ten greatest books in the English language. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
"I prefer this book of Martin Luther's (except the Bible), before all the books I have ever seen, as most fit for a wounded soul." -- John Bunyan
"This is a great, historic work, and is beyond criticism on account of its great usefulness. As a comment its accuracy might be questioned; but for emphatic utterances and clear statements of the great doctrine of the Epistle it remains altogether by itself, and must be judged per se." -- C.H. Spurgeon
"The reissue of a famous series of lectures delivered at Wittenberg University in 1553." -- Cyril J. Barber
Commentary on Galatians
http://archive.org/details/cu31924029294133
Luther's Commentary on Galatians, who hath bewitched you, that you should not obey the truth. (Galatians 3:1 excerpt), English translation by Erasmus Middleton, B.D., edited by John Prince Fallowes, M.A., Pembroke College, Cambridge
http://www.lettermen2.com/luther1.html
Luther's Commentary on Galatians, That He might deliver us from the present evil world. (Galatians 1:4 excerpt), English translation by Erasmus Middleton, B.D., edited by John Prince Fallowes, M.A., Pembroke College, Cambridge
http://www.lettermen2.com/luther2.html

Luther, Martin (1483-1546), Luther's Ninety-Five Theses: With the Pertinent Documents From the History of the Reformation.

Luther, Martin (1483-1546), T.G. Tapper (editor), Selected Writings of Luther, 4 volumes.
"Important selections from Luther's writings, arranged chronologically."

Luther, Martin (1483-1546), Sermons of Martin Luther, 8 volumes, ISBN: 0801056268 9780801056260. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
"This is the best collection of the Reformer's sermons in English! Here are 175 sermons, only seven of which appear in Luther's WORKS. 'Striking freshness . . . clarity of exposition and incisiveness of thought . . . epitomize Luther's genius.' Indispensable for preachers and for students of Luther and the Reformation. . . ." -- CBD

*Luther, Martin (1483-1546), Jaroslav Pelikan, Helmut T. Lehmann, Luther's Works on CD-ROM, 55 volumes.
"This CD-ROM makes available the entire 55-volume set of Luther's Works, a magisterial translation project published jointly by Fortress Press and Concordia Publishing House in 1957."
"Essential reading in order to understand the Protestant Reformation."
Luther tended to be subjective, while Calvin tended to be objective.
Luther Martin, Luther's Works: Volume 55, Index to LUTHER'S WORKS, ISBN: 0800603559 9780800603557.
"This is the long awaited index to the American edition of LUTHER'S WORKS. This comprehensive index includes a names, subjects and literature, and Scripture index (Old Testament, New Testament, and Apocrypha). An indispensable tool for exploring the works of Luther." -- GCB
Vogel, Heinrich J., Vogel's Cross Reference and Index to the Contents of Luther's Works: A Cross Reference Between the American Edition and the St. Louis, Weimar, and Erlangen Editions of Luther's Works, ISBN: 0810001683 9780810001688.
Koelpin, Arnold J., Martin Luther, Luther's Works: A Quick Reference Guide.

*Lyford, William (1598-1653), The Plain Mans Senses Exercised to Discern Both Good and Evill: or, A Discovery of the Errors, Heresies and Blasphemies of These Times, and the toleration of them as they are collected and testified against by the ministers of London, in their testimony to the truth of Jesus Christ, 1657. Alternate title: TESTIMONY TO THE TRUTH OF JESUS CHRIST AND OUR SOLEMN LEAGUE AND COVENANT.
This is a detailed refutation of Anabaptist error.
"Apologie for our publick ministrie and infant baptism."
http://archive.org/details/plainmanssensese00lyfo
Sundry Ministers of London, Testimony to the Truth of Jesus Christ and our Solemn League and Covenant
http://archive.org/details/plainmanssensese00lyfo
Sundry Ministers of London, Testimony to the Truth of Jesus Christ and our Solemn League and Covenant, 1647
http://www.truecovenanter.com/anti_toleration/testimony_truth.html

*MacPherson, Hector, Scotland's Battles for Spiritual Independence, 1905.
"Ably delineates between the quest for power (ecclesiastical as well as political), and a true spirit of independence based upon Biblical principles. Describes the struggle between church and state, and lays justifiable stress upon the far-ranging effects of the battles they fought and won." -- Cyril J. Barber

*Marshall, Walter (1628-1680), The Gospel-Mystery of Sanctification: Growing in Holiness by Living in Union With Christ, ISBN: 189277724X. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
The Reformation Heritage Books edition is a reprint of the 1954 edition set by Oliphants and includes an introduction by Joel R. Beeke. Also includes the author's famous sermon on "The Doctrine of Justification Opened and Applied."
See the WorldCat record for various foreign language editions.
Other editions:
Marshall, Walter (1628-1680), The Gospel-Mystery of Sanctification, ISBN: 1597520543 9781597520546.
"This is by far the best book on the doctrine of Sanctification in print. It was originally written in the 17th century, but has been put into modern English with this edition. This book will help you better understand the Gospel and its power not only for our Justification, but our Sanctification as well." -- Reader's Comment
Marshall, Walter (1628-1680), The Gospel-Mystery of Sanctification, ISBN: 1589600630 9781589600638.
"Here you will read the most closely reasoned defense of scriptural sanctification to be found anywhere. . . . Fourteen directions are given to the reader, all perfected with the aim of explaining to sincere souls what sanctification is, what it is not, and how to attain a holy walk before God. . . ." -- Jay P. Green, Sr.
Marshall, Walter (1628-1680), The Gospel-mystery of Sanctification, Opened, in Sundry Practical Directions: Suited Especially to the Case of Those who Labor Under the Guilt and Power of Indwelling Sin. To Which is Added a Sermon on Justification (1859)
http://archive.org/details/gospelmysteryofs02mars

McGrath, Alister E, A Life of John Calvin: A Study in the Shaping of Western Culture, ISBN: 0631163980 9780631163985.
"Provides an exploration of Calvin's life and influence, his theology and his political thought, and his determining of the course of European history. This book traces Calvin's remarkable impact on the development of modern Western attitudes to work, wealth, civil rights, capitalism and the natural sciences." -- Publisher

McKay, W.D.J., An Ecclesiastical Republic: Church Government in the Writings of George Gillespie, ISBN: 0946068607 9780946068609.

McKim, Donald K., and David F. Wright (consulting editor), Encyclopedia of the Reformed Faith, ISBN: 0664218822 9780664218829 0715206605 9780715206607.

*M'Crie (McCrie), Thomas (1772-1835), Brief View of the Evidence for the Exercise of Civil Authority About Religion. Available in STATEMENT OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE PROFESSION OF THE REFORMED CHURCH OF SCOTLAND, AS ADOPTED BY SECEDERS, AND THE PROFESSION CONTAINED IN THE NEW TESTIMONY AND OTHER ACTS, LATELY ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSOCIATE SYNOD, Section VII. A Christian classic. Considered to be among the ten greatest books in the English language. Available (STATEMENT OF THE DIFFERENCE), on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available (STATEMENT OF THE DIFFERENCE), on Reformation Bookshelf CD #25.
"M'Crie published at Edinburgh in 1807 a helpful discussion of the biblical evidence for an obligation of nations and their civil rulers to give recognition to the true religion. His book is a protest against the church in which he was ordained, and which subsequently departed from the principles it had espoused: STATEMENT OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE PROFESSION OF THE REFORMED CHURCH OF SCOTLAND, AS ADOPTED BY SECEDERS, AND THE PROFESSION CONTAINED IN THE NEW TESTIMONY AND OTHER ACTS, LATELY ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSOCIATE SYNOD. It has often been regarded as the best presentation of the confessional point of view respecting a national acknowledgment of religion. Churches formed after M'Crie's death found their conflicts over church principles defined in his literary output." -- Publisher
Brief View of the Evidence for the Exercise of Civil Authority About Religion
http://www.westminsterconfession.org/a-godly-society/the-exercise-of-civil-authority-about-religion.php

*M'Crie, Thomas (1772-1835), Life of Knox, 1831 Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1. A Christian classic. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
"Iain Murray, in his stirring introduction to Cunningham's Historical Theology writes, 'The third event marking the commencement of this spiritual movement was the publication of a book in 1811. It was the biography of John Knox by Thomas M'Crie. All over Scotland this work was used to revive the memory of the great Reformer and nothing could have been a more telling protest against the stifling influence of Moderatism. It brought many a student and minister into the experience once described by James Fraser of Bera in his Memoirs: 'When I read Knox, I thought I saw another scheme of divinity, much more agreeable to the Scriptures and to my experience than the modern.' M'Crie followed this up in 1819 with a biography of Knox's great successor, Andrew Melville, and these two books became known as the 'Iliad and Odyssey of the Scottish Church.' Just as Homer's heroes fired the hearts of many imitators so M'Crie's biographies aroused a holy ambition in many to follow the noble example of these two spiritual giants. "M'Crie's work is an undisputed classic regarding this fiery reformer. It exhibits information on Knox and the Scottish Reformation which has been hid in manuscripts and books which are now little known or consulted. Knox may be the most pertinent Reformer to study in our day of widespread idolatry, pluralism, anti-Christian government, humanistic law, relativism, and the revival of that 'masterpiece of Satan,' Roman Catholicism. Read everything that you can get your hands on -- either by or about Knox; you'll never be the same again!" -- Publisher

*M'Crie, Thomas (1772-1835), Statement of the Difference . . . Particularly on the Power of Civil Magistrates Respecting Religion, National Reformation, National Churches, and National Covenants, 1871. Alternate title: STATEMENT OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE PROFESSION OF THE REFORMED CHURCH OF SCOTLAND, AS ADOPTED BY SECEDERS, AND THE PROFESSION CONTAINED IN THE NEW TESTIMONY AND OTHER ACTS LATELY ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSOCIATE SYNOD. A Christian classic. Considered to be among the ten greatest books in the English language. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #25.
" 'The ablest exposition in the English language of the Establishment Principle . . . Dr. (George) Smeaton describes the Statement as a masterly defense of the principles of establishments as Scripture truth: and the most complete vindication ever given to the world of the position occupied by the Reformed Church of Scotland, on the whole subject of national religion and the magistrates legitimate power in promoting it. 'The same thoroughness,' wrote the late Rev. D. Beaton, 'which gave such abiding value to his great biography of Knox, is shown in this, his less known work . . . Dr. McCrie in his STATEMENT shows that all the Confessions of the Protestant and Presbyterian Churches of the Reformation, both in Britain and on the Continent of Europe, held and maintained the Establishment Principle. 'These harmoniously agree,' he writes, 'in declaring as with one mouth that civil authority is not limited to the secular affairs of men, and that the public care and advancement of religion is a principle part of the official duty of magistrates.' He goes on to give extracts from THE CONFESSION OF HELVETIA; THE CONFESSION OF BOHEMIA; THE CONFESSION OF SAXONY; THE FRENCH CONFESSION; THE BELGIC OR DUTCH CONFESSION; THE CONFESSION OF THE ENGLISH CONGREGATION IN GENEVA; THE SCOTS CONFESSION AND THE WESTMINSTER CONFESSION OF FAITH (1646). 'Such is the harmony of doctrine in the Protestant churches on this head,' he remarks, 'expressed in their confessions and public formularies drawn from the Word of God; a harmony which deserves great attention, and from which none should rashly depart' (as cited in CHRIST'S KINGSHIP OVER THE NATIONS by C.J. Brown). Concerning the doctrine of national obedience to Christ, M'Crie demonstrates in the most convincing way that there are few doctrines 'of the practical kind, in which the best interests of mankind and the general state of religion in the world, are more deeply concerned, than in the right and wrong determination of this question.' Contains an excellent preface by George Smeaton. Considered one of the definitive works on Church/State relations, defending the historic Reformed position. An extremely rare and very expensive item if located as a rare book." -- Publisher
Brief View of the Evidence for the Exercise of Civil Authority About Religion
http://www.westminsterconfession.org/a-godly-society/the-exercise-of-civil-authority-about-religion.php

*Murray, Iain, The Reformation of the Church: A Collection of Reformed and Puritan Documents on Church Issues, ISBN: 085151118X 9780851511184.
"First published in 1965 and once again available. Documents are drawn largely from the 16th and 17th centuries and presents the finest thinking of the fathers on authority and freedom, the need for reformation, the nature of the government, unity, and membership of the Church of Jesus Christ." -- GCB

Oberman, Heiko A., Luther: Man Between God and the Devil, ISBN: 0300037945 9780300037944.
"Written by one of the world's greatest authorities on Luther, this book portrays the controversial reformer in the context of his own time, analyzing his state of mind, and portraying his world more closely than has been done before." -- GCB

Ogden, Greg, The New Reformation: Returning the Ministry to the People of God, revised edition, ISBN: 0310246199 9780310246190.
"Ministry is to be by the people and for the people, and this book explains why it is needed and how it can be done." -- Publisher
Includes bibliographical references and indexes.

*Preston, John (1587-1628), The Golden Sceptre Held Forth to the Humble, ISBN: 1877611174 9781877611179. A Christian classic.
This book is comprised of six sermons on 2 Chronicles 7:14: If my people, which are called by my name, shall humble themselves, and pray, and seek my face, and turn from their wicked ways; then will I hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin, and will heal their land, just one verse that succinctly gives the Biblical solution to terrorism. Sermons are on Affliction, Humiliation, Seeking god's face, Turning from evil, Forgiveness to those who forsake sin, and Sin as the cause of all calamities.
The Golden Sceptre Held Forth to the Humble
http://www.archive.org/details/TheGoldenSceptreHeldForthToTheHumble
The Golden Sceptre Held Forth to the Humble
http://www.lettermen2.com/goldensceptre.pdf

*The Reformation Study Bible: The Word That Changes Lives -- the Faith That Changed The World, New King James Version, ISBN: 0785258523 9780785258520. Previously published under the title New Geneva Study Bible: Bringing the Light of the Reformation to Scripture, ISBN: 0840710917 9780840710918.
"The NEW GENEVA STUDY BIBLE offers a restatement of Reformation truth for Christians today. The first Geneva Bible was a pivotal force in the Reformation. Using the everyday language of its time, it opened the pages of Scripture to readers and provided helpful notes to assist them in understanding its message. It became the family Bible of the English people, and was the Bible that the Pilgrims brought to the New World. Since that time a multitude of English translations and study Bibles have appeared, but none of these has incorporated a summary of Reformed theology." -- Thomas Nelson Publishers
Also available in digital format from Logos Bible Software.
A Review of The Reformation Study Bible (previously entitled NEW GENEVA STUDY BIBLE), and the 1599 Geneva Bible, Tolle Lege Press enhanced edition
http://www.lettermen2.com/geneva.html
Readers of THE REFORMATION STUDY BIBLE should also be familiar with The Westminster Family of Documents, the doctrine of the Mediatorial Dominion of Jesus Christ, and the literature of the Covenanted Reformation.
The Westminster Confession of Faith (1646), (The Westminster Standards), and Related Works: A Study Guide
http://www.lettermen2.com/suggest.html
The Covenanted Reformation of Scotland Short Title Listing
http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr9chb.html#crsstl
Reformed Presbyterian Catechism, William L. Roberts D.D.
http://archive.org/details/ReformedPresbyterianCatechism

*Robbins, John W. (1949-2008), Acton on the Papacy, an article.
The Acton Institute is now controlled by the Roman Catholic Institution.

*Robbins, John W. (1949-2008), Ecclesiastical Megalomania: The Economic and Political Thought of the Roman Catholic Church, ISBN: 0940931753 9780940931756.
"This book is a detailed examination of the official statements of the Vatican on economic and political matters. It demonstrates the collectivism and totalitarianism of the Roman Catholic Church-State. It is the only such book written by a Christian in the twentieth century.
"This book explores the conflict between Roman Catholic social thought and human freedom, relying on official pronouncements from the Vatican to show that the political and economic theory of the Roman Church-State justifies feudalism, corporativism, liberation theology, the welfare state, and fascism.
"Dr. John W. Robbins attended Grove City College (A.B. 1969), and The Johns Hopkins University (M.A. 1970, Ph.D. 1973). He has served as chief of staff for a Member of Congress [Ron Paul of Texas], editor of The Freeman magazine, Economist for The Heritage Foundation, and Professor of Political Philosophy in The Freedom School." -- Publisher

Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Great men are almost always bad men, even when they exercise influence and not authority: still more when you superadd the tendency or the certainty of corruption by authority. -- John Emerich Edward Dalberg, Lord Acton (1834-1902), in a letter to Mandell Creighton, April 5, 1887, quoted by Gertrude Himmelfarb in Acton, Essays on Freedom and Power, pp. 335-36 (1972)
"As the world focuses it attention on the papacy, we ought to recall Lord Acton, the great Roman Catholic historian of the 19th century. Many have heard the aphorism, 'Power tends to corrupt; absolute power corrupts absolutely,' though it is usually misquoted as 'Power corrupts.' Few who have heard it, however, know who its author was: John Emerich Edward Dalberg, better known as Lord Acton. Fewer still realize that Acton used the aphorism in opposing the papacy, the absolute monarchy of the Roman Catholic Church.
"Acton's criticisms of the papacy and the Roman Church are some of most damning ever leveled against those institutions, and they are virtually unknown today. Yet to anyone seriously concerned about religious and political freedom, Acton's views on the Roman Church, his own church, in particular his condemnation of the papacy, ought to be of great interest. Unfortunately, contemporary theological correctness has a taboo against criticism of Catholicism.
"Acton kept a notebook on the Inquisition in which he wrote:
The object of the Inquisition [was] not to combat sin -- for the sin was not judged by it unless accompanied by [theological] error. Nor even to put down error. For it punished untimely and unseemly remarks the same as blasphemy. Only unity. This became an outward, fictitious, hypocritical unity. The gravest sin was pardoned, but it was death to deny the donation of Constantine. [The Donation of Constantine was a document forged in the eighth century in which the Roman Emperor Constantine willed the Western Roman Empire to the Pope. The Roman Church taught that the Donation was genuine, and the legal basis for the pope's civil authority, for centuries. -- JR]. So men learnt that outward submission must be given. All this [was] to promote authority more than faith. When ideas were punished more severely than actions -- for all this time the Church was softening the criminal law, and saving men from the consequences of crime: -- and the Donation was put on a level with God's own law -- men understood that authority went before sincerity.
"Acton believed that the Inquisition was the institution by which the medieval papacy had to be condemned or acquitted. Just as a man charged with murder is judged for a single act, though be may be kind to his mother and a great philanthropist, so the papacy must be judged for the Inquisition. To Mandell Creighton, an Anglican priest, Acton wrote:
I cannot accept your canon that we are to judge Pope and King unlike other men, with a favourable presumption that they did no wrong. If there is any presumption it is the other way, against holders of power, increasing as the power increases. Historic responsibility has to make up for the want of legal responsibility. Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Great men are almost always bad men, even when they exercise influence and not authority: still more when you superadd the tendency or the certainty of corruption by authority. There is no worse heresy than that the office sanctifies the holder of it. . . . For many years my view of Catholic controversy has been governed by the following chain of reasoning: 1. A crime does not become a good deed by being committed for the good of a church. 2. The theorist who approves the act is no better than the culprit who commits it. 3. The divine or historian who defends the theorist incurs the same blame. . . . To commit murder is the mark of a moment, exceptional. To defend it is constant, and shows a more perverted conscience.
"Acton turned his attention to other crimes of the Roman Church as well. Beginning on Sunday, August 24, 1572, tens of thousands of French Huguenots were massacred by the Catholics. Overnight, thousands were murdered, and the murders continued for several months. The massacre began in Paris. The sign of the cross was everywhere, and the murders took on the air of a crusade, a holy war against the infidels. The banks of the Seine became a slaughterhouse. Men, women, children, and infants were stabbed or dragged by a rope around the neck to be thrown into the river. The murder, looting, and rape went on for days in Paris.
"The Pope, Gregory XIII, reacted immediately to this Catholic Holocaust: He delivered a complimentary speech, and commended the King of France, Charles IX, who 'has also displayed before our Most Holy Master and this entire assembly the most splendid virtues which can shine in the exercise of power.' The Pope commissioned a mural in honor of the great occasion; he ordered salutes fired for Charles; he had a commemorative seal struck; and in a horrible blasphemy he ordered a special Te Deum sung. Less than two years later, at the age of 24, King Charles died in extreme pain with blood oozing from his pores. His last words were pleas to God for pardon for the murders.
"The massacre was a matter of controversy in 1868 when Acton wrote an essay in the North British Review. He concluded his long essay by saying that there was no evidence to absolve the Roman Church of premeditated murder. Acton argued that it was not only facts that condemned the papacy for this heinous crime, but the whole body of casuistry developed by the church that made it an act of Christian duty and mercy to kill a heretic so that he might be removed from sin. Acton pointed out that only when the Roman Church could no longer rely on force but had to make its case before public opinion did it seek to explain away its murders. 'The same motive which had justified the murder now promoted the lie,' he wrote. A bodyguard of lies was fabricated to protect the papacy from guilt for this monstrous sin. Acton wrote:
The story is much more abominable than we all believed. . . . S.B. [St. Bartholomew's], is the greatest crime of modern times. It was committed on principles professed by Rome. It was approved, sanctioned, and praised by the papacy. The Holy See went out of its way to signify to the world, by permanent and solemn acts, how entirely it admired a king who slaughtered his subjects treacherously, because they were Protestants. To proclaim forever that because a man is a Protestant it is a pious deed to cut his throat in the night. . . .
"For three centuries the Roman church's canon law had affirmed that the killing of an excommunicated person was not murder, and that allegiance need not be kept with heretical rulers. Murder and treason were part of the Roman church's official teachings. Charles IX was acting as a good Catholic, and he was highly praised by the pope for his murders.
"In 1867 Pope Pius IX summoned a general council of the Roman Church to be held in Rome in 1870. It was the first general council of the Roman Church since the sixteenth century Council of Trent, at which the schismatic Roman Church had condemned all the truths of the Reformation. This time the Pope was determined to establish himself as the infallible sovereign of the Roman Church.
"Acton thought that the time of the council would be better spent abolishing many of the 'reforms' made by the Council of Trent, reforms which had perpetuated in the Roman Church a spirit of intolerant absolutism and 'austere immorality.' He opposed the doctrine of papal infallibility, because, as an historian, he knew the popes were not infallible. Acton wrote:
A man is not honest who accepts all the Papal decisions in questions of morality, for they have often been distinctly immoral; or who approves the conduct of the Popes in engrossing power, for it was stained with perfidy and falsehood; or who is ready to alter his convictions at their command, for his conscience is guided by no principle.
"After studying the history of the popes, Acton wrote:
The papacy contrived murder and massacre on the largest and also on the most cruel and inhuman scale. They were not only wholesale assassins but they made the principle of assassination a law of the Christian Church and a condition of salvation. . . . [The Papacy], is the fiend skulking behind the Crucifix.
Massachusetts Attorney General, The Sexual Abuse of Children in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston, Thomas F. Reilly, Massachusetts Attorney General.
"The mistreatment of children was so massive and so prolonged that it borders on the unbelievable," says the July 23 [2003] report of Massachusetts Attorney General Thomas F. Reilly. More than 1,000 minors were likely abused by priests over the past six decades."
This is the 79-page report in its entirety.
http://www.votf.org/ago/archdiocese.pdf
Martin Luther, John Calvin, John Knox, Samuel Rutherford, John Owen, Thomas Manton, The Westminster Assembly, James Renwick, Archibald Mason, Christopher Ness, Francis Turretin, The Reformed Presbytery, David Steel, James R. Willson, Alexander M'Leod, William L. Roberts, James Aiken Wylie, Andrew Wilet, Henry Wilkinson, James Wylie, Patrick Fairbairn, James Aiken, Andrew Wilet, Alexander Hislop, Francis Nigel Lee, Arthur W. Pink, Ian R.K. Paisley, and so forth, and so on, have all believed and argued in print that the seated Pope is the Antichrist of the Bible.
The Roman Church-State is "the world's oldest, largest, most powerful, and most influential politico-ecclesiastical institution" and it "may also be the world's wealthiest." The Roman Catholic Institution is the ultimate "negative guide to the positive," the reformers ultimate "opposite guide to political and economic reform."
Pope's visit means 3 White House firsts.
President says 'man of faith' and conviction deserves the special treatment

Associated Press, April 13, 2008
"WASHINGTON -- The leader of the world's 1 billion Roman Catholics has been to the White House only once in history. That changes this week, and President Bush is pulling out all the stops: driving out to a suburban military base to meet Pope Benedict XVI's plane, bringing a giant audience to the South Lawn and hosting a fancy East Room dinner.
"These are all firsts.
"A crowd of up to 12,000 is due at the White House on Wednesday morning for the pope's official, pomp-filled arrival ceremony. It will feature the U.S. and Holy See anthems, a 21-gun salute, and the U.S. Army Old Guard Fife and Drum Corps. Both men will make remarks before their Oval Office meeting and a send-off for his popemobile down Pennsylvania Avenue.
"The president explained the special treatment -- particularly the airport greeting.
" 'One, he speaks for millions. Two, he doesn't come as a politician; he comes as a man of faith,' Bush told the EWTN Global Catholic Network in an interview aired Friday. He added that he wanted to honor Benedict's conviction that 'there's right and wrong in life, that moral relativism has a danger of undermining the capacity to have more hopeful and free societies. . . .' "
"This week makes Bush the record-holder, with a total of five meetings with two popes. . . ."
"The current pope's approach may be softer than that of John Paul, who turned from Bush's presentation to him of the Medal of Freedom in 2004 to read a statement about his 'grave concern' over events in Iraq."
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24096388/
Bush Scandals
An extensive resource. Includes websites for the Savings and Loan Scandal of the 1980s, considered the largest theft in the history of the world, involving Neil Bush, a brother of George W., the Florida's Voting Scandal of 2001 in which Al Gore lost the presidential election. Jeb Bush, another brother of George W., was Governor of Florida and had promised to deliver the state for his brother. Other sites treat George W. Bush's suspected involvement in 911 [911 is, of course, analagous to Roosevelt's Pearl Harbor]. Note particularly "Bush Family Machinations, 1918-2000," a timeline of Bush Family crimes prior to Election 2000.
http://news4florida.tripod.com/index1.html
The Panic of '08. Lew Rockwell Interviews Ron Paul, September 18, 2008
A podcast.
http://www.lewrockwell.com/podcast/?p=episode&name=2008-09-18_029_ron_paul_talks_to_lew_rockwell.mp3

Robertson, Edwin, Wycliffe: Morning Star of the Reformation, ISBN: 0551011424 9780551011427.
"This short book (125 pages), was written to commemorate and celebrate this famous Bible translator's place in our Christian heritage. Wycliffe was a man burdened for a Gospel for all people and a vision of God's grace being freely available to all." -- GCB

*Rushdoony, Rousas J. (1916-2001), Christianity and the State, ISBN: 9996717755. Available through Exodus Books.
"The need to return to a Biblical doctrine of civil government is evidenced by our century's worldwide drift into tyranny. Humanism invariably rushes in to fill the world's theological vacuums: the need of the hour is to restore a full-orbed, Biblical, theology of the state. This work sets forth that theology." -- GCB

*Schuettinger, Robert, Lord Acton: Historian of Liberty, ISBN: 0875482945 9780875482941.
Includes appendix, bibliography, and index.

*Singer, C. Gregg (1910-1999), John Calvin: His Roots and Fruits, 78 pages.
"What then is the role of the state in economic matters? Is it to stand idly by and take no steps or initiate no policies to defend the poor? The state, in the economic realm, is under a mandate to enforce the moral law and to punish those who break it for the sake of econmic gain. It may prevent monopolitstic and other business practices which are contrary to the Biblical ethic, as well as stealing and other forms of dishonesty and may pass laws for this purpose. It is certain that Calvin would support more statutes of this kind than some advocates of free enterprise would tolerate today. In general, however, Calvin agreed that the state had no right to undertake schemes of redistributing wealth in order to achieve economic equality. The legislative taking of wealth under the guise of legailty is no less stealing than if it is done by robbers and thieves. Such schemes, rather than being an application of Christian principles, are actually a form of human rebellion against the will of God for the right ordering of society." -- C. Gregg Singer in "Calvinism and Economic Thought and Practice.
Notes: "Appeared in volume II of THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF CHRISTIANITY . . . and was later printed by Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company . . . 1967, for their Philosophical and historical studies series."
Contents: The author; Preface; I The patristic foundations of calvinism; II Calvinism: the summit of reformation theology; III The later history of calvinism; IV Influence of calvinism on western history and culture; V Calvinism and economic thought and practice; VI Calvinism and Philosophy; VII Calvinism and education; VIII Calvinism and social thought and practice; Bibliography.

*Stalker, James, John Knox: His Ideas and Ideals. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1.
"Published the year before the Quatercentenary 'of the birth of the greatest of Scotsmen,' as Stalker calls Knox, this is an easy-reading look at this great Reformer. Expressing great gratitude for David Laing's 'immortal labours' in editing Knox's Works, and humbly directing the reader to these six volumes 'if he desires to see Knox face to face,' Stalker summarizes his intent, stating, 'I do not pretend to have given a complete collection of Knox's good things; but at least I have creamed them and furnished enough to familiarize the reader not only with his ideas but with the remarkable phraseology in which these were expressed; and my hope is that the following pages may help to make it true that he, being dead, yet speaketh.' For the bibliophiles this item contains a nice chapter summarizing Knox's books and letters." -- Publisher

Various, Spiritual and Anabaptist Writers: Documents Illustrative of the Radical Reformation.

*Williams, George H., The Radical Reformation.

*Wylie, James A. (1808-1890), The History of Protestantism, 2 volumes. A Christian classic. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
"This massive (8.5' X 11'), two-volume set contains nearly 2000 pages and more than 500 illustrations. It chronicles Protestantism in its progress from the first century to the late 17th century (though the focus is clearly on the 16th and 17th centuries). From Luther's burning of the Papal Bull 'excommunicating' him, to Calvin's refusing the Lord's supper to the Libertines of Geneva (who said they would kill him for doing so), the pages of this book testify to the life and death struggle for truth that remains to this day. The pictures in these books are also excellent for introducing children to major historical events relating to the struggle, sacrifice and victory of Christ's church on earth. The writing of Wylie is well worth the time invested to gain an overview of the great controversy between the true church and the false. Paisley, in his foreword, states, 'The Reformation of the 16th century was the greatest revival of New Testament Christianity since the days of Pentecost. Then once more the gospel in its purity was preached with apostolic power and with apostolic results.' He continues, 'Wylie's . . . is the best history extant. I welcome its republishing. Read it. Study it. Circulate it and by so doing you will help to dispel the dark cloud of priestly superstition, popish idolatry and papal tyranny encircling our land.' When it was first published Rome banned this book, buying up and burning all the copies that they could lay their hands on. It was more hated and denounced by Papists than any other book of its time. In our day, when the Pope addresses the United Nations, is often the subject of news reports, and regularly meets with national civil leaders (and when professing Protestants are defecting to 'the whore of Babylon,' and signing 'peace' treaties with this great enemy of Christ [to fight cultural battles]), these books are needed more than ever. William Cunningham's words, though written many years ago, should be heeded by all faithful Christians today, for he said, 'it is quite evident, from the signs of the times, that the Popish controversy must be fought over again . . . It is incumbent upon ministers of the gospel to prepare themselves for the contest'." -- Publisher
Wylie, J.A. (1808-1890), The History of Protestantism (1902), vol. 1 of 3.
http://archive.org/details/historyofprotes01wyli
Wylie, The history of Protestantism, vol. 2 of 3.
http://archive.org/details/historyofprotes02wyli
Wylie, The history of Protestantism, vol. 3 of 3.
http://archive.org/details/historyofprotes03wyli

See also: The sovereign grace of god: his everlasting mercy and lovingkindness, The doctrine of man (human nature, total depravity), Christ's influence on western civilization, Church history, The providence of god, Christian scholarship, The history of reformation of the church, The protestant reformation, Christian biograhphy, The dutch reformation, Calvinism, Toleration, liberty of conscience, pluralism, and neutrality, Christian biography, Church history and the history of local churches, Works of c. gregg singer, A theological interpretation of american history, God's sovereign hand in history, "his-story," The history of martyrs, Persecution, Church government, God's sovereign hand in history, "his-story," Church and state, The application of scripture to the corporate bodies of church and state, Unity and uniformity in the visible church: unity in the truth, The westminster confession of faith (1646) (westminster standards) and related works a study guide, National establishment of religion: establishmentarianism, Corporate faithfulness and sanctification, Background and history of the covenanted reformation of scotland, Covenant theology and the ordinance of covenanting, The covenanted reformation of scotland short title listing, The reformed presbytery of scotland and the reformed presbytery of america, The puritan revolution, Covenanting in america, Servant leadership, Selection of covenant heads for positions of leadership, Toleration, liberty of conscience, pluralism, and neutrality, liberty of conscience, pluralism, and neutrality, Unfaithful reformed ministries, The counter reformation, The destruction of American liberty, The decline of American society, Modern myths and fallacies, The love and justice of God, Revisionist history, Reformation eschatology, Books considered to be among the ten greatest in the english language, and so forth, and so on.

Related WebLinks

Reformation and Geneva Bibles
http://www.swrb.com/bibles/bibles.htm

Still Waters Revival Books, Puritan Hard Drive Collection.
Containing 12,500 plus Puritan and Reformation resources on an external USB hard drive, "with an embedded database and custom search/interface program now added, the most extensive and powerful reformation study tool ever produced!"
"Over 12,500 Classic and Contemporary Puritan and Reformation Resources On SWRB's New, Portable, USB Puritan Hard Drive (SWRB-PHD) -- Now Including An Embedded Database and SWRB's New, Custom, Proprietary Search/Interface Knowledgebase Program (With Over 70,000 Category Cross References), For Easy, Virtually Effortless, Access To All 12,500+ Puritan And Reformation Resources (Books, MP3s and Videos), and the Power to Search, Build, Print and Even Save An Unlimited Number of Study Lists Related to Whatever Authors, Topics and Titles You Most Need To Know and Understand!
"The new Puritan Hard Drive also works on both PCs and Macs." -- Publisher
PuritanDownloads.com
Download contents: Authors, Titles, Categories, and MP3s for the Puritan Hard Drive.
http://www.puritandownloads.com/swrb-puritan-hard-drive.html

Still Waters Revival Books, Reformation Bookshelf 30 CD Set, ISBN: 0921148674 9780921148678.
This is the WorldCat (OCLC) record for the entire 30 CD set. It gives the title of each CD. See the WorldCat (OCLC) record for each CD for a listing of the titles included on that CD. "Comprehensive Author Index Containing all the Books Found in the Entire 30 CD Reformation Bookshelf Set" is available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #30. ISBN: 0921148380 9780921148388.

Reformation Eschatology at Still Waters Revival Books
http://www.swrb.com/Puritan/reformation-eschatology.htm

The Historicism Research Foundation
http://www.historicism.net

The Genevan Institute for Reformed Studies
http://www.girs.com/index.html



The Covenant Faithfulness of God

See: The Covenant Faithfulness of God
http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr2chb.html#cvfthg



God's Deliverance of Nations

See: God's Deliverance of Nations
http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr9chd.html#gdeliver



National Repentance, Corporate Repentance

See the Theological Notes, "Repentance," at Acts 26:20 in The Reformation Study Bible.

*Knox, John (1505-1572), National Repentance and Reformation. Alternate title: A BRIEF EXHORTATION TO ENGLAND FOR THE SPEEDY EMBRACING OF THE GOSPEL, 1559. Available in THE WORKS OF JOHN KNOX. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #25.
"Formerly titled A BRIEF EXHORTATION TO ENGLAND FOR THE SPEEDY EMBRACING OF THE GOSPEL, 1559. Mitchell in THE SCOTTISH REFORMATION (p. 80), cites Dr. Merle D'Aubigné on Knox: 'The blood of warriors ran in the veins of the man who was to become one of the most intrepid champions of Christ's army . . . He was active, bold, thoroughly upright and perfectly honest, diligent in his duties, and full of heartiness for his comrades.' The warrior in Knox was certainly roused for battle in this production. Kevin Reed in SELECTED WRITINGS OF JOHN KNOX (p. 580), comments, 'Some historians have reflected negatively on the vehemence of Knox's remarks. Perhaps they should peruse the long list of the martyrs named in the appendix to this work. Critics may then find a clue for understanding the reformer's zeal. Knox is discussing serious matters of life and death -- spiritual issues which affect us deeply in this life, and for eternity.' Magistrates everywhere today need to hear this message again; God has not changed -- there are still corporate curses for disobedience at a national level and corporate blessings for those nations 'that kiss the Son' (cf. Psalm 2)." -- Publisher

*Mason, Archibald (d. 1831), Observations on the Public Covenants Betwixt God and the Church: A Discourse (1799). Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #27.
Contents: Observations on the public covenants betwixt God and the church / Archibald Mason -- Paleopresbyterianism vs. neopresbyterianism / Michael Wagner -- Permanence of covenant obligation -- The preface and bibliography to the rare bound photocopy: obligation of social covenanting -- The binding nature of national covenants with God -- The Solemn League and Covenant -- Guide for studying the Westminster Confession, in suggested order of reading -- Terms of ministerial and Christian communion in the Reformed Presbyterian Church -- Corporate sanctification: holding fast the attainments of Reformation / John Brown -- What is a moral person? How God views the church and the nations / David Scott, John Cunningham, and George Smeaton -- A hind let loose / Alexander Shields -- Of separation from corrupt churches -- Old landmarks -- confession and testimony.
Includes: What is a Moral Person? How God Views the Church and the Nations, David Scott, John Cunningham, and George Smeaton
http://www.swrb.com/newslett/actualnls/moral.htm

Palmer, B.M., National Responsibility Before God: A Discourse, Delivered on the day of Fasting, Humiliation and Prayer, Apponted by the President of the Confederate States of America, June 13, 1861.

*Pendlebury, William, National Repentance and Reformation the way to Obtain National Blessings. A sermon preach'd at Rotherham in Yorkshire, on the eleventh of April, 1744, . . . by William Pendlebury, M.A.

*Poole, Matthew (1624-1679), Synopsis Criticorum Aliorumque Sacrae Scripturæ Interpretum, 5 volumes from 1669-1676. Other Title: SYNOPSIS CRITICORUM ALIORUMQUE SACRAE SCRIPTURAE INTERPRETUM ET COMMENTATORUM.
This is a Latin work currently being translated by the Matthew Poole Project.
"The work with which his name [Matthew Poole], is principally associated is the SYNOPSIS CRITICORUM BIBLICORUM (5 vols fol., 1669-1676), in which he summarizes the views of one hundred and fifty biblical critics. On the suggestion of William Lloyd, Poole undertook the SYNOPSIS as a digest of biblical commentators, from 1666. . . .
"Rabbinical sources and Roman Catholic commentators are included; little is taken from John Calvin, nothing from Martin Luther.[2] The book was written in Latin and is currently being translated into English by the Matthew Poole Project.[3] Poole also wrote ENGLISH ANNOTATIONS ON THE HOLY BIBLE, a work which was completed by several of his Nonconformist brethren, and published in 2 vols fol. in 1683. The work was continued by others (last edition, three volumes, 1840).[4]" -- Wikipedia

*Poole, Matthew (1624-1679), Steven Dilday (translator), Andrew Myers (editor), The Exegetical Labors of the Reverend Matthew Poole.
The Matthew Poole Project
"The Project is dedicated to republishing the extensive literary efforts of the Reverend Matthew Poole. The cornerstone of the project is the translation of Poole's massive SYNOPSIS CRITICORUM (SYNOPSIS OF INTERPRETERS), making it available in English for the first time." -- The Matthew Poole Project
"Notes: Each volume [to date, February 2012 -- compiler], in this edition combines two separate works: A synopsis of interpreters, both critical and otherwise, of the Sacred Scriptures is printed in regular type and Annotations upon the Holy Bible is printed in bold type. Description: v.; 24 cm.
Contents:
Volume 1: Genesis 1-9
Volume 2: Genesis 10-22
Volume 3: Genesis 23-50
Volume 4: Exodus 1-18
Volume 5: Exodus 19-40
Volume 80: Revelation 1-7
Volume 81: Revelation 8-14
Volume 82: Revelation 15-22.
http://www.matthewpoole.net/index.html

*Preston, John (1587-1628), The Golden Sceptre Held Forth to the Humble. A Christian classic.
This book is comprised of six sermons on 2 Chronicles 7:14: If my people, which are called by my name, shall humble themselves, and pray, and seek my face, and turn from their wicked ways; then will I hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin, and will heal their land, just one verse that succinctly gives the Biblical solution to terrorism. Sermons are on Affliction, Humiliation, Seeking god's face, Turning from evil, Forgiveness to those who forsake sin, and Sin as the cause of all calamities.
The Golden Sceptre Held Forth to the Humble
http://www.archive.org/details/TheGoldenSceptreHeldForthToTheHumble
The Golden Sceptre Held Forth to the Humble
http://www.lettermen2.com/goldensceptre.pdf

*Scott, David, John Cunningham, and George Smeaton, What is a Moral Person? How God Views the Church and the Nations. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available in OBSERVATIONS ON THE PUBLIC COVENANTS BETWIXT GOD AND THE CHURCH: A DISCOURSE.
"A clear and concise summary of the biblical doctrine of the moral person (i.e. that God regards churches and nations as moral entities separate from the individual members of which they are composed). No Christian can afford not to understand this vital teaching! In many ways this is a crux of the Covenanter position, underlying as it does the issues of separation from backslidden or anti-Christian civil and church governments, the binding nature of lawful Covenants on posterity, eschatology, etc." -- Publisher
What is a Moral Person? How God Views the Church and the Nations. David Scott, John Cunningham, and George Smeaton
http://www.swrb.com/newslett/actualnls/moral.htm

Whincop, John (d. 1647), Gods call to Weeping and Mourning. Set out in a Sermon before the honourable House of Commons assembled in Parliament, at their late solemne fast, Ianuary 29. 1644. Being, the day before the Treaty (at Uxbridg), began. By John Whincop, D.D. Late fellow of Trin: Coll: in Cambridge, now Rector of the Church of Clothall in Hartford-shire. Published by order of that House. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.

Whincop, John (d. 1647), Israels Tears for Distressed Zion. Shown in a Sermon Before the Right Honourable House of Lords Assembled in Parliament, at their late solemn fast, in the Abby-Church of Westminster, Sept. 24. 1645. By John Whincop D.D. and pastor of the church of Clothall in Hertford-shire. Published by order of the House of Peers. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.

*Williams, Daniel (1643?-1716), What Repentance of National Sins God Doth Require, as Ever we Expect National Mercies? 1690. [Sermon on Hosea x. 12]. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.

See also: Confession of national sin and covenant renewal, Repentance the key to salvation and change, The protestant reformation

Related WebLinks

The Matthew Poole Project
"The Project is dedicated to republishing the extensive literary efforts of the Reverend Matthew Poole. The cornerstone of the project is the translation of Poole's massive SYNOPSIS CRITICORUM (SYNOPSIS OF INTERPRETERS), making it available in English for the first time."
http://www.matthewpoole.net/index.html



Christian Scholarship

Who being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high. (Hebrews 1:3)

My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge: because thou hast rejected knowledge, I will also reject thee, that thou shalt be no priest to me: seeing thou hast forgotten the law of thy God, I will also forget thy children. As they were increased, so they sinned against me: therefore will I change their glory into shame. (Hosea 4:6,7)

Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ. For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily. And ye are complete in him, which is the head of all principality and power. (Colossians 2:8-10)

(For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty through God to the pulling down of strong holds;) Casting down imaginations, and every high thing that exalteth itself against the knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ. (2 Corinthians 10:4-5)

The whole of the prophecies of Isaiah are precious, and should be read by us constantly in private. -- C.H. Spurgeon, Spurgeon's Devotional Bible

On the contrary, he charges them with gross and voluntary ignorance, as if he had said that, by their madness, they brought down destruction on themselves. The meaning therefore is, that the people perished because they despised instruction . . . .
Hence we draw a useful doctrine; namely, that the source of all our calamities is, that we do not allow ourselves to be taught by the word of God, and this is what the Prophet chiefly intended that we should observe. . . .
So then it is a true statement, that the reason why the people endure such a variety of afflictions is, that they are ignorant of God, and will not allow themselves to be taught by him. -- John Calvin commenting on Isaiah 5:13

We are an illiterate nation incapable of understanding great truth. -- C. Gregg Singer

I would have you remember, ladies and gentlemen, that the Reformation was born on the wings of sound scholarship. I can not emphasis this enough, that learning and great theology, great evangelical convictions, the great evangelical fervor, and even bravery and martyrdom are not foreign to the Reformation, but they are all part of the story. We see Calvin fleeing from France. We see Archbishop Thomas Cramner putting out the hand to be burned first because that was the hand which betrayed his Lord. We hear Bishop Latimer and Bishop Ridley crying out to one another as they are being burned at the stake by Henry VIII. These men, without exception, were great scholars. The evangelical world then was floated by divine mercy and divine sovereignty on the wings of great scholarship, and desperately the church needed it then. Desperately the church needs it today. . . . Don't every come to the place where you believe that you can not be a great evangelical minister and not be a profound scholar. I would site to you Thornwell, Dabney, Palmer, and the other great leaders of our church, the Southern Church . . . I remind you of the Hodges and the Alexanders, and so on, in American church history to support this thesis. Time does not permit me to recite the list of those who lead the Reformation, who were equally great scholars. -- C. Gregg Singer, in the lecture Speaking on Calvinism

Down through the ages there have been only a few great Christian scholars, but God had given them to us when they were needed. -- C. Gregg Singer

So many times people in the pew and the pulpit say, well how did all this get started? How did psychology descend to its present level? . . . How did political science produce our political thought, produce the dictatorships which are engulfing the modern world? Why are we in the economic mess in which we are today? Why is sociology such a jumble of immorality? Why is education as it is today? Why is art so meaningless? . . . Why is modern music an affront to the modern ears as well as to the mind and ear of God? . . . Why are all these things!? . . .
I would suggest to you that if you will follow this course with thought and care, you will finally come to see the answer to the questions which haunt us today in Western society." -- Singer, C. Gregg (1910-1999), in the Apologetics lecture series using FROM RATIONALISM TO IRRATIONALITY: THE DECLINE OF THE WESTERN MIND FROM THE RENAISSANCE TO THE PRESENT (1979) as the text, and delivered in Decatur, Georgia, beginning November, 1979.
Apologetics: #01: Classical and Medieval Thought #1
Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Apologetics, 56 min.
http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=2250511453

The Reformation is the revival of Augustine. Augustine came to his own in the Reformers. . . .
Charles Hodge, in his SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY, three volumes, declares that the Reformation was a revival of Augustine. Now, there is no doubt, students, that when Luther was so distressed in mind, so distressed in spirit, when he entered the monestary in 1505, and came under the powerful influence of Von Staupitz, Von Staupitz said, "My son, my son, read Saint Augustine. Martin my son, read the blessed Saint Paul, Martin read the blessed Saint Paul, Martin read Augustine." And after a struggle of some years Martin Luther walked out in the fullness and the brightness of the light of Justification by Faith.
And when Luther had done his greatest work, in 1536 in the city of Basil, there was published THE INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION by a man, who at that time, was 27 years of age. And around Calvin were gathered the great forces of Reformers. Luther spoke for Germany, but Calvin spoke for the whole Christian world in Western Europe, for Hungry, for Poland, for southern Germany, for The Netherlands, for the French Hueguenots, for the Calvinists in Spain and Italy, for the Calvinists in England and Scotland, and at Wales and Ireland. And the Church was once again brought into a position of great strength in its contact with Philosophy. . . .
In other words, students, because Calvin so emphasized the Doctrine of the Covenant, because he so emphasized the fullness and the necessity of revelation, because he so emphasized the Sovereignty of God, what did he give the Church? He gave the Church the message founded upon the truth, grounded in the truth, a Christian Theism. . . I am saying this, that when you have a truely biblically oriented, centered theology, comprehending and including the whole counsel of God, the Church is well armed to meet the conflict of culture. For the real conflict is Christian Theology verses all the ideologies, verses all the philosophies, which rage around her today. . . .
But the more pure her theology, the greater will be the conflict. The communists do not care about tearing down liberal Christianity. Now, that theology, which is most biblical, that church which holds that theology which is most biblical, will be the object of violent attack. Humanly speaking these men are correct, because if they can destroy biblical theology, that is found in Calvinism, the whole edifice will fall. . . .
Calvin and his cohorts provided for the Western mind a biblical rationalism. By that I mean a world and life view which made it possible for the Christian man to view reality after God, to think his thought concerning history, literature, music, art, philosophy, education, economic activity, and so on, thinking, in all these areas, God's thought after him. In other words, they provided a biblical . . . world and life view, a biblical view of all things, which was rational in the sense that when you see things as God sees them, even though we do it analogically, and, of course, never perfectly, but when we begin to see things as God sees them, we begin to see them in the right persective, which is rational in the biblical sense. We see the purpose and meaning of everything in a biblical perspective. It is not truth achieved by us, it is God's revealed truth overwhelming our minds, in one sense, making us captive to his thinking, and giving us, as Paul said, a sense of all things have become new to us. We see them in the new light.
Now, in this book [FROM RATIONALISM (the Renaissance sense of "rationalism" -- compiler), TO IRRATIONALITY], I have been frankly supporting Calvinism as the answer.
Now let me make a point here in my discussion of the Reformation. I am not saying that other reformers were not Christian. I am certainly not sayinig that. I am not saying that other reformers did not make a significant contribution. . . . -- C. Gregg Singer in Apologetics #03: Classical and Medieval Thought #3
Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Apologetics, 81 min.
http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=2250511637

Then, when he had expatiated somewhat more fully, and had more copiously illustrated the benefits of its presence [harmony -- compiler], and the ruinous effects of its absence upon a state, Pilus, one of the company present at the discussion, struck in and demanded that the question should be more thoroughly sifted, and that the subject of justice should be freely discussed for the sake of ascertaining what truth there was in the maxim which was then becoming daily more current, that "the republic cannot be governed without injustice." Scipio expressed his willingness to have this maxim discussed and sifted, and gave it as his opinion that it was baseless, and that no progress could be made in discussing the republic unless it was established, not only that this maxim, that "the republic cannot be governed without injustice," was false, but also that the truth is, that it cannot be governed without the most absolute justice. And the discussion of this question, being deferred till the next day, is carried on in the third book with great animation. For Pilus himself undertook to defend the position that the republic cannot be governed without injustice, at the same time being at special pains to clear himself of any real participation in that opinion. He advocated with great keenness the cause of injustice against justice, and endeavored by plausible reasons and examples to demonstrate that the former is beneficial, the latter useless, to the republic. Then, at the request of the company, Lælius attempted to defend justice, and strained every nerve to prove that nothing is so hurtful to a state as injustice; and that without justice a republic can neither be governed, nor even continue to exist.
When this question has been handled to the satisfaction of the company, Scipio reverts to the original thread of discourse, and repeats with commendation his own brief definition of a republic, that it is the weal of the people. "The people" he defines as being not every assemblage or mob, but an assemblage associated by a common acknowledgment of law, and by a community of interests. Then he shows the use of definition in debate; and from these definitions of his own he gathers that a republic, or "weal of the people," then exists only when it is well and justly governed, whether by a monarch, or an aristocracy, or by the whole people. But when the monarch is unjust, or, as the Greeks say, a tyrant; or the aristocrats are unjust, and form a faction; or the people themselves are unjust, and become, as Scipio for want of a better name calls them, themselves the tyrant, then the republic is not only blemished (as had been proved the day before), but by legitimate deduction from those definitions, it altogether ceases to be.
"Tully [Cicero -- compiler], himself, too, speaking not in the person of Scipio or any one else, but uttering his own sentiments, uses the following language in the beginning of the fifth book, after quoting a line from the poet Ennius, in which he said, "Rome's severe morality and her citizens are her safeguard." "This verse," says Cicero, "seems to me to have all the sententious truthfulness of an oracle. For neither would the citizens have availed without the morality of the community, nor would the morality of the commons without outstanding men have availed either to establish or so long to maintain in vigor so grand a republic with so wide and just an empire. Accordingly, before our day, the hereditary usages formed our foremost men, and they on their part retained the usages and institutions of their fathers. But our age, receiving the republic as a chef-d'oeuvre of another age which has already begun to grow old, has not merely neglected to restore the colors of the original, but has not even been at the pains to preserve so much as the general outline and most outstanding features. For what survives of that primitive morality which the poet called Rome's safeguard? It is so obsolete and forgotten, that, far from practising it, one does not even know it. And of the citizens what shall I say? Morality has perished through poverty of great men; a poverty for which we must not only assign a reason, but for the guilt of which we must answer as criminals charged with a capital crime. For it is through our vices, and not by any mishap, that we retain only the name of a republic, and have long since lost the reality. . . ."
For I mean in its own place to show that -- according to the definitions in which Cicero himself, using Scipio as his mouthpiece, briefly propounded what a republic is, and what a people is, and according to many testimonies, both of his own lips and of those who took part in that same debate -- Rome never was a republic, because true justice had never a place in it. But accepting the more feasible definitions of a republic, I grant there was a republic of a certain kind, and certainly much better administered by the more ancient Romans than by their modern representatives. But the fact is, true justice has no existence save in that republic whose founder and ruler is Christ, if at least any choose to call this a republic; and indeed we cannot deny that it is the people's weal.
But if perchance this name, which has become familiar in other connections, be considered alien to our common parlance, we may at all events say that in this city is true justice; the city of which Holy Scripture says, "Glorious things are said of thee, O city of God." -- Augustine in The City of God, Book 2, Chapter 21, "Cicero's Opinion of the Roman Republic"
City of God, St. Augustine, Book II. Chapter 21. -- Cicero's Opinion of the Roman Republic.
http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf102.iv.II_1.21.html

The name Tolle Lege comes from St. Augustine's autobiographical work CONFESSIONS. Translated from the Latin and pronounced tol-lay lah-jhay, it means, take up and read. Augustine used this phrase when relating his own conversion experience as he described how God used a sentence in the New Testament (Romans 13:13,14), to suddenly convert him:

But when a profound reflection had, from the secret depths of my soul, drawn together and heaped up all my misery before the sight of my heart, there arose a mighty storm, accompanied by as mighty a shower of tears . . . . I flung myself down, how, I know not, under a certain fig-tree, giving free course to my tears, and the streams of mine eyes gushed out, an acceptable sacrifice unto Thee. And, not indeed in these words, yet to this effect, spake I much unto Thee, -- But Thou, O Lord, how long? -- How long, Lord? Wilt Thou be angry for ever? Oh, remember not against us former iniquities; for I felt that I was enthralled by them. I sent up these sorrowful cries, -- How long, how long? Tomorrow, and tomorrow? Why not now? Why is there not this hour an end to my uncleanness?
I was saying these things and weeping in the most bitter contrition of my heart, when, lo, I heard the voice as of a boy or girl, I know not which, coming from a neighbouring house, chanting, and oft repeating, Take up and read; take up and read. Immediately my countenance was changed, and I began most earnestly to consider whether it was usual for children in any kind of game to sing such words; nor could I remember ever to have heard the like. So, restraining the torrent of my tears, I rose up, interpreting it no other way than as a command to me from Heaven to open the book, and to read the first chapter I should light upon . . . I grasped, opened, and in silence read that paragraph on which my eyes first fell, -- Not in rioting and drunkenness, not in chambering and wantonness, not in strife and envying; but put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh, to fulfil the lusts thereof. No further would I read, nor did I need; for instantly, as the sentence ended, -- by a light, as it were, of security infused into my heart, -- all the gloom of doubt vanished away. -- The Confessions of St. Augustine (Book 8, Chapter 12), as quoted at the Tolle Lege Press website

As the apostle says to Timothy, so also he says to every-one, Give yourself to reading. . . . He who will not use the thoughts of other men's brains proves that he has no brains of his own . . . You need to read. Renounce as much as you will all light literature, but study as much as possible sound theological works, especially the Puritanic writers, and expositions of the Bible . . . the best way for you to spend your leisure is to be either reading or praying. -- Charles Haddon Spurgeon

Autodidact: A self-taught person.

Each famous author of antiquity whom I recall places a new offence and another cause of dishonor to the charge of later generations, who, not satisfied with their own disgraceful barrenness, permitted the fruit of other minds and the writings that their ancestors had produced by toil and application, to perish through insufferable neglect. Although they had nothing of their own to hand down to those who were to come after, they robbed posterity of its ancestral heritage. -- Petrarch

Above all, we must at all times remember what intellectuals habitually forget: that people matter more than concepts and must come first. The worst of all despotisms is the heartless tyranny of ideas. -- Paul M. Johnson, his concluding statement in Intellectuals: From Marx and Tolstoy to Sartre and Chomsky

Adler, Mortimer, How to Read a Book: The Classic Guide to Intelligent Reading,
"Originally published in 1940, this book has become a rare phenomenon, a living classic. It is the best and most successful guide to reading comprehension for the general reader. And now it has been completely rewritten and updated. You are told about various levels of reading and how to achieve them, from elementary reading, through systematic skimming and inspectional reading, to speed reading. You learn how to pigeonhole a book, X-ray it, extract the author's message, and criticize. You are taught different reading techniques for reading practical books, imaginative literature, plays, poetry, history, science and mathematics, philosophy (religion) and social science." -- Publisher

Averitt, Richard C., The Scriptural Teaching Regarding Christian Scholarship (Dissertation: Thesis [M.A.] -- Wheaton College, 1953).

*Calvin, John (1509-1564), Commentary on the Prophet Isaiah, 4 books, published in 2 volumes, ISBN: 0801024404. A Christian classic. Available in CALVIN'S COMMENTARIES, a 22-book series, online, and in various other formats.
"Of all commentators I believe Calvin to be the most candid. . . . He was no trimmer and pruner of texts. He gave their meaning as far as he knew it." -- C.H. Spurgeon
"I know of no man since the Apostles' days whom I value and honor more than Calvin, and whose judgment in all things, one with another, I more esteem and come nearer to." -- Richard Baxter

There are at least 400 references to Augustine in John Calvin. Anybody who says that Calvin got his theology of the top of his head knows no Calvin. Calvin knew Augustine probably better than anybody else, including Luther. [see Warfield, CALVIN AND AUGUSTINE -- compiler]. Calvin went back to all the early western fathers. I would say that next to Augustine, his theology is based upon Bernard of Clairvaux and Anselm, and he had a higher respect for Saint Thomas Aquinas than many people are willing to admit. But he is in the western theological tradition. Charles Hodge, in his SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY of three volumes, very often refers to Calvinism as Augustinianism, and you can see why. . . . [Charles Hodge], declares that you might as well call Calvinism revived and revitalized Augustinianism. -- C. Gregg Singer in Speaking on Calvinism, a lecture
There seem to be very few commentaries on Chronicles from Reformed writers. Both Chronicles and Isaiah cover the reign of good King Hezekiah. Probably this is one reason Calvin did not comment on Chronicles. Isaiah covers the themes of Chronicles with the addition of the prophesy of the Messiah.
There are many references to verses in Chronicles in Calvin's COMMENTARY ON THE PROPHET ISAIAH. And, of course, Isaiah and King Hezekiah were contemporaries, so the lessons of Covenanted Reformation found in the reign of Hezekiah are also treated by Isaiah.
It stands to reason that CALVIN'S COMMENTARY ON ISAIAH probably contain the best of Augustinian thought on both 1 and 2 Chronicles and Isaiah. Therefore, we highly recommend it to readers who are studying the principles of Covenanted Reformation found in Chronicles and Isaiah.
Calvin's work is in four books, with a Scripture Index and a General Index. The Baker publication prints the four books in two volumes.
Commentary on Isaiah -- Volume 1, John Calvin
http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/calcom13.html
Speaking on Calvinism
Dr. C. Gregg Singer, 53 min.
http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=8110391415

*Calvin, John (1509-1564), The Institutes of the Christian Religion, 2 volumes, ISBN: 0664220207 0664220215. Considered to be among the ten greatest books in the English language. A Christian classic.
"Edited by John McNeill and translated by Ford Lewis Battles, this is the definitive English language edition of one of the monumental works of the Christian church -- Calvin's INSTITUTES.
"Still considered by many to be the finest explanation and defense of the Protestant Reformation available.
"The work is divided into four books: I. The Knowledge of God the Creator, II. The Knowledge of God the Redeemer in Christ, III. The Mode of Obtaining the Grace of Christ, IV. The External Means or Helps by Which God Allures Us Into Fellowship With Christ and Keeps Us in It. . . . THE INSTITUTES is praised by the secular philosopher, Will Durant, as one of the ten books that shook the world." -- GCB
Calvin spent a lifetime writing and perfecting INSTITUTES OF CHRISTIAN RELIGION. His Prefatory Address makes it clear that he intended the work to be a defense of Christianity to the King of France.
Therefore, plainly stated, one of the most influential works ever published in the English language is a defense of Christianity to leaders of State.
Prefatory Address to His Most Christian Majesty, The Most Mighty and Illustrious Monarch, Francis, King of the French, His Sovereign, John Calvin. Available in THE INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION.
"Indeed, this consideration makes a true king: to recognize himself a minister of God in governing his kingdom. Now, that king, who in ruling over his realm does not serve God's glory, exercises not kingly rule but brigandage. [Footnote: 'Nec iam regnum ille sed latrocinium exercet.' An echo of Augustine's famous phrase: 'When justice is taken away, what are kingdoms [[regna]] but a vast banditry [[magna latocinia]]?' City of God, IV. iv (MPL [[Migne, J.P., Patrologiae cursus completus, series Latina]], 41. 115; tr. NPNF [[A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, second series]], II. 66)]. Furthermore, he is deceived who looks for enduring prosperity in his kingdom when it is not ruled by God's scepter, that is, his Holy Word; for the heavenly oracle that proclaims that where prophecy fails the people are scattered [Prov. 29:18 (Proverbs 29:18)], cannot lie." (Battles translation)
"The characteristic of a true sovereign is, to acknowledge that, in the administration of his kingdom, he is a minister of God. He who does not make his reign subservient to the divine glory, acts the part not of a king, but a robber. He, moreover, deceives himself who anticipates long prosperity to any kingdom which is not ruled by the sceptre of God, that is, by his divine word. For the heavenly oracle is infallible which has declared, that where there is no vision the people perish (Proverbs 29:18), (Beveridge translation)."
See the entire Prefatory Address, Beveridge translation:
Considered to be one of the greatest prefaces ever written.
http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/institutes.ii.viii.html
"The doctrines of covenant liberty were rediscovered in the Reformation. John Calvin went further than anyone else in defining liberty and what Christians need to do to maintain it. Includes bibliographies."
It is recommended that INSTITUTES OF CHRISTIAN RELIGION be used for daily devotions and may be used in combination with Ford Lewis Battles and John Walchenbach, AN ANALYSIS OF THE INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION OF JOHN CALVIN and with CALVIN'S COMMENTARIES.
Calvin's Commentaries at BibleStudyGuide.org
http://www.biblestudyguide.org/comment/calvin/comm_index.htm
Calvin's Commentaries, complete
From the Calvin Translation Society edition.
http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/commentaries.i.html
One Hundred Aphorisms, Containing, Within a Narrow Compass, the Substance and Order of the Four Books of THE INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION
http://www.lettermen2.com/pringle.html
Calvin, Jean (1509-1564), Institutes of the Christian Religion; A New Translation by Henry Beveridge (1845), Volume: 1
http://archive.org/details/instituteschrist01calvuoft
Calvin, Jean (1509-1564), Institutes of the Christian Religion; A New Translation by Henry Beveridge (1845), Volume: 2
http://archive.org/details/institutesofreli02calvuoft
Calvin, Jean (1509-1564), Institutes of the Christian Religion, Beveridge translation
http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/institutes.iii.vii.html
Monergism: Commentaries
From Mongergism.com search "commentaries."
http://www.monergism.com

*Calvin, Jean (1509-1564), Theodore de Beza, Robert Estienne, Academiae de Geneve, Leges Academiae Genevensis. Alternate title (French): L'ORDRE DU COLLEGE DE GENEUE. Language: Latin.
"First edition of the new Academy of Geneva founded by John Calvin. It contains the complete speeches made at the inauguration by John Calvin and Theodore de Beza, the first Rector of the Academy. Also a complete outline of the curriculum, from seventh to first grade, with a complete reading list in classical authors for each grade, and the by-laws and regulations for appointing the faculty. One of the two imprints by Robert Estienne to bear the place of publication as Geneva."

*Clark, Gordon H. (1902-1985), A Christian View of Men and Things, ISBN: 1891777009 9781891777004.
"It is important to learn many subjects in detail, but it is equally important to understand the whole picture. How does Christianity relate to history, politics, ethics, science, human religions, and the study of knowledge? This book carefully and clearly answers those questions. It may be studies with profit by teachers and parents . . . Clark's command of both worldly philosophy and Scripture is evident on every page, and the result is a breathtaking and invigorating challenge to the wisdom of this world." -- The Trinity Foundation
Contents: Foreword, Introduction; The Philosophy of History; The Philosophy of Politics; Ethics; Science; Religion; Epistemology; Index; Scripture Index.
"It was a Christian view of men and things that created and sustained Western civilization. It is a Christian view of things and men that gives us truth about history, science, religion, ethics, politics, and philosophy. . . . Gordon Clark demonstrates that it is Christianity, and Christianity alone, that offers hope both for this world and the world to come." -- Publisher
In Chapter V, "Science," Clark makes, among many others, the following points: "Theism gives coherence to history, politics, and ethics, whereas naturalism does not. . . . Christian theism furnishes a basis for significance in history, orderly freedom in government, and a life that is still called respectable west of the iron curtain. . . . Scientific laws are not discovered but are chosen. . . . Not only are scientific laws non-empirical, they must indeed be false. . . . The fallacy of asserting the consequent is invalid whenever used. But it is precisely this fallacy that is used in every case of scientific verification. . . . There is a prior and much more important question: What is the purpose of science? . . . If there are any scientific facts, they are unattainable values with zero variable error. . . . No scientific or observational proof can be given for the uniformity of nature. . . . Science is incapable of arriving at any truth whatever. . . . Ethics and history do not depend on science, but science depends on them. . . ."

Clark, Gordon H. (1902-1985), The Johannine Logos (Unicoi, TN: The Trinity Foundation), ISBN: 0940931222 9780940931220.
"Clark analyzes the relationship between Christ, who is the truth, and the Bible. He explains why John used the same word to refer to both Christ and his teaching. Chapters deal with the Prologue to John's Gospel, Logos and Rheemata, Truth, and Saving Faith.
"Yet how is Christ, who is the truth, related to the truths of the Bible? That is the question Gordon Clark answers in this book. His answer explains why contemporary religion has little to do with Christianity, for religion has moved far away from what the Bible, especially the Gospel of John, says about truth." -- The Trinity Foundation

*Clark, Gordon H. (1902-1985), The Philosophy of Science and Belief in God, ISBN: 0940931850 9780940931855.
"Through most of its history, modern science has been at war with Christianity. This little book ends the battles, for it demonstrates that science cannot argue against the truth of Scripture, for the methods of science can never prove anything true. Written by the chairman of the philosophy department at Butler University, this book may be studied with profit by teachers, parents, and students." -- Publisher
"THIS IS THE BOOK to confound anyone who is putting faith and trust in science." -- Jay P. Green Sr.
Includes bibliography and indexes.
"In this book the late philosopher Gordon H. Clark takes a critical look at the fundamental workings of the scientific method and demonstrates that science is incapable of discovering truth. Science is a collection of useful falsehoods, which we may use to manipulate and control nature. It is useful for giving us technology and for providing working theories of the natural world, but these theories are forever that -- theories. They can be proven false, and often are proven false, but no scientific theory can ever be proven true. Therefore the modern fascination with science (which borders almost on idolization), is misguided. Since science cannot discover truth, science has nothing to say about the existence of God, or the truths of Christianity and the Bible. These things are outside the domain of science. This means that there is no fundamental conflict between religion and science, once science is properly understood. Truth does not come from science, but is, rather, a gift revealed to us by God in the pages of the Bible. This book is well worth one's careful study." -- Reader's Comment

Clark, Gordon Haddon (1902-1985), The Works of Gordon Haddon Clark, Volume 5: Modern Philosophy, 417 pages (Unicoi, TN: The Trinity Foundation, 2008), ISBN: 9781891777202 1891777203.
"MODERN PHILOSOPHY is Volume 5 of The Works of Gordon Haddon Clark. MODERN PHILOSOPHY combines five of Dr. Clark's books confuting modern philosophy and philosophers: THE PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE AND BELIEF IN GOD, BEHAVIORISM AND CHRISTIANITY, LANGUAGE AND THEOLOGY, WILLIAM JAMES, and JOHN DEWEY. These books compose a brilliant refutation of the major figures and movements of twentieth-century philosophy: Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, William James, John Dewey, Gilbert Ryle, John Watson, Edgar Singer, B.F. Skinner, A.J. Ayer, Herbert Feigl, and Rudolf Carnap. Clark subjects the notions that science discovers truth, that language is inadequate, that mind is a myth, and that Christianity is fiction to withering logical examination and demonstrates them all to be false. Science discovers no truth, language is completely adequate to express meaning and truth, intellect is indispensable, and Christianity is truth revealed by God." -- The Trinity Foundation
Contents: The Philosophy of Science and Belief in God, Behaviorism and Christianity, Language and Theology, William James, and John Dewey.

*Crampton, W. Gary, The Scripturalism of Gordon H. Clark (Unicoi, TN: The Trinity Foundation, 1999), ISBN: 0940931532 9780940931534.
"Gordon Clark was one of the clearest thinking and clearest writing theologians and philosophers of the twentieth century, yet one of the least influential. By engaging the philosophical thought of the past 2,500 years, Dr. Clark achieved what no thinker before him had done: a complete revolution in philosophy. Dr. Gary Crampton is one of the few scholars who understands the significance of what Dr. Clark has done, and he explains it clearly and concisely in this introduction to Dr. Clark's thought." -- Publisher
Contents: Introduction
Part 1: Knowledge; Epistemology; Three Methods of Epistemology; Christian Epistemology; General and Special Revelation; Epistemology and Soteriology; Revelation and Apologetics; Knowledge and Opinion; Epistemological Limitations and the Language of Scripture
Part 2: Scripture; Progressive Revelation; Canonization of Scripture; the Inspiration of Scripture; The Nature and Extent of Inspiration; The Attributes of Scripture; The Witness of the Bible and Church History; Original Manuscripts, Copies, and Translations; The Authority and Sufficiency of Scripture; The Law and the Gospel; Law and Love; Biblical Hermeneutics and Application; Theology and Philosophy; Scripture and Biblical Institutions; Conclusion; Index; Scripture Index

*Crampton, W. Gary, By Scripture Alone: The Sufficiency of Scripture (Unicoi, TN: The Trinity Foundation, 2002), ISBN: 0940931591 9780940931596.
"Over the centuries, the enemies of Christianity, with Satanic shrewdness, have focused their attacks on the Bible, the Word of God, knowing that the surest way to discredit Christianity is to discredit its source. Those enemies -- rationalist and mystic, empiricist and scientific, religious and irreligious -- have denied the clarity, the truthfulness, the sufficiency, the accuracy, and the divine origin of the 66 books of the Bible. They have done so in order to support their own claims that another document (such as the KORAN or the BOOK OF MORMON), or an organization (such as the Roman Church-State or the Greek Orthodox Church), or an experience (such as visions and intuitions), or a method (such as scientific experimentalism), or a man (such as the pope), are the genuine source of knowledge.
"BY SCRIPTURE ALONE is an articulate and reasoned defense of the principal doctrine of Christianity, The Bible alone is the Word of God, against one of Christianity's most persistent and determined foes: Roman Catholicism." -- Publisher
"Metaphorically speaking, then, as Gordon Clark taught, the first chapter of the Confession [The Westminster Confession of Faith in its original form, 1646], stands as a 'continental divide.' The Word of God, which has been the touchstone of pure doctrine throughout the centuries, forms a great divide between Christianity and all other types of thought. In 'Of the Holy Scripture' the Westminster divines discuss (among other things), the necessity of Scripture, the identity of Scripture, the inspiriation of Scripture, the authority of Scripture, the self-authentication of Scripture, the sufficiency of Scripture, the clarity of Scripture, the transmission and preservation of Scripture, the interpretation of Scripture, and the finality of Scripture, all of which are essential for a proper understanding of the Word of God. And it is because of these essential marks or attributes of the Bible that the Reformers held to the principle of sola Scriptura: Scripture alone has a systematic monopoly on truth; it is the sole criterion of truth. This is why the Preface of the 1611 King James Version described the Bible as 'A Pandect [complete body], of Profitable Laws, against Rebellious Spirits.'
"To ignore, reject, or attack any one of these attributres is to ignore, reject, or attack the Word of God and the God of the Word. We are forbidden to add to or to take away from the written Word of God (Deuteronomy 4:2; Proverbs 30:6; Revelation 22:18-19). Yet, it is precisely at this point that opponents of Christianity -- modernists, Pentecostal-Charismatics, Greek Orthodox, and Roman Catholics -- have made their most determined attacks on Christianity, that is, at the foundation. The most vehement opponent and enemy of God and the true church through the centuries has been the one the Confession (25:6), calls the Antichrist himself: 'the pope of Rome,' the Roman Church-State. 'The Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent' go so far as to anathematize anyone who adheres to the Reformed doctrine of sola Scriptura. This is why William Whitaker wrote: 'If ever any heresies have impiously outraged the Holy Scripture of God, we may justly rank the papists [Roman Catholics] . . . with this class of men, who pervert things most sacred'."

Cunningham, William (1805-1861), John Calvin. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #17.
"As Cunningham states, 'John Calvin was by far the greatest of the Reformers with respect to the talents he possessed, the influence he exerted, and the services he rendered in the establishment and diffusion of important truth.' Here we have a succinct account of Calvin's works and the leading principles that he maintained. Calvin is without a doubt one of the great men in all of human history, and as he often pointed out, he owed everything to the Lord Jesus Christ -- all his talents, all his influence, his very salvation, etc. -- for that is the nature of 'Calvinism,' giving God all the glory!" -- Publisher

Dabney, Robert L. (1820-1898), A Discourse on the use and Results of Church History.
"Delivered by Robert L. Dabney, May 8, 1854, at his induction into the professorship of Ecclesiastical History and Polity in Union Theological Seminary, Virginia." -- Publisher

Diekema, Anthony J., Academic Freedom and Christian Scholarship, 214 pages, ISBN: 0802847560.
"This book reflects on the scholarly literature on academic freedom and the personal experience of an educator with 20 years experience as a college president. The book offers a balanced approach which develops a working definition of academic freedom, assesses the threats it faces, acknowledges the significance of academic freedom, and explores educational policy implications for Christian colleges. The chapters are: (1) Introduction; (2) The Search for Definition; (3) Threats to Academic Freedom; (4) Academic Freedom in the Context of Worldview; (5) Policy Development in the Christian College: Modest Proposals; and (6) Reflections: Toward an Ethos of Freedom. An appendix contains the expanded mission statement for Calvin College. (Contains 254 references.)"

Holmgren, Fredrick Carlson, The Old Testament and the Significance of Jesus: Embracing Change -- Maintaining Christian Identity: The Emerging Center in Biblical Scholarship, 204 pages, ISBN: 0802844537 9780802844538.

*James, Kevin, Corruption of the Word (Williamsburg, NM [Micro-Load Press, Box 92 St. Rt., Williamsburg 87942]: MicroLoad Press), ISBN: 0962442003 9780962442001.
"This book developed from the discovery of the author that there were some very important differences in various versions of the Bible. When he asked fellow Christians and pastors why there were certain passages missing from the new versions, he was met with a shrug, or a lack of interest . . . James has done a wonderful job of isolating the differences between the advocates of the handful of maverick MSS B and Aleph, and those supporting the majority of the MSS. He gives many instances of heretical changes of the first three centuries which are repeated in the modern versions. And he names the MSS (usually 4 or 5), which contain those heresies. He shows that often these changes, especially omissions, were made to support their theory that Jesus was a created creature, or at best a secondary god.
"The author has done a tremendous amount of work. He gives many comparisons. He does a good job of bringing out the many points seen in Burgon's works. . . ." -- Jay P. Green, Sr.

Johnson, Gary L.W. and R. Fowler White, Whatever Happened to the Reformation? ISBN: 0875521835 9780875521831.

*Machen, Gresham J., Education, Christianity and the State, ISBN: 0940931192 9780940931190.
"Machen was one of the foremost educators, theologians, and defenders of Christianity in the twentieth century. The author of numerous scholarly books, Machen saw clearly that if Christianity is to survive and flourish, a system of Christian grade schools must be established. This collection of essays captures his thought on education over nearly three decades.
"What role does the government have to play in education? What is the relationship between faith and knowledge? Is scholarship important, or is education the same as training? This book has been adopted as required reading by a large college in Florida. It may be studied with profit by teachers, parents, and students. Contents include: Faith and Knowledge, The Importance of Christian Scholarship, Christianity and Culture, Reforming the Government Schools, The Necessity of The Christian School, Shall We Have a Federal Department of Education? Proposed Department of Education, The Christian School: The Hope of America, Westminster Theological Seminary: Its Purpose and Plan." -- The Trinity Foundation

Machen, J. Gresham, The Importance of Christian Scholarship, 43 pages.

MacLeod, A. Donald, W. Stanford Reid: An Evangelical Calvinist in the Academy (Mcgill-Queen's Studies in the History of Religion. McGill-Queen's University Press, November 2004), 401 pages, ISBN: 0773527702 9780773527706.
"W. Stanford Reid's career affected both university and religious life in Canada during the post-war period. Donald MacLeod traces Reid's career in the university, first at McGill, where Reid was a history professor for twenty-four years as well as dean of residences, and then at the University of Guelph, where he set up a history department, organized a large graduate program, and created a Scottish Studies emphasis.
"MacLeod's in-depth analysis examines how an observant Christian academic, unapologetically Calvinist, openly articulated his faith in a secular environment and helped convince evangelicals to abandon their ghettoizing anti-intellectualism. His discussion of Reid's international networking serves as a reminder of the way in which Canadian evangelicalism was influenced by and in turn influenced the United States, where Reid's influence was appreciable, both as a trustee of Westminster Seminary for thirty-seven years and as editor at large of the nascent Christianity Today. W. STANFORD REID is a poignant, in-depth investigation of the life of a man whose career spanned academia and church." -- Publisher

Miethe, Terry L., Augustinian Bibliography, 1970-1980: With Essays on the Fundamentals of Augustinian Scholarship, 218 pages, ISBN: 0313226296 9780313226298.

North, Gary, Foundations of Christian Scholarship: Essays in the Van Til Perspective, ISBN: 1879998254, 372 pages.
Of particular interest in this collection of papers are the following:
"PART ONE -- EPISTEMOLOGICAL CRITICISM
Chapter 1 -- The Epistemological Crisis of American Universities -- by Gary North
Chapter 2 -- The Quest for Common Ground -- by Rousas Rushdoony
PART TWO -- ACADEMIC DISCIPLINES
Chapter 3 -- Psychology -- by Rousas Rushdoony
Chapter 4 -- History -- by C. Gregg Singer [Dr. Singer addresses "The Problem of Historical Interpretation" -- compiler]
Chapter 5 -- Economics -- by Gary North
Chapter 6 -- Education -- by William Blake
Chapter 7 -- Political Science -- by Lawrence Pratt
Chapter 8 -- Sociology -- by Gary North
Chapter 9 -- Mathematics -- by Vern Poythress

*Owen, John (1616-1683), Hebrews, 7 volume set, volumes 17-23 of Owen's WORKS (Carlisle, PA: The Banner of Truth Trust, 1999). Alternate titles: EXPOSITION OF HEBREWS and AN EXPOSITION OF THE EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS.
v. 17 -- v. 23: Exposition of Hebrews.
v. 17. OCLC Number: 835727624, ISBN: 0851516122 9780851516127
v. 18. OCLC Number: 835727694, ISBN: 0851516130 9780851516134
v. 19. OCLC Number: 835727712, ISBN: 0851516149 9780851516141
v. 20. OCLC Number: 835727722, ISBN: 0851516157 9780851516158
v. 21. OCLC Number: 835727736, ISBN: 0851516165 9780851516165
v. 22. OCLC Number: 835727755, ISBN: 0851516173 9780851516172
v. 23. OCLC Number: 835727774, ISBN: 0851516181 9780851516189
This same Banner of Truth edition is available from (Grand Rapids, MI: Reformation Heritage Books, Inc.).
"To master his works is to be a profound theologian." -- C.H. Spurgeon
"THE work on Hebrews is John Owen's massive 4000-page commentary." -- Jay P. Green, Sr.
See also: Owen, John (1616-1683), J.I. Packer (introduction, series editor), Alister McGrath (series editor), HEBREWS, an abridgement of the 7 volume work, 272 pages, ISBN: 1581340265 9781581340266 1856841847 9781856841849.
"The author of Hebrews wanted his audience to know and understand one truth: Christ is superior, and therefore, so is Christianity. He demonstrates this by comparing the imperfect old covenant with the perfect new covenant. The person of Christ is better than prophets and angels, His priesthood is greater than that of Melchizedek and the line of Aaron, and His power within the believer's life is incomparable. Between these contrasts he exhorts the readers to persevere in their faith, be obedient, grow in their understanding, and not miss the grace of God. The lessons and admonitions of Hebrews have intensely practical application for all readers -- then and now.
"Know as the 'theologian's theologian' John Owen (1616-1683), was vice chancellor of Oxford University and served as advisor and chaplain to Oliver Cromwell. Among the most learned and active Puritans in seventeenth-century Europe, he was a erudite and accomplished theologian both in doctrine and practical theology." -- Publisher
Owen, John (1616-1683), An Exposition of the Epistle to the Hebrews; With the Preliminary Exercitations. By John Owen, D.D. Revised and abridged; . . . By Edward Williams, 4 vols.
Owen, John (1616-1683), Hebrews, vol. 1 of 3
http://archive.org/details/expositionofepis184001owen
Owen, Hebrews, vol. 2 of 3
http://archive.org/details/expositionofepis184002owen
Owen, Hebrews, vol. 3 of 3
http://archive.org/details/expositionofepis184003owen

Petersen, Rodney Lawrence, and Nancy M. Rourke, Theological Literacy for the Twenty-first Century, 2nd edition, ISBN: 0802849644 9780802849649.

Rainey, Robert, Life of William Cunningham, 1871. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
"Cunningham was Principal and Professor of Theology and Church History at New College, Edinburgh, during the mid-1800's. His four volume WORKS include the magisterial two volume set HISTORICAL THEOLOGY, DISCUSSIONS ON CHURCH PRINCIPLES and THE REFORMERS AND THE THEOLOGY OF THE REFORMATION. A volume of his SERMONS is also in print. In Iain Murray's introduction to HISTORICAL THEOLOGY he points out that 'in the days of Cunningham and Bannerman, New College, Edinburgh, rose to be the finest theological college in Europe.' Furthermore, concerning Cunningham's work in the General Assembly of 1832, he writes, 'and once more a young man arose to deliver a historic speech. Like Begg he was a new-comer to the Assembly's debates, but his tall figure and mass of curly hair quickly identified him as "Cunningham of Greenock." ' "
"When he sat down two hours later there was no mistaking the feeling of the Moderates. 'That's Andrew come back,' exclaimed one! Others were forced to think of young George Gillespie of the 17th century, who, having just arrived in London, in riding boots and with whip still in hand, delivered such a speech in the Westminster Assembly that his opponent, the great Selden, declared: 'This young man, by a single speech, has swept away the learning and labour of my life! . . . Those who heard Cunningham's speech that day,' write his biographers, 'speak of it with wonder to this day. Such power, wealth, and precision of language they had never heard. . . . In his first six years at Edinburgh he read and carefully classified 530 distinct volumes, not to mention pamphlets or magazines.' Cunningham's works are still much sought after today." -- Publisher

Reid, W. Stanford, Christianity and Scholarship, 110 pages.

Reid, W. Stanford (editor), John Calvin: His Influence in the Western World, ISBN: 0310447216 9780310447214.
"This book, which is dedicated to Paul Woolley, covers over 400 pages. There are 16 different chapters. The contributor's include: Robert Knudsen, W. Stanford Reid, Richard Gamble, D. Clair Davis, Philip Hughes, R.T. Kendall, J.N.D. Douglas, George Marsden, C. Gregg Singer, John Bratt, and others." -- GCB

Research Scientists' Christian Fellowship, The Scientific Enterprise and Christian Faith: Main Themes From a Conference of the Research Scientists' Christian Fellowship, ISBN: 0851117228 9780851117225.

Robbins, John W., America's Augustine: Gordon Haddon Clark, an article.
http://www.trinityfoundation.org/PDF/041a-AmericasAugustine-GordonHaddonClark.pdf

*Robbins, John W. (1949-2008), What is Christian Philosophy? a tract.
"Those who put their trust in science as the key to understanding the universe are embarrassed by the fact that science never discovers truth. If the Bible is the source of all truth, science cannot discover truth.
"One of the insoluble problems of the scientific method is the fallacy of induction; induction, in fact, is a problem for all forms of empiricism (learning by experience). The problem is simply this: Induction, arguing from the particular to the general, is always a logical fallacy. No matter how many crows, for example, you observe to be black, the conclusion that all crows are black is never warranted. The reason is quite simple: Even assuming you have good eyesight, are not colorblind, and are actually looking at crows, you have not, and cannot, see all crows. Millions have already died. Millions more are on the opposite side of the planet. Millions more will hatch after you die. Induction is always a fallacy.
"There is another fatal fallacy in science as well: the fallacy of asserting the consequent. The atheist philosopher Bertrand Russell put the matter this way:

All inductive arguments in the last resort reduce themselves to the following form: If this is true, that is true: now that is true, therefore this is true. This argument is, of course, formally fallacious. Suppose I were to say: "If bread is a stone and stones are nourishing, then this bread will nourish me; now this bread does nourish me; therefore it is a stone and stones are nourishing. If I were to advance such an argument, I should certainly be thought foolish, yet it would not be fundamentally different from the argument upon which all scientific laws are based.
"Recognizing that induction is always fallacious, philosophers of science in the twentieth century, in an effort to defend science, developed the notion that science does not rely on induction at all. Instead, it consists of conjectures, experiments to test those conjectures, and refutations of conjectures. But in their attempts to save science from logical disgrace, the philosophers of science had to abandon any claim to knowledge: Science is only conjectures and refutations of conjectures. Karl Popper, one of the twentieth century's greatest philosophers of science, wrote:
First, although in science we do our best to find the truth, we are conscious of the fact that we can never be sure whether we have got it . . . . We know that our scientific theories always remain hypotheses . . . . In science there is no "knowledgeíí in the sense in which Plato and Aristotle understood the word, in the sense which implies finality; in science, we never have sufficient reason for the belief that we have attained the truth . . . . Einstein declared that his theory was false: he said that it would be a better approximation to the truth than Newtonís, but he gave reasons why he would not, even if all predictions came out right, regard it as a true theory . . . . Our attempts to see and to find the truth are not final, but open to improvement: . . . our knowledge, our doctrine is conjectural; . . . it consist of guesses, of hypotheses rather than of final and certain truths.
"Observation and science cannot furnish us with truth about the universe, let alone truth about God. The secular worldview, which begins by denying God and divine revelation, cannot furnish us with knowledge at all." -- John W. Robbins
http://www.trinityfoundation.org/journal.php?id=218

Robertson, James Patrick Bannerman, Right Hon. Lord President of the Court of Session, The Duty of Educated Intellect to the State. An address, 1895.

*Rushdoony, Rousas John (1916-2001), The Foundations of Social Order: Studies in the Creed and Councils of the Early Church, ISBN: 1879998122 9781879998124. Available through Exodus Books.
"Tampering with our basic social order is tampering with the religious beliefs that underlie it." -- GCB
"One of the seminal works of Christian scholarship, by one of the few men who actually believed that the Bible is authoritative. A study in the early Church's battles with various forms of heresy, that were then put down in creeds. But Rushdoony does something more: he puts these creeds in philosophical context, showing that these creeds actually do much more than simply make a statement about the faith.
"Should be read in conjunction with his THE ONE AND THE MANY." -- Reader's Comment

Schrotenboer, Paul G., Integral Christian Scholarship.

*Singer, C. Gregg (1910-1999), The Apologetics lecture series using FROM RATIONALISM TO IRRATIONALITY: THE DECLINE OF THE WESTERN MIND FROM THE RENAISSANCE TO THE PRESENT (1979) as the text, and delivered in Decatur, Georgia, beginning November, 1979, 17 MP3 files.
"So many times people in the pew and the pulpit say, well how did all this get started? How did psychology descend to its present level? . . . How did political science produce our political thought, produce the dictatorships which are engulfing the modern world? Why are we in the economic mess in which we are today? Why is sociology such a jumble of immorality? Why is education as it is today? Why is art so meaningless? . . . Why is modern music an affront to the modern ears as well as to the mind and ear of God? . . . Why are all these things!? . . .
"I would suggest to you that if you will follow this course with thought and care, you will finally come to see the answer to the questions which haunt us today in Western society." -- C. Gregg Singer, from this cited lecture series.
http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=2250511453

*Singer, C. Gregg (1910-1999), Christian Approaches: To Philosophy; To History, ISBN: 0934532249.

*Singer, C. Gregg (1910-1999), From Rationalism to Irrationality: The Decline of the Western Mind From the Renaissance to the Present, ISBN: 0875524281 9780875524283 and a reprint of the P&R Publishing edition of 1979 (Wipf and Stock, 2006), 479 pp.
"Now, frankly students, this course is presented from obviously the Reformed Theology. I hold unabashedly, unashamedly to the whole of Reformed Theology as we find it specifically in the Westminster Confession of Faith (1646) and the Longer and Shorter Catechisms.
"At the same time I hold to a position in regard to Apologetics generally known as Presuppositionalism, and particularly that view held by Cornelius Van Til.
"This book is an attempt to enlarge and to broaden the scope of Van Til's own Apologetical system, and also his Epistemology. By that I mean, and I worked this book with him, so anything that I say is not to be construed as a criticism of Cornelius Van Til. I might add he wrote me a letter. He is delighted with this book. But what I did was to take his principles, both of Apologetics and of Epistemology, and apply them to all realms of modern thought.
"Dr. Van Til, for good and sufficient reason, sought to limit to the main stream of what we might call pure Philosophy, that is from Saint Thomas, well even before then, back to the Greeks, but particularly in the more modern period, from Saint Thomas Aquinas, William of Ockham (Occam), down through Descartes, the Rationalists, the Empiricists, down to Kant and Hegel, and of course Modern Philosophy and Modern Theology. Very seldom has he gone into what we might call the arena of Political Philosophy, or the arena of Social Thought, or the arena of Psychology and Psychiatry, the realm of Educational Philosophy, and into Art, Music, and so on, to the Fine Arts.
"This book is an attempt to apply his system, and show what happens when the Western mind has forsaken his principles, or the principles which he has espoused, and turned into its own way. And thus the book is called FROM RATIONALISM TO IRRATIONALITY. [Notice Singer seems to have gracefully embraced the best of Van Til in this work that, on a grand scale, disproves Van Til's inconsistent statements relating to epistimology. See the Robbins article below. -- compiler]. The thesis being that the irrationalism inherent in Saint Thomas and the post-Thomists, and more particularly, and more openly, in the Philosophy of the Renaissance, and Descartes, and Spinosa, and Leibniz has, as it's gained momentum in the modern world, brought Western Culture to its knees. We are living, as I would think, in the death throws of the Western Cultures, the Western Civilization." -- Dr. C. Gregg Singer, in the introductory address to his course in Apologetics soon after FROM RATIONALISM TO IRRATIONALITY came off the press in 1979
Apologetics: #01: Classical and Medieval Thought #1
Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Apologetics, 56 min.
http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=2250511453
"Locke endeavored to set forth a political philosophy which would anchor his democratic political thought on what he felt were the firm foundations of his empiricism. However, his insistence that nature has bestowed upon mankind certain basic and inalienable rights was an assumption quite contrary to his empiricism. His denial of conscience as an innate possession or quality makes it impossible for men to know that they possess the rights of life, liberty, and property. The very concept of a human right is moral in nature and has its basis of authority in the human conscience. It is thus impossible for men to know through the senses that they have these cherished human rights. Granted that it was far from Locke's intention to undermine or destroy the traditional English concept of personal rights, his empiricism removed from his political thought the necessary foundations on which a government could be built for the protection of these rights. His empiricism supported neither the idea that men have such rights nor that they are inalienable. (p. 61)
"Underlying the secular and naturalistic assumptions of the thought of the Enlightenment was a related and equally serious problem. In their political and economic thought the leaders of this era were passionately devoted to the pursuit of freedom, and yet they seemed to be completely unaware of this incompatibility between their quest for freedom on the one hand and their reliance upon natural law on the other. How can an impersonal and deterministic concept of law produce and sustain a meaningful concept of freedom? Blindly convinced that there was no problem involved in the contradiction, the leaders of the Enlightenment pushed boldly ahead in the quest for political and economic liberty. However, their failure to recognize the issues involved in this quest led not only to the disaster of the French Revolution but to the growth of the totalitarian political and economic philosophies which first appeared in Hegel and Marx during the nineteenth century and reached their culmination in the totalitarianism of the twentieth century." (p. 73) -- quoted at the blog, Imago Veritatis: Post-modern Reformed Paleo-orthodoxy
Singer used this as the textbook for his course in Apologetics. Epistemology is a recurring theme throughout the textbook and the course. The series of 24 addresses on Apologetics is available free online. See "Apolgetics" under:
Works of C. Gregg Singer
http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr3ch.html#cgsinger
Cornelius Van Til, John W. Robbins
http://www.trinityfoundation.org/journal.php?id=33

*Singer, C. Gregg (1910-1999), John Calvin: His Roots and Fruits, 78 pages.
"What then is the role of the state in economic matters? Is it to stand idly by and take no steps or initiate no policies to defend the poor? The state, in the economic realm, is under a mandate to enforce the moral law and to punish those who break it for the sake of econmic gain. It may prevent monopolitstic and other business practices which are contrary to the Biblical ethic, as well as stealing and other forms of dishonesty and may pass laws for this purpose. It is certain that Calvin would support more statutes of this kind than some advocates of free enterprise would tolerate today. In general, however, Calvin agreed that the state had no right to undertake schemes of redistributing wealth in order to achieve economic equality. The legislative taking of wealth under the guise of legailty is no less stealing than if it is done by robbers and thieves. Such schemes, rather than being an application of Christian principles, are actually a form of human rebellion against the will of God for the right ordering of society." -- C. Gregg Singer in "Calvinism and Economic Thought and Practice.
Notes: "Appeared in volume II of THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF CHRISTIANITY . . . and was later printed by Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company . . . 1967, for their Philosophical and historical studies series."
Contents: The author; Preface; I The patristic foundations of calvinism; II Calvinism: the summit of reformation theology; III The later history of calvinism; IV Influence of calvinism on western history and culture; V Calvinism and economic thought and practice; VI Calvinism and Philosophy; VII Calvinism and education; VIII Calvinism and social thought and practice; Bibliography.

*Singer, C. Gregg (1910-1999), A Theological Interpretation of American History, 1994 edition, 354 pages, ISBN: 0875524265 9780875524269. A Christian classic.
This book portrays "the influence of theology and the changing doctrines in the life of the church on the pattern of American political, constitutional, social and economic development.
"The author shows that the decline of constitutional government in this country is the result of the departure from historical Christian faith and the resulting rise of alien political philosophies. Particularly does he emphasize the intimate relationship between theological liberalism on the one hand and political, social, and economic liberalism on the other. This theological liberalism has been a major agent in the decline of the Constitution in the political life of the people and in the appearance of a highly centralized government." -- Publisher
"There is between the democratic philosophy and theological liberalism a basic affinity which has placed them in the same camp in many major political struggles.
"This condition exists because theological liberalism shares the basic postulates of the democratic philosophy. . . .
"Theological liberalism at heart has been a continuing protest against Calvinism, particularly against its insistence on the Sovereignty of God and the Total Depravity of the race. These two Biblical doctrines have often proved to be a stumbling block to theologians within the church as well as to the unbelieving world.
"The result of theological liberalism has been the movement away from constitutionalism and away from liberty, and a movement toward collectivistic society and totalitarian regime." -- C. Gregg Singer, A Theological Interpretation of American History, p. 290
See also: John Knox, the Scottish Covenanters, and the Westminster Assembly (tape 3 of 5), in a series of addresses History Notes on Presbyterianism, Reformation, and Theology by Dr. C. Gregg Singer on SermonAudion.com
http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12607114250
See also:
Dr. C. Gregg Singer at SermonAudio.com (161 messages)
http://www.sermonaudio.com/search.asp?SpeakerOnly=true&currSection=sermonsspeaker&Keyword=Dr.^C.^Gregg^Singer

Singer, C. Gregg (1910-1999), Toynbee (International library of philosophy and theology, Modern thinkers series. Philadelphia, PA: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co., June 1965), ISBN: 0875525903 9780875525907, 76 pages.

Singer, C. Gregg (1910-1999, Charles G. Singer), The Unholy Alliance: The Definitive History of the National Council of Churches and its Leftist Policies -- From 1908 to the Present, 384 pages, ISBN: 0870003275 9780870003271.
"This book is not calculated to win friends among adherents to the National Council of Churches. It provides convincing evidence of the tremendous gap that has developed between the NCC and its critics and demonstrates the NCC's inability to achieve its objectives." -- Cyril J. Barber
Unholy Alliance: The Definitive History of the National Council of Churches and Its Leftist Policies -- From 1908 to the Present
Freebooks online e-text.
http://freebooks.entrewave.com/freebooks/docs/39be_47e.htm

Smith, Gregory A., The Role of the Library in the Character Formation of the Christian College Student.

*Steele, David (1803-1887), The Two Witnesses: Their Cause, Number, Character, Furniture and Special Work, 1859. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #14.
"This is a great companion volume to Steele's NOTES ON THE APOCALYPSE. Here Steele zeros in on and works primarily from the text of Revelation 11:13, I will give power unto my two witnesses, and they shall prophecy. Steele deals with Testimony-bearing, Antichrist, Popery, The beasts of revelation, The mark of the beast, 666, The image of the beast, Civil and ecclesiastical apostasy, Reformation, Covenanting, Heresy, Schism, Terms of communion, Slavery, Sectarianism, Mormonism, Independency, Freemasonry, History, Worship, Idolatry, Britain, The united states, Canada, Mystical babylon, The last days, The ultimate victory of the church, and a host of other subjects!
"As is usually the case with Steele, he makes the doctrines of Scripture eminently practical. For example, note how the faithful witnesses are continually called to testify against open opposition to the Lord's Covenanted Zion and the attainments of biblical Reformation (in the faith which was once delivered unto the saints); and against whom this testimony is directed:

'These witnesses are called and commissioned to testify especially against Antichrist -- a false christ, and therefore an opposing christ. But Christ is to be considered either personally or mystically; either abstractly in his personal rights and prerogatives, or in the concrete, in the rights and immunities of his church. There is this prejudice, too prevalent, against Christians testifying against Christians! This we are often told, is contrary to the law of charity. We have not so learned Christ. They are not all Israel which are of Israel. Much of the business of these two prophets is to oppose prophets -- to prophesy against the shepherds, Ezekiel 34:2. Moses with his miracles must confront the magicians with their enchantments, Exodus 8:19. Elijah must confront the prophets of Baal, 1 Kings 18:25. Paul must counteract false apostles, 2 Corinthians 11:13. In short, the direct object of these witnesses' testimony is apostate christendom -- those who depart from the faith, 1 Timothy 4:1 -- who have gone out from fellowship and renounced the doctrines of the apostolic church, 1 John 2:19. Their special work is to testify against error and its propagators and abettors, together with ungodliness, the natural fruit of error, rather than against pagans.' -- The Two Witnesses, p. 14
'These two witnesses have always testified -- not formally against pagans or infidels as such; but -- against apostate Christians, as comprising an organized and complex system of opposition to the Lord and his Anointed. And just here, the witnesses have detected the secret of Antichrist's successful enterprise among the human family . . .' Many false prophets are gone out into the world. . . this is a deceiver and an Antichrist, (2 John 7). The combination is ostensibly on the side and in the interest of Christ, and the elements of which Antichrist is composed were obviously professing Christians, They went out from us, but they were not of us, for if they had been of us, they would no doubt have continued with us: but they went out, that they might be made manifest that they were not all of us. (1 John 2:19). Here is the apostasy, and so the witnesses are fully borne out in asserting that Antichrist is a great Christian apostasy! To trace the origin and development, in the organization and modifications of this enemy of all righteousness, is the special work of Christ's witnesses.' -- (The Two Witnesses, pp. 17-18)
"Moreover, having taken his own place 'in the wilderness' (i.e. having separated himself from, and having been ostracized by the 'civilization' of the obstinately defecting RPCNA and other unfaithful denominations of his day [2 Thessalonians 3:6,14-15; Revelation 12:6, Revelation 17:3]), it was given to Steele to see and expound those grand old principles of our covenanted forefathers (who sat at Westminster and in the best Reformed churches during both the first and second Reformations -- the Scottish Presbyterians being granted the greatest measure of light as a settled body from 1638-1649).
"Thus, if you are interested in Reformation eschatology, with some of the strongest possible application, individually and corporately (in keeping with the body of Reformed truth), it is unlikely that you will find a better introduction to these topics than this!
"As an additional bonus we have added Steele's 19-page debate with James McLeod Willson (a prominent RPCNA minister), to this book (along with a number of other pertinent documents). Since Steele references this theological clash in his preface to the TWO WITNESSES this makes a fitting appendix to add to this work.
"We hope that you obtain and study this fine work -- and that you will find it edifying, as well as a useful weapon in your battle with the beasts of Revelation." -- Publisher
The Two Witnesses: Their Cause, Number, Character, Furniture, and Special Work, 1859, by Steele, David (1803-1887)
http://www.covenanter.org/reformed/2015/8/17/david-steeles-pamphlet-on-the-two-witnesses-their-cause-number-character-furniture-and-special-work
Steele, David (1803-1887), The two Witnesses, Their Cause, Number, Character, Furniture and Special Work
http://www.truecovenanter.com/steele/steele_two_witnesses.html

Timm, Alberto Ronald, The Academy of Geneva and its Role in the Spread and Consolidation of the Calvinistic Movement.

*Varghese, Roy Abraham (editor), The Intellectuals Speak out About God: A Handbook for the Christian Student in a Secular Society, ISBN: 0895268272 9780895268273.
"This book reaffirms the need for character, personal integrity, spiritual depth, and moral standards that are essential if education is to remain viable . . . The essays that make up this book are stimulating, and it is a work that can be heartily recommended." -- Cyril J. Barber

Various, Christian Higher Education: The Contemporary Challenge: Proceedings of the First International Conference of Reformed Institutions for Christian Scholarship (Potchefstroom: Institute for the Advancement of Calvinism; Toronto; distributed in Canada and the U.S.A. by Wedge Pub. Foundation, 1976), ISBN: 0869903209 9780869903209.

Various, Mount Olive Tape Library of Reformed Theology. Alternate title: TAPE LIBRARY OF REFORMED THEOLOGY: SOLA GRATIA, SOLO CHRISTO, SOLA FIDE, SOLI DEO GLORIA, SOLA SCRIPTURA.
This collection is now in the custody of the Greenville Presbyterian Seminary. It appears that the Media Center at the Seminary have put practically none of the lectures in the collection on SermonAudio.com in MP3 format.
If a lecture from the Mount Olive Library is not found on SermonAudio, then the listener may make a request to the Greenville Presbyterian Seminary Media Center to have it put on SermonAudio.com.
"The following listing was developed by George Calhoun, the founder of Mt. Olive Tape Library, over the course of some thirty years. This catalog reflects the personal quest of Mr. Calhoun for a balanced education in Reformed Theology. The speakers herein have been scrutinized for their faithfulness to the Bible. These tapes will enable students to pursue the study of Reformed theology at a minimum of financial expense."
"FOR YOUR INFORMATION . . . [from the introduction to the Mount Olive Tape Catalog -- compiler]
"The tapes included in this catalog are recordings of sermons and lectures given by various pastors, theologians, Bible teachers, and conference speakers who confess adherence to the broad perspectives of historic Reformed theology. We have diligently tried to screen all the materials as to their basic commitment to the Biblical perspectives reflected in the Reformed creeds and confessions.
"Since, however, no human interpreter of God's Word is infallible, it is the prayer of those responsible for sending forth these tapes that all who listen to them will cultivate the spirit of the Bereans, who 'searched the Scriptures daily to see whether these things were so.'
"Also, it should be emphasized that the tapes included in this catalog have been evaluated in terms of their basic content as they were originally given, and the inclusion of them in this catalog should not be construed as an unreserved approval of the men who originally gave them. Christians grow in grace and knowledge with the passing of time, yet it must be recognized that some turn aside from the norms of Scripture. It is our hope, therefore, that no one will attach himself to any of the men whose tapes are included in this catalog on the basis of the tapes alone. We are all commanded to be discerning toward those who would instruct us in the faith.
"Finally, it would be a tragic abuse of the intent in providing these sermons and lectures should they in any way cultivate a party spirit so clearly condemned by the Apostle Paul in 1 Corinthians 3. Paul reminded the Corinthians that all things were theirs -- Paul, Cephas, and Apollos included. We, too, may recognize that the various servants of Christ whose voices are heard on these tapes are God's gifts to us and that we are to follow them only insofar as they follow Christ and the clear teachings of His holy and infallible Word! Since not all men have the same gifts, learn to drink from the gifts of many men -- not just one fountain."
The Catalog of the Mount Olive Tape Library in PDF Format
http://www.lettermen2.com/olivecat.pdf
Mt. Olive Audio Library, Greenville Presbyterian Theological Seminary [audio files]
http://gpts.edu/media/index.php?currpage=1&sa_action=

Wilder-Smith, A.E., and Beate Wilder Smith, Fulfilled Journey: The Wilder-Smith Memoirs, ISBN: 0936728752 9780936728759.

See also: The sovereignty of god, The doctrine of man (human nature, total depravity), The covenant faithfulness of god, The all-sufficiency of christ, Lordship of jesus christ, Christ's kingdom, Covenant theology and the ordinance of covenanting, The covenanted reformation, Background and history of the covenanted reformation of scotland, Covenanted reformation short title listing, Selection of covenant heads for positions of leadership, The decline of american society, irrationality, The one and the many, Corporate faithfulness and sanctification, Individual responsibility for corporate faithfulness and sanctification, Unfaithful reformed ministries, Covetousness, greed, selfishness, The inspiration and infallibility of scripture (the doctrine of revelation, the doctrine of plenary inspiration, the doctrine of divine inspiration, the doctrine of verbal inspiration, Epistemology, Absolute truth and relativism, Logic based on god's truth, The ten commandments, the moral law, Trusting god, Idolatry, Crosswalk bible study tools, Tools for biblical scholars, lingua workstation, Theft, Sexual relationship, Spiritual adultery (spiritual whoredom/harlotry), Idolatry, syncretism, Sexual wholeness, The history of Reformation of the Church, Works considered to be among the ten greatest in the english language, Christian classics, a short title listing, Collections of christian classics, The best books in this bibliography, Some complementary works, Works of saint augustine, Works of john calvin, Works of john knox, Works by david steele (1803-1887), Works of gordon haddon clark, Works of r.j. rushdoony, Works of c. gregg singer, The works of c.h. spurgeon, The complete works of various authors, Puritanism: works by and about puritans, Works by and about the pilgrims, Early english books online (eebo), Eighteenth century collection online (ecco), Google book search, Librarything, How to find a book, Reformed publishers and booksellers online, Special listings, Reference works, Cd-rom libraries, Online digital libraries, Selection of covenant heads for positions of leadership, Servant leadership, Excellence, Topical bible indexes, Bible reference works, Books considered to be among the ten greatest in the english language, Reformation bookshelf 30 CD Set, The still waters revival books hard drive, The covenanted reformation of scotland short title listing, Education, Public schools, Home schooling, Teaching children, and so forth, and so on.

Related WebLinks

Functional Illiteracy
"Functional illiteracy is a term used to describe reading and writing skills that are inadequate 'to manage daily living and employment tasks that require reading skills beyond a basic level.'[1] Functional illiteracy is contrasted with illiteracy in the strict sense, meaning the inability to read or write simple sentences in any language. . . .
"Links with poverty and crime
"In developed countries, the level of functional literacy of an individual is proportional to his/her income level and risk of committing crime. For example, according to the National Center for Educational Statistics in the United States:[3]:
Over 60 percent of adults in the US Prison System read at or below the fourth grade level
85 percent of US juvenile inmates are functionally illiterate
Adult inmates who received educational services while in prison had a 16 percent chance of returning to prison, as opposed to 70 percent for those who received no instruction. [not in citation given]
43 percent of adults at the lowest level of literacy lived below the poverty line, as opposed to 4 percent of those with the highest levels of literacy.
According to BeginToRead.com [4]:
Two thirds of students who cannot read proficiently by the fourth grade will end up in jail or on welfare.
Three out of four individuals who receive food stamps read on the two lowest levels of literacy.
16 to 19 year old girls at the poverty level and below, with below average skills, are 6 times more likely to have out-of-wedlock children than their reading counterparts. . . .
"The National Center for Education Statistics provides more detail. Literacy is broken down into three parameters: prose, document, and quantitative literacy. Each parameter has four levels: below basic, basic, intermediate, and proficient. For prose literacy, for example, a below basic level of literacy means that a person can look at a short piece of text to get a small piece of uncomplicated information, while a person who is below basic in quantitative literacy would be able to do simple addition. In the US, 14 percent of the adult population is at the 'below basic' level for prose literacy; 12 percent are at the 'below basic' level for document literacy; and 22 percent are at that level for quantitative literacy. Only 13 percent of the population is proficient in these three areas -- able to compare viewpoints in two editorials; interpret a table about blood pressure, age, and physical activity; or compute and compare the cost per ounce of food items."
In other words, in 2011, 87 percent of Americans were "below basic" levels of literacy in one or more of the following: prose literacy, document literacy, and/or quantitative literacy. See "Data Files for the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_literacy

Works of C. Gregg Singer
http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr3ch.html#cgsinger

Speaking on Calvinism
Dr. C. Gregg Singer, 53 min.
http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=8110391415

Works of Saint Augustine
http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr3ch.html#wosagst

Works of John Calvin
http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr3ch.html#wojclvn

Apologetics #08: The Enlightenment in Western Thought #1
Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Apologetics, 76 min.
http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=3105182137

#02: Decline (Political, Economic, Cultural), Part 1
Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Decline of American Culture
http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?ID=819021843

The Trinity Foundation
http://trinityfoundation.org/

The Trinity Foundation Lecture Series (MP3)
There are 13 series of lectures here in MP3 format. They can be listened to online, or downloaded for use on a CD player, computer. Load them on an iPod and listen anytime, anywhere.
http://www.trinitylectures.org/MP3_downloads.php

Calvin Center for Christian Scholarship
"Since 1976, the CCCS has been a place where committed Christian thinkers from across the academic disciplines could reflect and write about pressing issues of public concern. Over the years its support has enabled scholars to produce some sixty-two books, several of which have gone into second editions, as well as numerous articles, lectures, conferences, and public presentations. Visit the CCCS bibliography."
http://www.calvin.edu/admin/cccs/
Calvin Center for Christian Scholarship: International Christain Scholarship: Bibliography
http://www.calvin.edu/admin/cccs/scholarship/publications.html

List of Christian Thinkers in Science
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Christian_thinkers_in_science



The Autodidact (Self-taught)

Autodidact: A self-taught person.

The fear of the Lord is the beginning of all knowledge. (Proverbs 1:7)

He that hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me: and he that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself to him.
Jesus answered and said unto him, If a man love me, he will keep my words: and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him.
-- The Lord Jesus Christ (John 14:21,23)

We know ourselves because we first know god. -- Augustine

John Calvin begins his theological masterpiece, The Institutes of the Christian Religion, with these sentences: "Nearly all the wisdom we possess, that is to say, true and sound wisdom, consists of two parts: the knowledge of God and of ourselves. But, while joined by many bonds, which one precedes and brings forth the other is not easy to discern" (I:1:1). Without a knowledge of one's self, there is no knowledge of God. But to know one's self (and the whole world in general), there must first be a knowledge of God. God is known both better, and before, oneself or anything else (I:1:1-3). -- W. Gary Crampton

Epistemology: The study or a theory of the nature and grounds of knowledge especially with reference to its limits and validity.

What distinguishes the arid ages from the period of the Reformation, when nations were moved as they had not been since Paul preached in Ephesus, Corinth, and Rome, is the latter's fullness of knowledge of God's Word. To echo an early Reformation thought, when the ploughman and the garage attendant know the Bible as well as the theologian does, and know it better than some contemporary theologians, then the desired awakening shall have already occurred." -- Gordon Clark

Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ. For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily. And ye are complete in him, which is the head of all principality and power. (Colossians 2:8-10)

*Geneva Bible Notes, 1599
The GENEVA BIBLE contained "marginal notes which were heavily influenced by John Calvin, John Knox, and many other leaders of the Reformation. The GENEVA BIBLE was the predominant English translation during the period in which the English and Scottish Reformations gained great impetus. Iain Murray, in his classic work on revival and the interpretation of prophecy, THE PURITAN HOPE, notes that, 'the two groups in England and Scotland developed along parallel lines, like two streams originating at one fountain. The fountain was not so much Geneva, as the Bible which the exiles newly translated and issued with many marginal notes . . . it was read in every Presbyterian and Puritan home in both realms.' (p. 7). This time also saw the rise of the forces for covenanted Reformation against the corruption and abuses of prelacy and the royal factions. Darkness was dispelled as people read this Bible and saw for themselves that there is no authority above the Holy Scriptures.
"Although most people today have never heard of the GENEVA BIBLE, it was so popular from 1560 to 1644 that it went through 140 plus printings. The reason for its popularity among the faithful is obvious: the marginal notes promoted a full-orbed, nation-changing Protestantism. . . !
" 'By 1599, the GENEVA BIBLE . . . added many Calvinist annotations for household use.' (Bremer, The Puritan Experiment, p. 12). A number of the notes argued for family worship and instruction by the head of the household. Puritanism in the British Isles is known as an effort to continue the Reformation of the church in the area of worship and church government. However, the Puritans also sought to reform the family life according to Biblical principles . . . as a result of their efforts they 'were creators of the English Christian marriage, the English Christian family, and the English Christian home'." (J.I. Packer, A Quest for Godliness, p. 260) -- Publisher
See the following:
*Calvin, John (1509-1564), et al. [John Knox, Theodore Beza, Miles Coverdale, William Whittingham, Anthony Gilby, and Martin Luther, and others], GARY DeMar (foreword), Marshall Foster (preface),
1599 Geneva Bible, hardcover (Tolle Lege Press, 2006, 2007), 1400 pages, ISBN: 0975484699 9780975484692 0975484613 9780975484616 0975484621 9780975484623. A Christian classic. Considered to be among the ten greatest books in the English language. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
1599 Geneva Bible Notes
http://www.reformedreader.org/gbn/en.htm
*King James Bible With the Geneva Bible Notes, 1672. Notes: This is a facsimile of the 1672 edition. This appears to be a superior text to the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE. A Christian classic. Considered to be among the ten greatest books in the English language. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
Geneva Bible Notes, 1599
The GENEVA BIBLE NOTES are featured in the Online Bible CD-ROM. One keystroke brings the notes up in the second window.
Pierce, Larry, and the Woodside Bible Fellowship, The Online Bible CD-ROM (Winterbourne, Ontario, CANADA [Woodside Bible Fellowship], 11 Holmwood Street, Ontario N0B 2V0, 1997).
Online Bible Homepage
http://www.onlinebible.org/

*Calvin, John (1509-1564), et al. [John Knox, Theodore Beza, Miles Coverdale, William Whittingham, Anthony Gilby, and Martin Luther, and others], Peter A. Lillback (Foreword), Tolle Lege Press (Preface), Gary DeMar (Notes to the Modern Reader), Marshall Foster (The History and Impact of the Geneva Bible), 1599 Geneva Bible, (Tolle Lege Press, 2006, 2007), 1400 pages, ISBN: 0975484699 9780975484692 0975484613 9780975484616 0975484621 9780975484623. A Christian classic. Considered to be among the ten greatest books in the English language. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
"When the Pilgrims arrived in America in 1620, they brought along supplies, a consuming passion to advance the Kingdom of Christ, a bright hope for the future, and the Word of God. Clearly, their most precious cargo was the Bible. The GENEVA BIBLE, printed over 200 times between 1560 and 1644, was the most widely read and influential English Bible of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This superb translation was the product of the best Protestant scholars of the day and became the Bible of choice for many of the greatest writers, thinkers, and historical figures of that time. The GENEVA BIBLE is unique among all other Bibles. It was the first Bible to use chapters and numbered verses and became the most popular version of its time because of the extensive marginal notes. These notes, written by Reformation leaders such as John Calvin, John Knox, Miles Coverdale, William Whittingham, Anthony Gilby, and others, were included to explain and interpret the scriptures for the common people. For nearly half a century these notes helped the people of England, Scotland, and Ireland understand the Bible and true liberty. King James despised the GENEVA BIBLE because he considered the notes on key political texts to be seditious [to question the Divine Right of Kings -- compiler] and a threat to his authority. Unlike the KING JAMES VERSION, the GENEVA BIBLE was not authorized by the government. It was truly a Bible by the people and for the people. You can see why this remarkable version with its profound marginal notes played a key role in the formation of the American Republic. Until now, the only complete version available was a large, cumbersome, and difficult-to-read facsimile edition. But this new edition contains all the original words and notes [see the errata listing below -- compiler], but the type set has been enlarged and the font style change for today's reader." -- Publisher
"This is the Bible that eventually put an end to Feudalism in Europe, strengthened Puritans, Quakers, and came to America on the Mayflower. This was the first Bible published in the language of the common people, the first Bible to contain commentary and verse numbers, and the first Bible written in English from Greek and Hebrew texts available from Constantinople, not from the Latin Vulgate. The dynamite in this Bible is the commentary accounting for about one third of its length.
"The Church of England and King James were so upset they determined to create a new translation. They called it the KING JAMES VERSION. They choose to use language so formal and grand, even by the standards of those days, that the common people would find difficult to understand. The GENEVA BIBLE was found seditious by it's insertions of commentary that spoke directly about the priesthood of lay believers, the church as naturally anti-oligarchy, and setting forth some other ideas considered anarchy by the King, but meaning freedom to the masses who read it. . . .
"Important facts to remember about this Bible. The Reformation was strong in England and the Lollards were a lay group of huge influence that had to go underground. English Christian theologians, not Catholics and not Anglicans, fled in huge numbers to Geneva for freedom. Geneva was not part of Switzerland at that time, because Geneva was its own city-state. . . . The GENEVA BIBLE was printed 1560-1644. THE KING JAMES VERSION was published in 1611. The GENEVA BIBLE was against the law to own. . . ." -- Reader's Comment
Available "in printed formats with various binding options from Tolle Lege Press. Tolle Lege Press has given SWRB permission to provide a PDF copy of their retypeset and fully searchable edition of the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE (Copyright 2006-2008, Tolle Lege Press), on the SWRB Puritan Hard Drive.
"The GENEVA BIBLE is the Puritan Bible with Reformation promoting marginal notes authored by prominent leaders of the Reformation (during the time of John Calvin and John Knox). The New Testament was translated out of the Greek [Latin? -- compiler], by Theodore Beza. The GENEVA BIBLE was the predominant English translation during the period in which the English and Scottish Reformations gained great impetus.
"Iain Murray, in his classic work on revival and the interpretation of prophecy, THE PURITAN HOPE, notes,

The two groups in England and Scotland developed along parallel lines, like two streams originating at one fountain. The fountain was not so much Geneva, as the Bible which the exiles newly translated and issued with many marginal notes . . . it was read in every Presbyterian and Puritan home in both realms. (p. 7)
"This time also saw the rise of the forces for covenanted Reformation against the corruption and abuses of prelacy and the royal factions. Darkness was dispelled as people read this Bible and saw for themselves that there is no authority above the Holy Scriptures. Discerning this truth, it became apparent that the civil tyranny and the heretical superstitions imposed by Pope, King and Bishops were to be resisted unto death, if necessary (i.e. because these innovations in church and state were opposed to the Kingship of Christ and the law of His kingdom, as set forth in Holy Scripture).
"Moreover, this is the Bible that led to the King James edition. James (a flaming homosexual, megalomaniac, and tyrant), did not want the Calvinistic marginal notes of the GENEVA BIBLE getting into the hands of the people because he considered them 'seditious' hence, he authorized the KING JAMES VERSION as a substitute (though the KJV far surpasses modern translations).
"Although most people today have never heard of the GENEVA BIBLE, it was so popular from 1560 to 1644 that it went through 140 plus printings. The reason for its popularity among the faithful is obvious: the marginal notes promoted a full-orbed, nation-changing Protestantism! Taking a modern work, such as the SCOFIELD REFERENCE BIBLE, and comparing the notes to those of the GENEVA BIBLE, it will readily be seen that the religion of the Protestant Reformation bears no resemblance to much of the nonsense being prattled today!
"Additionally, the later editions of the GENEVA BIBLE (like this 1599 edition), are more strongly Calvinistic and anti-Papal noted by Eason in THE GENEVAN BIBLE, NOTES ON ITS PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION. . . ."
The notes of TOMSON'S NEW TESTAMENT of 1576, which took the place of the New Testament of the Bible of 1560 in many editions from 1587 onward, are entirely different from those in the GENEVA BIBLE. They are taken from Beza's Latin Testament, and are controversial and strongly Calvinistic.
"Furthermore, Eason cites Pocock (a rabid anti-Calvinist), in the same book,
The changes adopted in the GENEVA BIBLE and New Testament synchronize with the gradual spread of the Calvinistic heresy and the contemporaneous development of hatred of the whole Papal system of doctrine. The notes attacked the Sacramental teaching of the Church, substituting for it the Calvinistic doctrines of election and reprobation. They taught that Sacraments are nothing more than signs and seals of grace previously given to the elect. All passages about the Sacraments are explained away.
("We cite this quote, though it is full of a good deal of devilish nonsense, to demonstrate that even the enemies of biblical truth recognized the powerful impact that the GENEVA BIBLE was having in furthering the Protestant Reformation, as well as to show that the notes in the later versions of the GENEVA BIBLE were moving in the direction of a more distinct testimony against error and for the truth." -- RB)
"There were three primary editions of the GENEVA BIBLE:
(1), The editions that follow the first edition of 1560.
(2) The editions in which TOMSON'S NEW TESTAMENT of 1576 is substituted for the 1560 New Testament.
(3) The Bibles from 1598 that contain the Notes on Revelation of Francis Junius." -- The Genevan Bible, Notes on its Production and Distribution
"In our opinion, the notes in the 1599 edition were the most faithful to Scripture. [Of course, the judgment and candor of Calvin are renown. This Bible played a key role in the Reformation, and anyone not using it 'will be the poorer for their neglect.' However, very few works are without caveats. Calvin used the LATIN VULGATE. His comments had to be translated from French. Experts (see 'Textual Criticism'), consider the authorized KING JAMES VERSION to be the most accurate translation. It used a literal approach to translation of the Traditional Text, which is referred to today as the Majority Text or Textus Receptus. Beza's translation of the New Testament is in a different category. One is urged to not neglect the knowledge developed over 400 years of Reformed scholarship since 1599. For example, compare the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE (1400 pages, 1366 in the Tolle Lege restoration edition), annotation with the annotation, theological notes, text notes, scripture notes, and other study aids of the NEW GENEVA STUDY BIBLE (2228 pages), with its own noted caveats. -- compiler]
"Features of the Tolle Lege 1599 GENEVA BIBLE:
  • Word-for-word accuracy with the 1599 Geneva Bible [see the errata listing below -- compiler]
  • Original cross references
  • Modern spelling
  • Original study notes by Reformers
  • Old English Glossary
  • 2-page Family Tree Chart
  • Presentation Page with several family registry pages
  • Easy-to-read print [see the errata listing below -- compiler]
  • Size: 8.75" X 11.5"
  • Approximately 1,400 pages
    Excerpts from two articles on the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE may be read at the SWRB site: "The Forgotten Translation," Gary DeMar, President of American Vision and Honorary Member of the 1599 Geneva Bible Advisory Board, and "Introduction to the 1599 Geneva Bible," Marshall Foster, President of the Mayflower Institute, Member of the 1599 Geneva Bible Advisory Board.
    http://www.swrb.com/bibles/bibles.htm
    "The GENEVA BIBLE has a unique place in history. It is some times called the BREECHES BIBLE. That term comes from the reference in Genesis 3:7 where it says that Adam and Eve clothed themselves in 'breeches' made from fig leaves. It is the product of Protestant scholars who had taken refuge in Geneva, Switzerland during the reign of Queen 'Bloody Mary' of England (1553-1558). It is also known as the Bible that the Pilgrims brought to America. It is older than the KING JAMES VERSION and is considered by some to be more 'Protestant' than the KING JAMES VERSION." [probably because of the Notes of the Geneva Reformers -- compiler] -- Reader's Comment
    "I've seen the facsimile versions of the GENEVA BIBLE and they don't even come close to this edition. The legibility and readability of this edition is far superior to other editions. -- Reader's Comment
    Tolle Lege Press edition of the 1599 Geneva Bible
    http://www.GenevaBible.com
    Perhaps the unique wisdom in the annotation by the Reformers, John Calvin, Martin Luther, John Knox, and Theodore Beza, among others, is due to their doctrinal position of the absolute sovereignty of God and the utter depravity of mankind. The notes are also very concise, explaining the meaning of Scripture and free of pedantic material.
    Sample notes from the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE, the Tolle Lege Press restored edition of 2007:
    Genesis 1:11 "So that we see it is the only power of God's word that maketh the earth fruitful, which else naturally is barren.
    Genesis 1:12 "This sentence is so oft repeated, to signify that God made all his creatures to serve to his glory, and to the profit of man: but for sin they were accursed, yet to the elect, by Christ they are restored, and serve to their wealth.
    Genesis 2:16 "So that man might know there was a sovereign Lord, to whom he owed obedience.
    Genesis 2:17 "By this death he meaneth the separation of man from God, who is our life and chief felicity: and also that our disobedience is the cause thereof.
    Genesis 3:4 "This is Satan's chiefest subtlety, to cause us not to fear God's threatenings.
    Genesis 4:5 "Because he was an hypocrite, and offered only for an outward show without sincerity of heart.
    Genesis 9:6 "Not only by the magistrate, but oft times God raiseth up one murderer to kill another.
    Therefore to kill man is to deface God's image, and so injury is not only done to man, but also to God.
    Psalm 37:1,7,11 "1 This Psalm containeth exhortation and consolation for the weak, that are grieved at the prosperity of the wicked, and the affliction of the godly. 7 For how prosperously soever the wicked do live for the time, he doth affirm their felicity to be vain and transitory, because they are not in the favor of God, but in the end they are destroyed as his enemies. 11 And how miserably that the righteous seemeth to live in the world, yet his end is peace, and he is in the favor of God, he is delivered from the wicked, and preserved.
    Psalm 37:5 "Be not led by thine own wisdom, but obey God, and he will finish his work in thee.
    Psalm 37:6 "As the hope of the daylight causeth us not to be offended with the darkness of the night: so ought we patiently to trust that God will clear our cause and restore us to our right.
    Psalm 37:8 "Meaning, except he moderate his affections, he shall be led to do as they do.
    Psalm 37:12 "The godly are assured that the power and craft of the wicked shall not prevail against them, but fall on their own necks, and therefore ought patiently to abide God's time, and in the meanwhile bewail their sins, and offer up their tears, is a sacrifice of their obedience.
    Psalm 37:16 "For they are daily fed as with Manna from heaven, and have sufficient, when the wicked have never enough, but ever hunger.
    Psalm 37:25 "Though the just man die, yet God's blessings are extended to his posterity, and though God suffer some just man to lack temporal benefits, yet he recompenseth him with spiritual treasures.
    Psalm 37:29 "They shall continually be preserved under God's wings, and have at least inward rest.
    Psalm 37:30 "These three points are required of the faithful, that their talk be godly, that God's law be in their heart, and that their life be upright.
    Psalm 37:37 "He exhorteth the faithful to mark diligently the examples both of God's mercies, and also of his judgments.
    Psalm 37:39 "He showeth that the patient hope of the godly is never in vain, but in the end hath good success, though for a time God prove them by sundry tentations.
    John 1:1 "The Son of God is of one, and the selfsame eternity or everlastingness, and of one and the selfsame essence or nature, with the Father.
    "From his beginning, as the Evangelist saith, 1 John 1:1, as though he said, that the world began not then to have his being, when God began to make all that was made: for the word was even then when all things that were made, began to be made, and therefore he was before the beginning of all things.
    "Had his being.
    "This word, That, pointeth out unto us a peculiar and choice thing above all other, and putteth a difference between this Word, which is the Son of God, and the Laws of God, which otherwise also are called the word of God.
    "This word (With) putteth out the distinction of persons to us.
    "This word (Word) is the first in order in the sentence, and is that which the learned call (Subjectum) and this word (God) is the latter in order, and the same which the learned call (Predicatum.)
    John 1:3 "The son of God declareth that same his everlasting Godhead, both by the creating of all things, and also by the preserving of them, and especially by the excellent gifts of reason and understanding, wherewith he that beautified man above all other creatures.
    "Paul expoundeth this place, Col. 1:15 and 16 [Colossians 1:15,16].
    "That is, as the Father did work, so did the Son work with him: for he was fellow worker with him.
    "Of all those things which were made, nothing was made without him.
    Jude 1:24 "He commendeth them to the grace of God, declaring sufficiently that it is God only that can give us that constancy which he requireth of us.
    Hebrews 13:8b "all precepts of manners, and that is this: That we ought to quiet and content ourselves in Christ only: for there was yet never any man saved without the knowledge of him, neither is at this day saved, neither shall be saved hereafter.
    Revelation 4:9 "God is said to have glory, honor, kingdom, and such like given unto him, when we godly and reverently set forth that which is properly and only his." -- excerpts from 1599 Geneva Bible, Tolle Lege Press, 2006, 2007)
    1599 Geneva Bible, Tolle Lege Press Restoration, Fourth Printing, 2008, Probable Errata Listing (June 30, 2014, revised August 15, 2014, revised September 4, 2015)
    http://www.lettermen2.com/1599errata.html
    A Resolution That Tolle Lege Press and White Hall Press of Chicago Complete the Limited Modernization of the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE Begun in 2004 and of all Spin-off Publications (August 15, 2014, revised September 7, 2015)
    http://www.lettermen2.com/1599resolve.html
    * The Authorized King James Version (London, 1672), with the Notes from the Geneva Bible. Also available on the Puritan Hard Drive, http://www.puritandownloads.com/swrb-puritan-hard-drive.html and in "The Amazing Christian Library," http://amazingchristianlibrary.com/store/index.php.
    "The best Reformation translation (King James Version) combined with the best Bible notes of the first Reformation, the GENEVA BIBLE notes. A great tool for public, family and private worship and study. Printed from a marvelously clean original copy, surpassing the quality of all other printings (of the GENEVA BIBLE NOTES in particular) we have seen. Contains almost 1000 (8.5 X 11 inch) pages with notes on the complete Bible (Old and New Testaments) making this a veritable library of study and classic Protestant commentary in just one book." -- Publisher
    Geneva Bible, 1599. Alternate title: THE BIBLE, THAT IS, THE HOLY SCRIPTURES CONTEINED IN THE OLDE AND NEWE TESTAMENT: TRANSLATED ACCORDING TO THE EBREW AND GREEKE, AND CONFERRED WITH THE BEST TRANSLATIONS IN DIUERS LANGUAGES; WITH MOST PROFITABLE ANNOTATIONS UPON ALL THE HARD PLACES, AND OTHER THINGS OF GREAT IMPORTANCE, 1599.
    The 1599 Geneva Bible, Tolle Lege edition, online
    http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=matthew%201&version=GNV

    Carranza, Elhu, Logic Workbook, ISBN: 0940931346 9780940931343.
    "This Workbook, geared to Clark's textbook, LOGIC, contains hundreds of exercises and the test questions based on Scripture. It includes an appendix on what several theologian have said about logic. The pages are perforated for easy removal. A must for both the student and the teacher of logic."

    Carranza, Elhu, Logic Workbook Answer Key (Philadelphia, PA: Trinity Press International).
    "This Answer Key contains answers to all the questions and exercises in the LOGIC WORKBOOK. An invaluable aid to the teacher. Clark's textbook, LOGIC, and these two books by Carranza, are a complete course in logic."

    *Charnock, Stephen (1628-1680), The Existence and Attributes of God. A Christian classic. Available (THE WORKS OF STEPHEN CHARNOCK, VOL. 4: THE KNOWLEDGE OF GOD), on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    "When the essence and attributes of God are called into question, to whom else can we better go than to Stephen Charnock? . . . the study of God's attributes is not dry-as-dust theology, but is practical; that is, it leads to righteousness." -- Gordon H. Clark
    Charnock, Stephen, and William Symington, Discourses Upon the Existence and Attributes of God (1853)
    http://archive.org/details/discoursesupone00symigoog
    Charnock, and Parsons, The Works of the Late Rev. Stephen Charnock (1815), vol. 1 of 9.
    http://archive.org/details/worksoflaterevst01char

    *Clark, Gordon H. (1902-1985), Logic.
    "Reading, writing, and arithmetic are not the most basic subjects, although they are taught first, for they all depend on thinking. Logic provides the rules for correct thinking. Unless the next generation of Christians is taught how to think correctly, it will be overwhelmed by worldly philosophy. This book is a clear explanation of the rules of correct thinking. It may be studied with profit by parents, teachers, and students. . . . His [Clark's] presentation of the laws of thought, which must be followed if Scripture is to be understood correctly, and which are found in Scripture itself, is both clear and thorough. LOGIC is an indispensable book for the thinking Christian." -- The Trinity Foundation
    See Elhu Carranza, Logic Workbook designed to be used with this book.

    *Downes, Stephen, Stephen Downes Guide to the Logical Fallacies.
    "Stephen Downes, an information architect with a background in philosophy, created this site with the aim of identifying, indexing, and describing 'all known logical fallacies.' A logical fallacy can be defined as an error in reasoning in which a conclusion appears to follow from a set of premises but in reality does not. Downes groups the fallacies into thirteen categories, such as Fallacies of Distraction, Inductive Fallacies, and Syllogistic Errors. Each fallacy (over 50 in all), is described with its name, definition, examples of how it might be used in an argument, and how the argument can be proven fallacious. The How to Use this Guide section of the site provides a helpful introduction, and a robust bibliography offers possibilities for further study of logic. In addition, users may register at the site (no fee), to gain access to discussion boards on the topic. The author notes that his Guide "is intended to help you in your own thinking, not to help you demolish someone else's argument." Regardless of how a reader uses the information, however, the site remains an interesting and fun investigation of how logical arguments are constructed." "Lists all known logical fallacies, with definitions, examples, and the steps needed to prove that the fallacy is committed. Site also includes links to logic references and resources."
    Stephen's Guide to Logical Fallacies
    http://www.fallacies.ca/

    *Kettler, Steven C. (compiler), Biblical Counsel: Resources for Renewal. An Annotated Topical Bibliography of Works Containing Biblical Counsel for Persons Seeking Lasting Solutions to Life's Problems, ISBN: 0963682113.
    A book-length annotated bibliography containing over 5700 citations by 2550 authors cross referenced under 440 topic headings. Includes author and title, scripture, and subject indexes.
    An edited version of the 1993 edition of BIBLICAL COUNSEL: RESOURCES FOR RENEWAL (1997 edition), is available on CD-ROM in Logos Library System (LLS) format.
    "This unique book-length bibliography enables the reader to bring known Biblical counselors into the home via book, audio cassette [audio file], video cassette, and the World Wide Web. Painstakingly researched over a 15-year period, it is a gold mine of Biblical wisdom. The 5,700 titles by 2,300 authors include little known and hard to find books, for example, 273 Reformed classics. The breadth of the collection evidences the interrelationship of absolute truth, life, moral behavior, the law, freedom, obedience, social stability, and the positive sanctions of God. Therefore, it is a strong apologetic for the Biblical Christianity of our forefathers, that aimed to be true to Christ." -- Publisher Logos Research Systems
    http://www.logos.com
    The Web Edition of Biblical Counsel: Resources for Renewal
    http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrrhome.html
    Biblical Counsel: Resources for Renewal
    http://books.google.com/books?id=j4vzqat_dqEC&ie=ISO-8859-1&output=html
    Some Complementary Works
    http://www.lettermen2.com/somecomp.html

    *Singer, C. Gregg (1910-1999), From Rationalism to Irrationality: The Decline of the Western Mind From the Renaissance to the Present, ISBN: 0875524281 9780875524283 and a reprint of the P&R Publishing edition of 1979 (Wipf and Stock, 2006), 479 pp.
    "Now, frankly students, this course is presented from obviously the Reformed Theology. I hold unabashedly, unashamedly to the whole of Reformed Theology as we find it specifically in the Westminster Confession of Faith (1646) and the Longer and Shorter Catechisms.
    "At the same time I hold to a position in regard to Apologetics generally known as Presuppositionalism, and particularly that view held by Cornelius Van Til.
    "This book is an attempt to enlarge and to broaden the scope of Van Til's own Apologetical system, and also his Epistemology. By that I mean, and I worked this book with him, so anything that I say is not to be construed as a criticism of Cornelius Van Til. I might add he wrote me a letter. He is delighted with this book. But what I did was to take his principles, both of Apologetics and of Epistemology, and apply them to all realms of modern thought.
    "Dr. Van Til, for good and sufficient reason, sought to limit to the main stream of what we might call pure Philosophy, that is from Saint Thomas, well even before them, back to the Greeks, but particularly in the more modern period, from Saint Thomas Aquinas, William of Ockham (Occam), down through Descartes, the Rationalists, the Empiricists, down to Kant and Hegel, and of course Modern Philosophy and Modern Theology. Very seldom has he gone into what we might call the arena of Political Philosophy, or the arena of Social Thought, or the arena of Psychology and Psychiatry, the realm of Educational Philosophy, and into Art, Music, and so on, to the Fine Arts.
    "This book is an attempt to apply his system, and show what happens when the Western mind has forsaken his principles, or the principles which he has espoused, and turned into its own way. And thus the book called FROM RATIONALISM TO IRRATIONALITY. The thesis being that the Rationalism inherent in Saint Thomas and the post-Thomists, and more particularly, and more openly, in the Philosophy of the Renaissance, and Descartes, and Spinosa, and Leibniz has, as it's gained momentum in the modern world, brought Western Culture to its knees. We are living, as I would think, in the death throws of the Western Cultures, the Western Civilization." -- Dr. C. Gregg Singer, in the introductory address to his course in Apologetics soon after FROM RATIONALISM TO IRRATIONALITY came off the press in 1979
    Apologetics: #01: Classical and Medieval Thought #1
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Apologetics, 56 min.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=2250511453
    "Locke endeavored to set forth a political philosophy which would anchor his democratic political thought on what he felt were the firm foundations of his empiricism. However, his insistence that nature has bestowed upon mankind certain basic and inalienable rights was an assumption quite contrary to his empiricism. His denial of conscience as an innate possession or quality makes it impossible for men to know that they possess the rights of life, liberty, and property. The very concept of a human right is moral in nature and has its basis of authority in the human conscience. It is thus impossible for men to know through the senses that they have these cherished human rights. Granted that it was far from Locke's intention to undermine or destroy the traditional English concept of personal rights, his empiricism removed from his political thought the necessary foundations on which a government could be built for the protection of these rights. His empiricism supported neither the idea that men have such rights nor that they are inalienable. (p. 61)
    "Underlying the secular and naturalistic assumptions of the thought of the Enlightenment was a related and equally serious problem. In their political and economic thought the leaders of this era were passionately devoted to the pursuit of freedom, and yet they seemed to be completely unaware of this incompatibility between their quest for freedom on the one hand and their reliance upon natural law on the other. How can an impersonal and deterministic concept of law produce and sustain a meaningful concept of freedom? Blindly convinced that there was no problem involved in the contradiction, the leaders of the Enlightenment pushed boldly ahead in the quest for political and economic liberty. However, their failure to recognize the issues involved in this quest led not only to the disaster of the French Revolution but to the growth of the totalitarian political and economic philosophies which first appeared in Hegel and Marx during the nineteenth century and reached their culmination in the totalitarianism of the twentieth century." (p. 73) -- quoted at the blog, Imago Veritatis: Post-modern Reformed Paleo-orthodoxy
    Singer used this as textbook for his course in Apologetics. Epistemology is a recurring theme throughout the textbook and the course. The series of 24 addresses on Apologetics is available free online. See "Apolgetics" under:
    Works of C. Gregg Singer
    http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr3ch.html#cgsinger

    *Singer, C. Gregg (1910-1999), The Apologetics lecture series using FROM RATIONALISM TO IRRATIONALITY: THE DECLINE OF THE WESTERN MIND FROM THE RENAISSANCE TO THE PRESENT (1979) as the text, and delivered in Decatur, Georgia, beginning November, 1979, 17 MP3 files.
    "So many times people in the pew and the pulpit say, well how did all this get started? How did psychology descend to its present level? . . . How did political science produce our political thought, produce the dictatorships which are engulfing the modern world? Why are we in the economic mess in which we are today? Why is sociology such a jumble of immorality? Why is education as it is today? Why is art so meaningless? . . . Why is modern music an affront to the modern ears as well as to the mind and ear of God? . . . Why are all these things!? . . .
    "I would suggest to you that if you will follow this course with thought and care, you will finally come to see the answer to the questions which haunt us today in Western society." -- C. Gregg Singer, from this cited lecture series.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=2250511453

    *Singer, C. Gregg (1910-1999), A Theological Interpretation of American History, 1994 edition, 354 pages (Greenville, SC: A Press, 1994, 1981, 1975, 1974, 1964), ISBN: 0875524265 9780875524269. A Christian classic.
    This book portrays "the influence of theology and the changing doctrines in the life of the church on the pattern of American political, constitutional, social and economic development.
    "The author shows that the decline of constitutional government in this country is the result of the departure from historical Christian faith and the resulting rise of alien political philosophies. Particularly does he emphasize the intimate relationship between theological liberalism on the one hand and political, social, and economic liberalism on the other. This theological liberalism has been a major agent in the decline of the Constitution in the political life of the people and in the appearance of a highly centralized government." -- Publisher
    "There is between the democratic philosophy and theological liberalism a basic affinity which has placed them in the same camp in many major political struggles.
    "This condition exists because theological liberalism shares the basic postulates of the democratic philosophy. . . .
    "Theological liberalism at heart has been a continuing protest against Calvinism, particularly against its insistence on the Sovereignty of God and the Total Depravity of the race. These two Biblical doctrines have often proved to be a stumbling block to theologians within the church as well as to the unbelieving world.
    "The result of theological liberalism has been the movement away from constitutionalism and away from liberty, and a movement toward collectivistic society and totalitarian regime." -- C. Gregg Singer, A Theological Interpretation of American History, p. 290
    See also: John Knox, the Scottish Covenanters, and the Westminster Assembly (tape 3 of 5) in a series of addresses History Notes on Presbyterianism, Reformation, and Theology by Dr. C. Gregg Singer on SermonAudion.com
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12607114250
    See also:
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer at SermonAudio.com (161 messages)
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/search.asp?SpeakerOnly=true&currSection=sermonsspeaker&Keyword=Dr.^C.^Gregg^Singer

    Various, Mount Olive Tape Library of Reformed Theology. Alternate title: TAPE LIBRARY OF REFORMED THEOLOGY: SOLA GRATIA, SOLO CHRISTO, SOLA FIDE, SOLI DEO GLORIA, SOLA SCRIPTURA.
    This collection is now in the custody of the Greenville Presbyterian Seminary. It appears that the Media Center at the Seminary have put practically none of the lectures in the collection on SermonAudio.com in MP3 format.
    If a lecture from the Mount Olive Library is not found on SermonAudio, then the listener may make a request to the Greenville Presbyterian Seminary Media Center to have it put on SermonAudio.com.
    "The following listing was developed by George Calhoun, the founder of Mt. Olive Tape Library, over the course of some thirty years. This catalog reflects the personal quest of Mr. Calhoun for a balanced education in Reformed Theology. The speakers herein have been scrutinized for their faithfulness to the Bible. These tapes will enable students to pursue the study of Reformed theology at a minimum of financial expense."
    "FOR YOUR INFORMATION . . . [from the introduction to the Mount Olive Tape Catalog -- compiler]
    "The tapes included in this catalog are recordings of sermons and lectures given by various pastors, theologians, Bible teachers, and conference speakers who confess adherence to the broad perspectives of historic Reformed theology. We have diligently tried to screen all the materials as to their basic commitment to the Biblical perspectives reflected in the Reformed creeds and confessions.
    "Since, however, no human interpreter of God's Word is infallible, it is the prayer of those responsible for sending forth these tapes that all who listen to them will cultivate the spirit of the Bereans, who 'searched the Scriptures daily to see whether these things were so.'
    "Also, it should be emphasized that the tapes included in this catalog have been evaluated in terms of their basic content as they were originally given, and the inclusion of them in this catalog should not be construed as an unreserved approval of the men who originally gave them. Christians grow in grace and knowledge with the passing of time, yet it must be recognized that some turn aside from the norms of Scripture. It is our hope, therefore, that no one will attach himself to any of the men whose tapes are included in this catalog on the basis of the tapes alone. We are all commanded to be discerning toward those who would instruct us in the faith.
    "Finally, it would be a tragic abuse of the intent in providing these sermons and lectures should they in any way cultivate a party spirit so clearly condemned by the Apostle Paul in 1 Corinthians 3. Paul reminded the Corinthians that all things were theirs -- Paul, Cephas, and Apollos included. We, too, may recognize that the various servants of Christ whose voices are heard on these tapes are God's gifts to us and that we are to follow them only insofar as they follow Christ and the clear teachings of His holy and infallible Word! Since not all men have the same gifts, learn to drink from the gifts of many men -- not just one fountain."
    The Catalog of the Mount Olive Tape Library in PDF Format
    http://www.lettermen2.com/olivecat.pdf
    Mt. Olive Audio Library, Greenville Presbyterian Theological Seminary [audio files]
    http://gpts.edu/media/index.php?currpage=1&sa_action=

    Voeller, Brad Accelerated Distance Learning: The New Way to Earn Your College Degree in the Twenty-first Century, ISBN: 0970156316 9780970156310.
    "Home school graduate Brad Voeller earned his four-year, fully-accredited college degree in less than six months for less than $5,000 by applying the revolutionary techniques of accelerated distance learning. In this book, he shares with you tested approaches to learning that will allow you to earn a college degree in less than half the normal time -- for a fraction of the cost. Discover how to: receive college credit for life experiences; earn college credit quickly and easily through credit-by-examination; speed up the learning process while improving comprehension; cut study time by at least 50 percent; make a wise decision in choosing a distance-learning program; and complete college in less than half the time for less than half the cost." -- Vision Forum

    See also: The attributes of god, Epistemology, The inspiration and infallibility of scripture (the doctrine of revelation, the doctrine of plenary inspiration, the doctrine of divine inspiration, the doctrine of verbal inspiration, theopneustia, sufficiency of scripture), The holy bible, Wisdom, Obedience, Christian scholarship, Works of saint augustine, Works of john calvin, Works of gordon haddon clark, Works of john knox, Works of John Owen, Works of john w. robbins, Works of samuel rutherford, Works of c. gregg singer, The autodidact, An introduction to the covenanted reformation, Books considered to be among the ten greatest in the english language, Resources for students, Home schooling, Chapter 5, "reference works," public education, Modern myths, and so forth, and so on.

    Related WebLinks

    Resources Associated With Dr. C. Gregg Singer's Work, From Rationalism to Irrationality: The Decline of the Western Mind From the Renaissance to the Present
    http://www.lettermen2.com/autodidact.html

    Inspiration, Revelation and Infallibility of Scripture
    http://members.aol.com/lettermen3/bcrr1cha.html#irai

    Logic Based on God's Truth
    http://members.aol.com/lettermen3/bcrr1cha.html#logic

    Logical Fallacies
    http://www.datanation.com/fallacies/

    Epistemology
    http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr1cha.html#epist

    Books Considered to be Among the ten Greatest in the English Language
    http://www.lettermen2.com/tengreat.html

    Works of C. Gregg Singer
    http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr3ch.html#cgsinger

    An Introduction to the Covenanted Reformation
    http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr9chc.html#intrcvtdref

    The Scottish Covenanting Struggle, Alexander Craighead, and the Mecklenburg Declaration
    http://www.lettermen2.com/craig.html

    Christian Classics
    http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr3ch.html

    A Guide to the Puritans -- Index to the Writings of the Puritans, Martin
    http://www.lettermen2.com/mgtp.html

    Combined Interactive Contents for THE WEB EDITION OF BIBLICAL COUNSEL: RESOURCES FOR RENEWAL
    http://www.lettermen2.com/combtoc.html

    Some Complementary Works
    http://www.lettermen2.com/somecomp.html

    Virtual Online Digital Libraries
    http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr5ch.html#odlib

    How to Find a Book
    http://www.lettermen2.com/findbook.html



    The History of Reformation of the Church

    The history of the church has practical value for every Christian, as a storehouse of warning and encouragement, of consolation and counsel. It is the philosophy of facts, Christianity in living examples. If history in general be . . . as Diodorus calls it, "the handmaid of providence, the priestess of truth, and the mother of wisdom," the history of the kingdom of heaven is all these in highest degree. Next to the holy Scriptures . . . there is no stronger proof of the continual presence of Christ with His people, no more thorough vindication of Christianity, no richer source of spiritual wisdom and experience, no deeper incentive to virtue and piety, than the history of Christ's kingdom. -- Philip Schaff

    The whole of the prophecies of Isaiah are precious, and should be read by us constantly in private. -- C.H. Spurgeon, Spurgeon's Devotional Bible

    See Isaiah 40:1 -- 55:13 and annotations in The Reformation Study Bible.

    Grace and election are the essence and meaning of history. -- Augustine, quoted by C. Gregg Singer

    But many that are first shall be last; and the last shall be first. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Matthew 19:30)

    Our Triune God has ordained that the preeminent leader of the Church is the Lord Jesus Christ, the God Man, Our Righteousness. (John 1:1-18; Matthew 19:30; Matthew 28:18-20; Isaiah 49:7; Colossians 1:16-19; Colossians 2:9,10; Hebrews 12:1,2; Revelation 5:1-14; Revelation 19:11-15; Revelation 20:11-15; Revelation 22:12, and so forth, and so on). Human leadership is also divinely ordained and tends to devolve to those who are most perfectly at one with Christ, and to those who also know the most Truth (the Apostle Paul, Saint Augustine, Martin Luther, John Calvin, Puritan leaders, The Scots Worthies, and so forth, and so on.)
    And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Matthew 19:28). See: (Matthew 19:28, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    Then his master said unto him, It is well done good servant and faithful, Thou hast been faithful in little, I will make thee ruler over much: enter into thy master's joy. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Matthew 25:21 1599 Geneva Bible)
    Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Matthew 25:34). See: (Matthew 25:34, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    And he said unto him, Well, good servant: because thou hast been faithful in a very little thing, take thou authority over ten cities. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Luke 19:17, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    Therefore I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Luke 22:29, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together. (Romans 8:17). See: (Romans 8:17, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    Know ye not that we shall judge angels? how much more things that pertain to this life? (1 Corinthians 6:3). See: (1 Corinthians 6:3, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    And hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus. (Ephesians 2:6). See: (Ephesians 2:6, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    To execute vengeance upon the heathen, and corrections among the people:
    To bind their kings in chains, and their nobles with fetters of iron,
    That they may execute upon them the judgment that is written: this honor shall be to all his Saints. Praise ye the Lord.
    (Psalm 149:7-9, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence. (1 Timothy 2:12), (1 Timothy 2:12, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    And he that overcometh, and keepeth my works unto the end, to him will I give power over the nations. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Revelation 2:26). See: (Revelation 2:26, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    To serve God is to reign. -- Seneca

    To the glory of His Divine Majesty, in propagating of the Christian religion to such people as yet live in ignorance of the true knowledge and worship of God. . . . (April 10, 1606) -- King James I, in the charter for the settlement of Virginia

    Whereas we all came into these parts of America with one and the same end and aim, namely, to advance the Kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ and to enjoy the liberties of the Gospel in purity with peace. (May 19, 1643) -- The Articles of Confederation

    It is this author's contention that the modern churches have let go of this important piece of the faith [Christ's Kingship over the nations -- compiler], once for all delivered to the saints. Thereby they have delivered the church, not to kings as nursing fathers, but to the cruel civil domination of the enemies of the true religion, their sheep being taught that they must submit passively to every pretended civil authority as the ordinance of God. By this defection, these leaders of the flock have also undermined the magistracy, allowing and even encouraging wicked men to remove this blessed ordinance from its foundation in God its creator, and from its subjection to Christ His King, thereby directly opposing God's benevolent ends in instituting civil government: Thus have [they] made the commandment of God of none effect by [their] tradition. . . . teaching for doctrines the commandments of men (Matt. 15:6,9), [Matthew 15:6,9]. Furthermore, by their false teaching regarding civil government, they have made themselves guilty of the very sin of which we are often accused: opposing the ordinance of God. If this wasn't enough, however, consider that their sin is worse than that of the garden variety rebel, inasmuch as their opposition to God's institution is not so much practical as it is principial; and because of their position as teachers and guides of the flock of God. Be not many masters, knowing that we shall receive the greater condemnation. . . . For we can do nothing against the truth, but for the truth. (James 3:1; 2 Cor. 13:8 [2 Corinthians 13:8]) -- Greg Price (Biblical Civil Government Verses the Beast, p. 64)

    Atkinson, Miles, The Necessity of a National Reformation. A sermon occasioned by the present critical state of the nation, preached at the parish-church of Leeds, July 11th 1779. . . . By Miles Atkinson, A.B. Leeds, [1779?].

    *Augustine, Saint (Aurelius Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, 354-430 AD), (author), Philip Schaff (editor), Marcus Dods (translator), St. Augustine's City of God and Christian Doctrine [A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church -- Volume 2], new edition, 624 pages, English, ISBN: 0802880991. Available (2 volumes, 1872 edition), on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    Augustine is said to be the greatest Christian thinker next to the Apostle Paul. Luther set the BIBLE and the CONFESSIONS OF SAINT AUGUSTINE above all other books.
    "One of the classic texts of Western civilization [it explains the fall of Roman in terms of Scripture -- compiler]. . . . DE CIVITATE DEI is an important contribution of interest to students of theology, philosophy, ecclesiastical history, the history of political thought, and late antiquity." -- Publisher (from the Cambridge University Press edition)
    "Calvin paraphrased Augustine about 400 times in THE INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION.
    "St. Augustine's final sentence of THE CITY OF GOD is 'All things must be referred to the Glory of God.'
    "When you see that, then you will see the key to the story, and you will see the key to history. . . .
    "The classic exposition of history in terms of Scripture." -- C. Gregg Singer
    "Augustine began writing THE CITY OF GOD at age 59 [shortly after the city of Rome had been sacked by the Goths in 410 A.D., much to the surprise, it is said, of both the Romans and the Goths -- compiler], and worked on it, off and on, for much of the next 14 years. The impetus for the beginning of this vast work (and its recurring focus), was the charge of Pagans (polytheists) that Christianity was responsible for the decay and demise of the Roman Empire. The charge put forward the claim that the prosperity and social stability of the state was dependent upon polytheistic worship. In response, Augustine arrays several lines of argument, rebutting the assumed 'goodness' of the Pagan state, as such, and detailing the ethical/moral and logical failings of Paganism. Augustine displays tremendous scholarship, employing the writings of Paganism's greatest historians and philosophers in his case against their religious claims. The result is a giant literary, philosophical, historical, theological and exegetical work. . . .
    "Against the 'city', i.e., society, of many gods, there is but one alternate society, this Augustine calls The City of God, adopting the expression found in several of King David's psalms. Not only is the society of many gods the society of polytheists, it is also the 'city' of pantheists, atheistic materialists and philosophical Cynics. In the case of the Cynics and atheists, these false gods are the myriad gods of self, indeed, at least as many gods (selves) as there are believers in them. Thus there are two 'cities,' two loves, two ways to understand the big questions of existence, two destinations. Says Augustine:

    "The one City began with the love of God; the other had its beginnings in the love of self." XIV:13.
    "The city of man seeks the praise of men, whereas the height of glory for the other is to hear God in the witness of conscience. The one lifts up its head in its own boasting; the other says to God: 'Thou art my glory, thou liftest up my head.' (Psalm 3.4), [Psalm 3:4]. In the city of the world both the rulers themselves and the people they dominate are dominated by the lust for domination; whereas in the City of God all citizens serve one another in charity . . ." XIV:28 -- Wesley L. Janssen, Reader's Comment
    "Augustine reflects deeply here on human nature and the meaning of eternal life and eternal punishment, within an explication of the 'meaning' of history. He writes of all human history as a single narrative. This also a work of Biblical exegesis, as Augustine treats Scripture as a historical document. For Augustine, creation is good, creation exists in time and has a history. Indeed, since God enters into history to show man His love, history itself is sanctified, through the City of God.
    "The book contains the parallel histories of what Augustine terms the City of God and the City of Man, both descended from Adam. The City of Man is founded on murder (specifically fratricide, the murder of a brother, viz. Cain and Abel, Romulus and Remus). The City of Man has been deceived and debased, fallen under the sway of pagan gods, which appear to be either demons or, at best indifferent or benign spirits that are mistakenly worshipped. The City of God, on the other hand, is a pilgrim on this earth, toiling here in the joyous expectation of final salvation in God's Kingdom." -- Penn Jacobs, Reader's Comment
    "His 'grand unifying theory' of Western civilization, uniting the organization of Rome with the thought of Greece and the revelation of the Bible, has been accepted as the de facto definition of what it means to be Western until only the very last few decades of our time. . . .
    "This seamless blend of literary prowess from Rome's greatest scholar and highest ranking professor generates for the reader a powerful education in philosophy, history and theology, tied together with awesome rhetoric, that is uniquely powerful, erudite, insightful and useful all at once.
    "As it is written for the leaders of society and not for the average citizen, be ready to be intrigued, challenged to thought, and impressed with every line.
    "By no means must the reader have any kind of religious belief to benefit from this book, nor must the reader agree with all that Augustine postulates, nor can the reader, due to the great distance of time separating him from us and improvements in scientific knowledge since his time. The importance, greatness and power of the writing itself commend it to us." -- Chris Miller, Reader's Comment
    "One who has been introduced to Augustine through his auto-biographical CONFESSIONS may find it easier to follow his logic as he discusses the numerous topics of THE CITY OF GOD." -- Reader's Comment
    "It would do the modern Church well to read this book since Augustine places THE CITY OF GOD (i.e., Christ and His Church), within the context of the pagan world in which we live, and its message is as applicable today as it was 1,500 years ago when he first wrote it." -- Reader's Comment
    "History and theology in one rich volume." -- Reader's Comment
    City of God, Saint Augustine, Philip Schaff (editor), Rev. Marcus Dods, D.D. (translator)
    http://www.ccel.org/fathers/NPNF1-02/
    The Confessions of Saint Augustine
    "The story of his sinful pursuits before conversion, and of his conversion, then of his confession to God, and his discoveries of the greatness of God after his conversion." -- Publisher
    http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/confessions.html
    The Works of Saint Augustine
    http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/book/lookupname?key=Augustine%2C%20Saint%2C%20Bishop%20of%20Hippo
    Calvin's Commentaries (online)
    http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/calcom
    The Classical View of History (Augustine)
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, "The Christian View of History," lecture series.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=7150273140
    The Augustinian Approach to History
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, 47 min.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=9150393751
    Church History #09: Augustine #1
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, "Church History" lecture series.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=41504163949
    Church History #10: Augustine #2
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, "Church History" lecture series.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=41504164048
    Church History #11: Augustine #3
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, "Church History" lecture series.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=41504164152

    Bainton, Roland Herbert, The Church of our Fathers, ISBN: 0880192119 9780880192118.
    "A popular presentation of the historic drama, intrigues, rivalry, persecution, suffering, courage, and heroism displayed by Christian leaders from Paul to the establishment of the church in the New World." -- Cyril J. Barber

    Bainton, Ronald H., Yesterday, Today, and What Next? Reflections on History and Hope, ISBN: 0806616709 9780806616704.
    "Important reflections on history, the discernible patterns that may be used to guide our decision today, and what we may expect in the future." -- Cyril J. Barber

    Baird, Henry, History of the Rise of the Huguenots of France, 2 volumes, 1127 pages. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #30.
    "Volume one covers the period from the beginning of the French Reformation to the Edict of January, 1562. Volume two takes in the period from the battle of Coutras to the death of Henry the Fourth (1610). The author notes that 'the period of about half a century with which these volumes are concerned may properly be regarded as the formative age of the Huguenots in France. It included the first planting of the reformed doctrines, and the steady growth of the Reformation in spite of obloquy and persecution, whether exercised under the forms of law or vented in lawless violence. It was the gathering and the regular organization of the reformed communities, as well as their consolidation into one of the most orderly and zealous churches of the Protestant family.' The author has made use of manuscripts 'previously known to few scholars -- if at all.' 1127 pages, including an extensive 26 page index covering both volumes." -- Publisher

    *Geneva Bible Notes, 1599
    The GENEVA BIBLE contained "marginal notes which were heavily influenced by John Calvin, John Knox, and many other leaders of the Reformation. The GENEVA BIBLE was the predominant English translation during the period in which the English and Scottish Reformations gained great impetus. Iain Murray, in his classic work on revival and the interpretation of prophecy, THE PURITAN HOPE, notes that, 'the two groups in England and Scotland developed along parallel lines, like two streams originating at one fountain. The fountain was not so much Geneva, as the Bible which the exiles newly translated and issued with many marginal notes . . . it was read in every Presbyterian and Puritan home in both realms.' (p. 7). This time also saw the rise of the forces for covenanted Reformation against the corruption and abuses of prelacy and the royal factions. Darkness was dispelled as people read this Bible and saw for themselves that there is no authority above the Holy Scriptures.
    "Although most people today have never heard of the GENEVA BIBLE, it was so popular from 1560 to 1644 that it went through 140 plus printings. The reason for its popularity among the faithful is obvious: the marginal notes promoted a full-orbed, nation-changing Protestantism. . . !
    " 'By 1599, the GENEVA BIBLE . . . added many Calvinist annotations for household use' (Bremer, The Puritan Experiment, p. 12). A number of the notes argued for family worship and instruction by the head of the household. Puritanism in the British Isles is known as an effort to continue the Reformation of the church in the area of worship and church government. However, the Puritans also sought to reform the family life according to Biblical principles . . . as a result of their efforts they 'were creators of the English Christian marriage, the English Christian family, and the English Christian home'." (J.I. Packer, A Quest for Godliness, p. 260) -- Publisher
    See the following:
    *Calvin, John (1509-1564), et al. [John Knox, Theodore Beza, Miles Coverdale, William Whittingham, Anthony Gilby, and Martin Luther, and others], Gary DeMar (foreword), Marshall Foster (preface), 1599 Geneva Bible, hardcover (Tolle Lege Press, 2006, 2007), 1400 pages, ISBN: 0975484699 9780975484692 0975484613 9780975484616 0975484621 9780975484623. A Christian classic. Considered to be among the ten greatest books in the English language. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    1599 Geneva Bible Notes
    http://www.reformedreader.org/gbn/en.htm
    *King James Bible With the Geneva Bible Notes, 1672. Notes: This is a facsimile of the 1672 edition. This appears to be a superior text to the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE. A Christian classic. Considered to be among the ten greatest books in the English language. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    Geneva Bible Notes, 1599
    The GENEVA BIBLE NOTES are featured in the Online Bible CD-ROM. One keystroke brings the notes up in the second window.
    Pierce, Larry, and the Woodside Bible Fellowship, The Online Bible CD-ROM (Winterbourne, Ontario, CANADA [Woodside Bible Fellowship], 11 Holmwood Street, Ontario N0B 2V0, 1997).
    Online Bible Homepage
    http://www.onlinebible.org/

    *King James Bible With the Geneva Bible Notes, 1672. Notes: "This is a facsimile of the 1672 edition." This appears to be a superior text to the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE. A Christian classic. Considered to be among the ten greatest books in the English language. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    "The best Reformation translation (King James Version), combined with the best Bible notes of the first Reformation, the GENEVA BIBLE notes. A great tool for public, family and private worship and study. Printed from a marvelously clean original copy, surpassing the quality of all other printings (of the GENEVA BIBLE NOTES in particular), we have seen. Contains almost 1000 (8.5 X 11 inch), pages with notes on the complete Bible (Old and New Testaments), making this a veritable library of study and classic Protestant commentary in just one book." -- Publisher
    Geneva Bible, 1599. Alternate title: THE BIBLE, THAT IS, THE HOLY SCRIPTURES CONTEINED IN THE OLDE AND NEWE TESTAMENT: TRANSLATED ACCORDING TO THE EBREW AND GREEKE, AND CONFERRED WITH THE BEST TRANSLATIONS IN DIUERS LANGUAGES; WITH MOST PROFITABLE ANNOTATIONS UPON ALL THE HARD PLACES, AND OTHER THINGS OF GREAT IMPORTANCE, 1599.
    The 1599 Geneva Bible, Tolle Lege edition, online
    http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=matthew%201&version=GNV
    Geneva Bible Notes, 1599
    The GENEVA BIBLE NOTES are featured in the Online Bible CD-ROM. One keystroke brings the notes up in the second window.
    Pierce, Larry, and the Woodside Bible Fellowship, The Online Bible CD-ROM (Winterbourne, Ontario, CANADA [Woodside Bible Fellowship], 11 Holmwood Street, Ontario N0B 2V0, 1997).
    Online Bible Homepage
    http://www.onlinebible.org/

    *Bradford, William, Of Plymouth Plantation: 1620-1647, ISBN: 0075542811. A Christian classic.
    The journal of William Bradford.
    "A remarkable work by a man who himself was something of a marvel. It remains one of the most readable seventeenth-century American books, attractive to us as much for its artfulness as for its high seriousness, the work of a good storyteller with intelligence and wit." -- Publisher
    Bradford, William, History of Plymouth Plantation, 1620-1647 (1912)
    http://archive.org/details/historyplymouth00socigoog

    *Burgess, Anthony (d. 1664?), The Difficulty of, and the Encouragements to a Reformation: A Sermon Preached Before the Honourable House of Commons at the Publick Fast, Septem. 27, 1643, Mark i. 2-3, 1643. [Mark 1:2,3]. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    "Deals with the centrality of Scripture in Reformation and 'that it is a special duty upon all, to remove all impediments, and to make way for Christ when he is coming to us.' 'Dr. Wilkins,' writes Thomas Smith (of Burgess), 'enrolls him among the most eminent of the English divines for sermons and practical divinity . . . Dr. Cotton Mather says . . . 'Of A. Burgess, I may say, he has wrote for thee excellent things'." (Select Memoirs . . . of Pious and Learned English and Scottish Divines, p. 471) -- Publisher

    *Burgess, Anthony (d. 1664?), The Reformation of the Church, To be Endeavoured More Than That of the Commonwealth, 1645, 28 pages. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    "A 'Sermon preached before the Right Honourable House of Lords at the publicke Fast, August 27, 1645,' (notes the cover), during the days of the sitting of the Westminster Assembly. Can you image these words (which are just a small sample from the preface to the godly exhortation contained in this sermon), directed, by request of the civil magistrate, to the leaders of your nation? Burgess writes, 'It was my endeavour in this Sermon to excite your Lordships to a speedy and exact Reformation of the Church from all the corruptions that have defiled her, and herein to attend unto God's Word, as the only starre that will conduct unto Christ. None are too great to undertake so good a work. Gregory said of David dancing before the Ark, Magis miror Davidum saltantem, quam pugnantem, David is to be more admired in his religious worship of God, than in his courageous conquest and slaughter of the Philistines, or other enemies. Hence, Jer. 9:23,24 [Jeremiah 9:23.24], where glory in wisdome, riches and might is forbidden, there is a kinde of an holy pride allowed in the knowledge of the Lord. Let Heathens glory, that they are saluted by the Common-wealth, Patres Pariae; but let those Christians, whom God honoureth with dignity and place, delight to be nursing Fathers to the Church, by speaking comfortably unto those who teach the good knowledge of God; and by commanding the Levites to carry all the filthiness out of the Temple. Which that your Lordships may faithfully and zealously doe, is the prayer of Your Lordships humble Servant, Anthony Burgesse'." -- Publisher

    Buxbaum, Melvin H., BF (Benjamin Franklin), and the Zealous Presbyterians, ISBN: 0271011769 9780271011769.

    Cairns, Earl E., God and Man in Time: A Christian Approach to Historiography, ISBN: 0801024269 9780801024269.

    *Calvin, John (1509-1564), et al. [John Knox, Theodore Beza, Miles Coverdale, William Whittingham, Anthony Gilby, and Martin Luther, and others], Peter A. Lillback (Foreword), Tolle Lege Press (Preface), Gary DeMar (Notes to the Modern Reader), Marshall Foster (The History and Impact of the Geneva Bible), 1599 Geneva Bible, (Tolle Lege Press, 2006, 2007), 1400 pages, ISBN: 0975484699 9780975484692 0975484613 9780975484616 0975484621 9780975484623. A Christian classic. Considered to be among the ten greatest books in the English language. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    "When the Pilgrims arrived in America in 1620, they brought along supplies, a consuming passion to advance the Kingdom of Christ, a bright hope for the future, and the Word of God. Clearly, their most precious cargo was the Bible. The GENEVA BIBLE, printed over 200 times between 1560 and 1644, was the most widely read and influential English Bible of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This superb translation was the product of the best Protestant scholars of the day and became the Bible of choice for many of the greatest writers, thinkers, and historical figures of that time. The GENEVA BIBLE is unique among all other Bibles. It was the first Bible to use chapters and numbered verses and became the most popular version of its time because of the extensive marginal notes. These notes, written by Reformation leaders such as John Calvin, John Knox, Miles Coverdale, William Whittingham, Anthony Gilby, and others, were included to explain and interpret the scriptures for the common people. For nearly half a century these notes helped the people of England, Scotland, and Ireland understand the Bible and true liberty. King James despised the GENEVA BIBLE because he considered the notes on key political texts to be seditious [to question the Divine Right of Kings -- compiler] and a threat to his authority. Unlike the KING JAMES VERSION, the GENEVA BIBLE was not authorized by the government. It was truly a Bible by the people and for the people. You can see why this remarkable version with its profound marginal notes played a key role in the formation of the American Republic. Until now, the only complete version available was a large, cumbersome, and difficult-to-read facsimile edition. But this new edition contains all the original words and notes [see the errata listing below -- compiler], but the type set has been enlarged and the font style change for today's reader." -- Publisher
    "This is the Bible that eventually put an end to Feudalism in Europe, strengthened Puritans, Quakers, and came to America on the Mayflower. This was the first Bible published in the language of the common people, the first Bible to contain commentary and verse numbers, and the first Bible written in English from Greek and Hebrew texts available from Constantinople, not from the Latin Vulgate. The dynamite in this Bible is the commentary accounting for about one third of its length.
    "The Church of England and King James were so upset they determined to create a new translation. They called it the KING JAMES VERSION. They choose to use language so formal and grand, even by the standards of those days, that the common people would find difficult to understand. The GENEVA BIBLE was found seditious by it's insertions of commentary that spoke directly about the priesthood of lay believers, the church as naturally anti-oligarchy, and setting forth some other ideas considered anarchy by the King, but meaning freedom to the masses who read it. . . .
    "Important facts to remember about this Bible. The Reformation was strong in England and the Lollards were a lay group of huge influence that had to go underground. English Christian theologians, not Catholics and not Anglicans, fled in huge numbers to Geneva for freedom. Geneva was not part of Switzerland at that time, because Geneva was its own city-state. . . . The GENEVA BIBLE was printed 1560-1644. THE KING JAMES VERSION was published in 1611. The GENEVA BIBLE was against the law to own. . . ." -- Reader's Comment
    Available "in printed formats with various binding options from Tolle Lege Press. Tolle Lege Press has given SWRB permission to provide a PDF copy of their retypeset and fully searchable edition of the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE (Copyright 2006-2008, Tolle Lege Press), on the SWRB Puritan Hard Drive.
    "The GENEVA BIBLE is the Puritan Bible with Reformation promoting marginal notes authored by prominent leaders of the Reformation (during the time of John Calvin and John Knox). The New Testament was translated out of the Greek [Latin? -- compiler], by Theodore Beza. The GENEVA BIBLE was the predominant English translation during the period in which the English and Scottish Reformations gained great impetus.
    "Iain Murray, in his classic work on revival and the interpretation of prophecy, THE PURITAN HOPE, notes,

    The two groups in England and Scotland developed along parallel lines, like two streams originating at one fountain. The fountain was not so much Geneva, as the Bible which the exiles newly translated and issued with many marginal notes . . . it was read in every Presbyterian and Puritan home in both realms. (p. 7)
    "This time also saw the rise of the forces for covenanted Reformation against the corruption and abuses of prelacy and the royal factions. Darkness was dispelled as people read this Bible and saw for themselves that there is no authority above the Holy Scriptures. Discerning this truth, it became apparent that the civil tyranny and the heretical superstitions imposed by Pope, King and Bishops were to be resisted unto death, if necessary (i.e. because these innovations in church and state were opposed to the Kingship of Christ and the law of His kingdom, as set forth in Holy Scripture).
    "Moreover, this is the Bible that led to the King James edition. James (a flaming homosexual, megalomaniac, and tyrant), did not want the Calvinistic marginal notes of the GENEVA BIBLE getting into the hands of the people because he considered them 'seditious' hence, he authorized the KING JAMES VERSION as a substitute (though the KJV far surpasses modern translations).
    "Although most people today have never heard of the GENEVA BIBLE, it was so popular from 1560 to 1644 that it went through 140 plus printings. The reason for its popularity among the faithful is obvious: the marginal notes promoted a full-orbed, nation-changing Protestantism! Taking a modern work, such as the SCOFIELD REFERENCE BIBLE, and comparing the notes to those of the GENEVA BIBLE, it will readily be seen that the religion of the Protestant Reformation bears no resemblance to much of the nonsense being prattled today!
    "Additionally, the later editions of the GENEVA BIBLE (like this 1599 edition), are more strongly Calvinistic and anti-Papal noted by Eason in THE GENEVAN BIBLE, NOTES ON ITS PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION. . . ."
    The notes of TOMSON'S NEW TESTAMENT of 1576, which took the place of the New Testament of the Bible of 1560 in many editions from 1587 onward, are entirely different from those in the GENEVA BIBLE. They are taken from Beza's Latin Testament, and are controversial and strongly Calvinistic.
    "Furthermore, Eason cites Pocock (a rabid anti-Calvinist), in the same book,
    The changes adopted in the GENEVA BIBLE and New Testament synchronize with the gradual spread of the Calvinistic heresy and the contemporaneous development of hatred of the whole Papal system of doctrine. The notes attacked the Sacramental teaching of the Church, substituting for it the Calvinistic doctrines of election and reprobation. They taught that Sacraments are nothing more than signs and seals of grace previously given to the elect. All passages about the Sacraments are explained away.
    ("We cite this quote, though it is full of a good deal of devilish nonsense, to demonstrate that even the enemies of biblical truth recognized the powerful impact that the GENEVA BIBLE was having in furthering the Protestant Reformation, as well as to show that the notes in the later versions of the GENEVA BIBLE were moving in the direction of a more distinct testimony against error and for the truth." -- RB)
    "There were three primary editions of the GENEVA BIBLE:
    (1) The editions that follow the first edition of 1560.
    (2) The editions in which TOMSON'S NEW TESTAMENT of 1576 is substituted for the 1560 New Testament.
    (3) The Bibles from 1598 that contain the Notes on Revelation of Francis Junius." -- The Genevan Bible, Notes on its Production and Distribution
    "In our opinion, the notes in the 1599 edition were the most faithful to Scripture. [Of course, the judgment and candor of Calvin are renown. This Bible played a key role in the Reformation, and anyone not using it 'will be the poorer for their neglect.' However, very few works are without caveats. Calvin used the LATIN VULGATE. His comments had to be translated from French. Experts (see 'Textual Criticism'), consider the authorized KING JAMES VERSION to be the most accurate translation. It used a literal approach to translation of the Traditional Text, which is referred to today as the Majority Text or Textus Receptus. Beza's translation of the New Testament is in a different category. One is urged to not neglect the knowledge developed over 400 years of Reformed scholarship since 1599. For example, compare the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE (1400 pages, 1366 in the Tolle Lege restoration edition), annotation with the annotation, theological notes, text notes, scripture notes, and other study aids of the NEW GENEVA STUDY BIBLE (2228 pages), with its own noted caveats. -- compiler]
    "Features of the Tolle Lege 1599 GENEVA BIBLE:
  • Word-for-word accuracy with the 1599 Geneva Bible [see the errata listing below -- compiler]
  • Original cross references
  • Modern spelling
  • Original study notes by Reformers
  • Old English Glossary
  • 2-page Family Tree Chart
  • Presentation Page with several family registry pages
  • Easy-to-read print [see the errata listing below -- compiler]
  • Approximately 1,400 pages
    Excerpts from two articles on the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE may be read at the SWRB site: "The Forgotten Translation," Gary DeMar, President of American Vision and Honorary Member of the 1599 Geneva Bible Advisory Board, and "Introduction to the 1599 Geneva Bible," Marshall Foster, President of the Mayflower Institute, Member of the 1599 Geneva Bible Advisory Board.
    http://www.swrb.com/bibles/bibles.htm
    "The GENEVA BIBLE has a unique place in history. It is some times called the BREECHES BIBLE. That term comes from the reference in Genesis 3:7 where it says that Adam and Eve clothed themselves in 'breeches' made from fig leaves. It is the product of Protestant scholars who had taken refuge in Geneva, Switzerland during the reign of Queen 'Bloody Mary' of England (1553-1558). It is also known as the Bible that the Pilgrims brought to America. It is older than the KING JAMES VERSION and is considered by some to be more 'Protestant' than the KING JAMES VERSION." [probably because of the Notes of the Geneva Reformers -- compiler] -- Reader's Comment
    "I've seen the facsimile versions of the GENEVA BIBLE and they don't even come close to this edition. The legibility and readability of this edition is far superior to other editions. -- Reader's Comment
    Tolle Lege Press edition of the 1599 Geneva Bible
    http://www.GenevaBible.com
    Perhaps the unique wisdom in the annotation by the Reformers, John Calvin, Martin Luther, John Knox, and Theodore Beza, among others, is due to their doctrinal position of the absolute sovereignty of God and the utter depravity of mankind. The notes are also very concise, explaining the meaning of Scripture and free of pedantic material.
    Sample notes from the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE, the Tolle Lege Press restored edition of 2007:
    Genesis 1:11 "So that we see it is the only power of God's word that maketh the earth fruitful, which else naturally is barren.
    Genesis 1:12 "This sentence is so oft repeated, to signify that God made all his creatures to serve to his glory, and to the profit of man: but for sin they were accursed, yet to the elect, by Christ they are restored, and serve to their wealth.
    Genesis 2:16 "So that man might know there was a sovereign Lord, to whom he owed obedience.
    Genesis 2:17 "By this death he meaneth the separation of man from God, who is our life and chief felicity: and also that our disobedience is the cause thereof.
    Genesis 3:4 "This is Satan's chiefest subtlety, to cause us not to fear God's threatenings.
    Genesis 4:5 "Because he was an hypocrite, and offered only for an outward show without sincerity of heart.
    Genesis 9:6 "Not only by the magistrate, but oft times God raiseth up one murderer to kill another.
    Therefore to kill man is to deface God's image, and so injury is not only done to man, but also to God.
    Psalm 37:1,7,11 "1 This Psalm containeth exhortation and consolation for the weak, that are grieved at the prosperity of the wicked, and the affliction of the godly. 7 For how prosperously soever the wicked do live for the time, he doth affirm their felicity to be vain and transitory, because they are not in the favor of God, but in the end they are destroyed as his enemies. 11 And how miserably that the righteous seemeth to live in the world, yet his end is peace, and he is in the favor of God, he is delivered from the wicked, and preserved.
    Psalm 37:5 "Be not led by thine own wisdom, but obey God, and he will finish his work in thee.
    Psalm 37:6 "As the hope of the daylight causeth us not to be offended with the darkness of the night: so ought we patiently to trust that God will clear our cause and restore us to our right.
    Psalm 37:8 "Meaning, except he moderate his affections, he shall be led to do as they do.
    Psalm 37:12 "The godly are assured that the power and craft of the wicked shall not prevail against them, but fall on their own necks, and therefore ought patiently to abide God's time, and in the meanwhile bewail their sins, and offer up their tears, is a sacrifice of their obedience.
    Psalm 37:16 "For they are daily fed as with Manna from heaven, and have sufficient, when the wicked have never enough, but ever hunger.
    Psalm 37:25 "Though the just man die, yet God's blessings are extended to his posterity, and though God suffer some just man to lack temporal benefits, yet he recompenseth him with spiritual treasures.
    Psalm 37:29 "They shall continually be preserved under God's wings, and have at least inward rest.
    Psalm 37:30 "These three points are required of the faithful, that their talk be godly, that God's law be in their heart, and that their life be upright.
    Psalm 37:37 "He exhorteth the faithful to mark diligently the examples both of God's mercies, and also of his judgments.
    Psalm 37:39 "He showeth that the patient hope of the godly is never in vain, but in the end hath good success, though for a time God prove them by sundry tentations.
    John 1:1 "The Son of God is of one, and the selfsame eternity or everlastingness, and of one and the selfsame essence or nature, with the Father.
    "From his beginning, as the Evangelist saith, 1 John 1:1, as though he said, that the world began not then to have his being, when God began to make all that was made: for the word was even then when all things that were made, began to be made, and therefore he was before the beginning of all things.
    "Had his being.
    "This word, That, pointeth out unto us a peculiar and choice thing above all other, and putteth a difference between this Word, which is the Son of God, and the Laws of God, which otherwise also are called the word of God.
    "This word (With) putteth out the distinction of persons to us.
    "This word (Word) is the first in order in the sentence, and is that which the learned call (Subjectum) and this word (God) is the latter in order, and the same which the learned call (Predicatum.)
    John 1:3 "The son of God declareth that same his everlasting Godhead, both by the creating of all things, and also by the preserving of them, and especially by the excellent gifts of reason and understanding, wherewith he that beautified man above all other creatures.
    "Paul expoundeth this place, Col. 1:15 and 16 [Colossians 1:15,16].
    "That is, as the Father did work, so did the Son work with him: for he was fellow worker with him.
    "Of all those things which were made, nothing was made without him.
    Jude 1:24 "He commendeth them to the grace of God, declaring sufficiently that it is God only that can give us that constancy which he requireth of us.
    Hebrews 13:8b "all precepts of manners, and that is this: That we ought to quiet and content ourselves in Christ only: for there was yet never any man saved without the knowledge of him, neither is at this day saved, neither shall be saved hereafter.
    Revelation 4:9 "God is said to have glory, honor, kingdom, and such like given unto him, when we godly and reverently set forth that which is properly and only his." -- excerpts from 1599 Geneva Bible, Tolle Lege Press, 2006, 2007)
    1599 Geneva Bible, Tolle Lege Press Restoration, Fourth Printing, 2008, Probable Errata Listing (June 30, 2014, revised August 15, 2014, revised September 4, 2015)
    http://www.lettermen2.com/1599errata.html
    A Resolution That Tolle Lege Press and White Hall Press of Chicago Complete the Limited Modernization of the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE Begun in 2004 and of all Spin-off Publications (August 15, 2014, revised September 7, 2015)
    http://www.lettermen2.com/1599resolve.html
    * The Authorized King James Version (London, 1672), with the Notes from the Geneva Bible. Also available on the Puritan Hard Drive, http://www.puritandownloads.com/swrb-puritan-hard-drive.html and in "The Amazing Christian Library," http://amazingchristianlibrary.com/store/index.php.
    "The best Reformation translation (King James Version), combined with the best Bible notes of the first Reformation, the GENEVA BIBLE notes. A great tool for public, family and private worship and study. Printed from a marvelously clean original copy, surpassing the quality of all other printings (of the GENEVA BIBLE NOTES in particular), we have seen. Contains almost 1000 (8.5 X 11 inch), pages with notes on the complete Bible (Old and New Testaments), making this a veritable library of study and classic Protestant commentary in just one book." -- Publisher
    Geneva Bible, 1599. Alternate title: THE BIBLE, THAT IS, THE HOLY SCRIPTURES CONTEINED IN THE OLDE AND NEWE TESTAMENT: TRANSLATED ACCORDING TO THE EBREW AND GREEKE, AND CONFERRED WITH THE BEST TRANSLATIONS IN DIUERS LANGUAGES; WITH MOST PROFITABLE ANNOTATIONS UPON ALL THE HARD PLACES, AND OTHER THINGS OF GREAT IMPORTANCE, 1599.
    The 1599 Geneva Bible, Tolle Lege edition, online
    http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=matthew%201&version=GNV

    *Calvin, John (1509-1564), The Institutes of the Christian Religion, 2 volumes, ISBN: 0664220207 0664220215. Considered to be among the ten greatest books in the English language. A Christian classic.
    "Edited by John McNeill and translated by Ford Lewis Battles, this is the definitive English language edition of one of the monumental works of the Christian church -- Calvin's INSTITUTES.
    "Still considered by many to be the finest explanation and defense of the Protestant Reformation available.
    "The work is divided into four books: I. The Knowledge of God the Creator, II. The Knowledge of God the Redeemer in Christ, III. The Mode of Obtaining the Grace of Christ, IV. The External Means or Helps by Which God Allures Us Into Fellowship With Christ and Keeps Us in It. . . . THE INSTITUTES is praised by the secular philosopher, Will Durant, as one of the ten books that shook the world." -- GCB
    Calvin spent a lifetime writing and perfecting INSTITUTES OF CHRISTIAN RELIGION. His Prefatory Address makes it clear that he intended the work to be a defense of Christianity to the King of France.
    Therefore, plainly stated, one of the most influential works ever published in the English language is a defense of Christianity to leaders of State.
    Prefatory Address to His Most Christian Majesty, The Most Mighty and Illustrious Monarch, Francis, King of the French, His Sovereign, John Calvin. Available in THE INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION.
    "Indeed, this consideration makes a true king: to recognize himself a minister of God in governing his kingdom. Now, that king, who in ruling over his realm does not serve God's glory, exercises not kingly rule but brigandage. [Footnote: 'Nec iam regnum ille sed latrocinium exercet.' An echo of Augustine's famous phrase: 'When justice is taken away, what are kingdoms [[regna]] but a vast banditry [[magna latocinia]]?' City of God, IV. iv (MPL [[Migne, J.P., Patrologiae cursus completus, series Latina]], 41. 115; tr. NPNF [[A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, second series]], II. 66)]. Furthermore, he is deceived who looks for enduring prosperity in his kingdom when it is not ruled by God's scepter, that is, his Holy Word; for the heavenly oracle that proclaims that where prophecy fails the people are scattered [Proverbs 29:18], cannot lie." (Battles translation)
    "The characteristic of a true sovereign is, to acknowledge that, in the administration of his kingdom, he is a minister of God. He who does not make his reign subservient to the divine glory, acts the part not of a king, but a robber. He, moreover, deceives himself who anticipates long prosperity to any kingdom which is not ruled by the sceptre of God, that is, by his divine word. For the heavenly oracle is infallible which has declared, that where there is no vision the people perish (Proverbs 29:18), (Beveridge translation)."
    See the entire Prefatory Address, Beveridge translation:
    Considered to be one of the greatest prefaces ever written.
    http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/institutes.ii.viii.html
    "The doctrines of covenant liberty were rediscovered in the Reformation. John Calvin went further than anyone else in defining liberty and what Christians need to do to maintain it. Includes bibliographies."
    It is recommended that INSTITUTES OF CHRISTIAN RELIGION be used for daily devotions and may be used in combination with Ford Lewis Battles and John Walchenbach, AN ANALYSIS OF THE INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION OF JOHN CALVIN and with CALVIN'S COMMENTARIES.
    Calvin's Commentaries at BibleStudyGuide.org
    http://www.biblestudyguide.org/comment/calvin/comm_index.htm
    Calvin's Commentaries, complete
    From the Calvin Translation Society edition.
    http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/commentaries.i.html
    One Hundred Aphorisms, Containing, Within a Narrow Compass, the Substance and Order of the Four Books of THE INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION
    http://www.lettermen2.com/pringle.html
    Calvin, Jean (1509-1564), Institutes of the Christian Religion; A New Translation by Henry Beveridge (1845), Volume: 1
    http://archive.org/details/instituteschrist01calvuoft
    Calvin, Jean (1509-1564), Institutes of the Christian Religion; A New Translation by Henry Beveridge (1845), Volume: 2
    http://archive.org/details/institutesofreli02calvuoft
    Calvin, Jean (1509-1564), Institutes of the Christian Religion, Beveridge translation
    http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/institutes.iii.vii.html
    Monergism: Commentaries
    From Mongergism.com search "commentaries."
    http://www.monergism.com

    *Calvin, Jean (1509-1564), Theodore de Beza, Robert Estienne, Academiae de Geneve, Leges Academiae Genevensis. Alternate title (French): L'ORDRE DU COLLEGE DE GENEUE. Language: Latin.
    "First edition of the new Academy of Geneva founded by John Calvin. It contains the complete speeches made at the inauguration by John Calvin and Theodore de Beza, the first Rector of the Academy. Also a complete outline of the curriculum, from seventh to first grade, with a complete reading list in classical authors for each grade, and the by-laws and regulations for appointing the faculty. One of the two imprints by Robert Estienne to bear the place of publication as Geneva."

    Carden, Allen, Puritan Christianity in America: Religion and Life in Seventeenth-Century Massachusetts, ISBN: 0801025435 9780801025433.
    "After exploring the Biblical basis of the Puritan movement, Carden's thematic study examines all aspects of Puritan theology as well as the Puritan's approach to the Christian life, social ethics, politics, family life, education, and culture. He concludes with an overview of the legacy bequeathed to American culture." -- GCB

    Christensen, Merton A., Franklin on the Hemphill Trial: Deism vs. Presbyterianism Orthodoxy, WMQ 10 (1953): 422-40.

    Christian Counseling and Educational Foundation
    http://www.ccef.org/
    Christian Counseling and Educational Foundation (CCEF)
    1803 East Willow Grove Avenue
    Glenside, PA 19038
    Telephone: 215.884.7676

    Christian History Magazine (Worchester, PA [Christian History Magazine, Box 540, 2030 Wentz Church Road, Worchester 19490]: Christian History Magazine).
    A quarterly magazine devoted to giving the reader an awareness of our Christian heritage. Request a listing of back issues.
    Christian History CD-ROM
    http://www.christianityonline.com/christianhistory/current/

    Clark, Gordon H. (1902-1985), John W. Robbins (1949-2008, editor), Historiography: Secular and Religious, ISBN: 0940931397 9780940931398.
    "The Christian doctrine of the sovereignty of God transformed the world's view of history, investing it with a meaning, importance, and grandeur that pagan historiography could never achieve. History is the unfolding of God's purpose and plan. Because God is rational, because God is sovereign, history is not a tale told by an idiot.
    "The Bible is not only the earliest history book, it is also the most reliable. Centuries before the famed historians of Greece and Rome, Moses had already written the definitive account of mankind's early history as revealed to him by God. The account was not exhaustive, for no history can be, but it contained all that God wished it to contain and nothing else. God, writing through Moses, has given us true history.
    "HISTORIOGRAPHY SECULAR AND RELIGIOUS will introduce the reader to the principles and problems of historiography and, in so doing, begin to suggest what an enormous debt we owe to the Bible in the study of history." -- Publisher

    Columbus, Christopher, Christopher Columbus' Book of Prophecies: Reproduction of the Original Manuscript With English Translation by Kay Brigham, ISBN: 8476454775 9788476454770.

    *Cunningham, William (1805-1861), The Scottish Reformation, Ter-Centenary of. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    " 'Contains papers read at this commemoration in August of 1860 by Cunningham, Begg, Symington, Hetherington, M'Crie, Wylie, Binnie and others. Notes that 'Next to the advent of our blessed Saviour, the Reformation from Popery is the most remarkable and glorious event recorded in modern history.' Shows how the Reformation affected every area of life in Scotland." -- Publisher

    Davis, D. Clair, Church History (part 3 of 5): Awakening and Revivalism (Christian Counseling and Educational Foundation.)
    From a set of five audio files.
    Audio cassette CD503 [audio file].

    Davis, D. Clair, Church History (part 4 of 5): Awakening and Revivalism; Modern Church (Christian Counseling and Educational Foundation.) Audio cassette CD504 [audio file].

    Dawson, Jan C., The Unusable Past: America's Puritan Tradition, 1830 to 1930, ISBN: 0891307214 9780891307211 0891307222 9780891307228.
    "An examination of how American thinkers and writers reinterpreted the Puritan tradition from the Romantic period to the Great Depression. Drawing from major literary, historical, religious, and journalistic sources, this study traces the reasons for the decline of Puritan influence from the time when New Englanders still wrestled with the inscrutability of Divine Providence to the indifference and even hostility toward Puritanism of the late 1930's." -- Cyril J. Barber

    Defoe, Daniel, The Dissenters Vindicated; or, a short view of the present state of the Protestant religion in Britain, as it is now profess'd in the Episcopal church in England, the Presbyterian church in Scotland, and the dissenters in both. In answer to some reflections in Mr. Webster's two books publish'd in Scotland. London, MDCVII [1707].

    Dell, William, Right Reformation, or the reformation of the church of the New Testament, represented in Gospel-light. In a sermon preached . . . November 25, 1646. By William Dell, . . .

    Dell, William (d. 1664), The Tryal of Spirits Both in Teachers and Hearers Wherein is Held Forth the Clear Discovery and Certain Downfal of the Carnal and anti-Christian Clergie of These Nations, 1653.

    *Edersheim, Alfred, Bible History, ISBN: 156563165X 9781565631656.
    "Alfred Edersheim's monumental work -- his most significant one next to the LIFE AND TIMES OF JESUS THE MESSIAH. This massive, popular-level work covers Bible history from creation to the decline and captivity of Israel and Judah, drawing on criticism and Biblical geography and antiquities in its analysis. . . ." -- CBD
    "This has long been a standard work. It is a telling of the Scripture in a straightforward, more or less chronological form. But unlike secular historians, he tells no lies. He has a good grasp of Scripture, and a reverent attitude toward God and His people." -- Jay P. Green, Sr.
    The Bible History Old Testament, Alfred Edersheim
    http://philologos.org/__eb-bhot/default.htm

    *Edersheim, Alfred, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. A Christian classic.
    "The most important general work on the life of Christ in our language." -- Wilbur M. Smith
    "From his prodigious study he produced an unrivaled picture of the life of Christ and of the whole Jewish background -- not merely of the archaeological details, but of the essential characteristics of Jewish thought and feeling. It is today the most extensively used life of Christ in the English language." -- Publisher
    The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, by Alfred Edersheim
    http://www.ccel.org/e/edersheim/lifetimes/

    Edersheim, Alfred, Sketches of Jewish Life, ISBN: 1565631382 9781565631380. Alternate title: SKETCHES OF JEWISH SOCIAL LIFE IN THE DAYS OF CHRIST.
    Sketches of Jewish Social Life in the Days of Christ, by Alfred Edersheim
    http://www.ccel.org/e/edersheim/sketches/

    *Edwards, Jonathan (1703-1758), A History of the Work of Redemption (unfinished), ISBN: 0781227747. Alternate title: HISTORY OF REDEMPTION, ON A PLAN ENTIRELY ORIGINAL: EXHIBITING THE GRADUAL DISCOVERY AND ACCOMPLISHMENT OF THE DIVINE PURPOSES IN THE SALVATION OF MAN . . . BY THE LATE REVEREND JONATHAN EDWARDS . . . TO WHICH ARE NOW ADDED NOTES, HISTORICAL, CRITICAL, AND THEOLOGICAL, WITH THE LIFE AND EXPERIENCE OF THE AUTHOR, LONDON, 1788. Available in THE WORKS OF JONATHAN EDWARDS. Available (THE WORKS OF JONATHAN EDWARDS), on the Puritan Hard Drive. An 18 volume edition is also available on
    "Edwards powerfully shows how the work of redemption was carried on through the time from The Fall to the end of the world. It is truly amazing how Edwards cover the redemptive history with a strong link on the destruction of Jerusalem, the time of Constantine, Reformation, the rise of Antichrist, etc. . . ." -- Reader's Comment
    This is an unfinished work.
    The Works of Jonathan Edwards
    http://www.ccel.org/e/edwards/works/works.html
    A History of the Work of Redemption, Jonathan Edwards
    http://www.jonathanedwards.com/text/Hist%20of%20Redemption/Hist%20Outline.htm
    Jonathan Edwards.com
    http://www.jonathanedwards.com/
    A History of the Work of Redemption, Jonathan Edwards
    http://www.heritagebooks.org/item.asp?bookid=517

    Fitzgerald, Allan D. (editor), Augustine Through The Ages: An Encyclopedia, 902 pages, ISBN: 080283843X 9780802838438.
    "AUGUSTINE THROUGH THE AGES is an enormously informative work on the life and thought of Augustine of Hippo. Every serious student of Augustine would benefit from having this volume. Allow me to enumerate three reasons why this encyclopedia is so valuable in helping people to understand Augustine and his extraordinary contribution both to the history of Christianity and to the intellectual development of the Western world:
    1. This work contains hundreds of articles by the best Augustine scholars from both the Catholic and Protestant ranks. The result is that you can fairly evaluate Augustine's contribution to the history of Western Christianity. For example, this volume contains insightful articles on how Augustine's thought influenced the development of the Catholic, Lutheran, and Reformed theological traditions in particular.
    2. Because Augustine wrote more than five million words, it is often difficult to pull together his various treatments of issues and to attempt to summarize his overall position. This encyclopedia is quite helpful in systematizing the various categories of Augustine's thought.
    3. This work includes articles which address all areas of Augustine's thought, including biblical, theological, philosophical, ethical, historical, and his many literary works.
    "AUGUSTINE THROUGH THE AGES contains more than 900 pages that attempt to capture the life, thought, controversies, and literary output of one of Christianity's greatest thinkers. This is indeed an extremely valuable volume." -- Reader's Comment
    "Fitzgerald (patristics, Augustinian Patristic Institute, Rome, and editor of Augustinian Studies for Villanova U.), presents an encyclopedic treatment of the life, thought, and influence of arguably the most influential Western Christian thinker after the apostles, Augustine of Hippo (AD 354-430). Includes some 400 articles written by scholars whose academic backgrounds include classics, history, philosophy, political science, and theology, and which cover every aspect of Augustine's life and writings and trace his influence on the church and on the development of Western thought. Indexes, cross-references, and current bibliographies should make this volume a useful research tool." -- Publisher

    Fountain, David, John Wycliffe: The Dawn of the Reformation, ISBN: 0907821022 9780907821021.
    "There are those who believe that when Wycliffe was born about 660 years ago, he became the one man who changed the course of English history more than any other man." -- GCB
    Includes bibliography.

    *Foxe, John (1516-1587), and Thomas Freeman (prefatory material), John Foxe's Book of Martyrs. Actes and Monuments of Matters Most Speciall and Memorable (unabridged). Alternate title: THE UNABRIDGED ACTS AND MONUMENTS ONLINE or TAMO (HRI Online Publications, Sheffield, 2011). A Christian classic. Available from: http://www.johnfoxe.org. Implemented by the Humanities Research Institute, University of Sheffield, England, and published by HRI Online Publications, Sheffield, 2011, Version 2.0, ISBN: 9780954260864.
    "You can browse and compare the unabridged texts of the four editions of this massive work published in John Foxe's lifetime (1563, 1570, 1576, 1583). Each edition changed significantly as Foxe sought to incorporate new material, answer his critics, and adjust its polemical force to the needs of the moment. . . .
    "TAMO is both an instrument of scholarship and a tool for anyone who wants to explore this remarkable work, a milestone in the history of the English printed book and a signal achievement of its printer, John Day."
    Foxe, John (1516-1587), John Foxe's Book of Martyrs. Actes and Monuments of Matters Most Speciall and Memorable, ISBN: 0197262252 9780197262252.
    "This CD-ROM combines readable and printable images of 2,200 pages of text and woodcut engravings from the 1583 edition, the last for which Foxe was personally responsible."
    Other editions: Acts and Monuments or Foxe's Book of Martyrs, 1554, 1843-49 edition, 8 volumes. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    " 'No book ever inflicted a wound so deep and incurable on the Romish system of superstition and bloody persecution . . . it was placed in . . . all churches and chapels throughout the kingdom, by order of Queen Elizabeth.' (Smith, Select Memoirs, p. 245). Contains much information not found in any of the liberally edited and severely shortened editions of this classic work which are in print today. Covering martyrs from the early church through to Foxe's day, it was one of the most influential books of the sixteenth century! It overflows with faith building testimony of the power of God to overcome the most cruel and barbarous acts of human depravity and demonic cruelty. 6890 pages. A very rare set, now back in print after 150 years!" -- Publisher
    "After the Bible itself, no book so profoundly influenced early Protestant sentiment as the BOOK OF MARTYRS. Even in our time it is still a living force. It is more than a record of persecution. It is an arsenal of controversy, a storehouse of romance, as well as a source of edification." -- James Miller Dodds, English Prose
    "When one recollects that until the appearance of the PILGRIM'S PROGRESS the common people had almost no other reading matter except the BIBLE and FOX'S BOOK OF MARTYRS, we can understand the deep impression that this book produced; and how it served to mold the national character. Those who could read for themselves learned the full details of all the atrocities performed on the Protestant reformers; the illiterate could see the rude illustrations of the various instruments of torture, the rack, the gridiron, the boiling oil, and then the holy ones breathing out their souls amid the flames. Take a people just awakening to a new intellectual and religious life; let several generations of them, from childhood to old age, pore over such a book, and its stories become traditions as individual and almost as potent as songs and customs on a nation's life." -- Douglas Campbell, The Puritan in Holland, England, and America
    "If we divest the book of its accidental character of feud between churches, it yet stands, in the first years of Elizabeth's reign, a monument that marks the growing strength of a desire for spiritual freedom, defiance of those forms that seek to stifle conscience and fetter thought." -- Henry Morley, English Writers
    "John Foxe was a prince among believers. He had his printing press on a cart, and had often to print at night, moving his press before dawn to escape capture and burning at the stake. He never faltered in his purpose to leave a voluminous written witness to the power of the Lord Jesus Christ to keep His saints in love and peace." -- Jay P. Green, Sr.
    Text Encoding Initiative (TEI)
    John Foxe's Book of Martyrs Variorum Edition Online
    http://www.tei-c.org/Activities/Projects/jo01.xml
    Foxe's Acts and Monuments (the original Foxe's Book of Martyrs): How to Obtain a Facsimile or a Print-on-demand Copy.
    Compiled by Peter Reynolds, 29 April 2006.
    http://www.peterreynoldsbooks.com/home/foxereview.htm

    *Fraser, James (of Brae), The Lawfulness and Duty of Separation From Corrupt Ministers and Churches Explained and Vindicated, 1744. A Christian classic. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #27.
    "This is one of the most comprehensive treatises dealing with the lawfulness and duty of separation. It does not shy away from the hard biblical questions, but rather meets them head on. Fraser covers all the major biblical reasons for separation, both in general and in particular. Some of these Scriptural reasons for separation include (examples in parentheses are selected to fit our contemporary situation in accord with the general headings found in the book -- though a number of these specific errors are also dealt with in the book itself): 1) Heresy, or error in doctrine (e.g. Arminianism, Pelagianism, Romanism, the denial of the regulative principle of worship, antinomianism, legalism, etc.); 2) Idolatry in public worship (e.g. singing hymns of human composition, paedocommunion and open communion, the use of musical instruments, women speaking or preaching, anti-paedobaptism, Charismatic [or anabaptistic], folly and excesses, malignancy [anti-covenanting], etc.); 3) Tyranny in government (e.g. Popery, Prelacy, Independency, etc.); 4) Sinful terms of communion (e.g. any terms which deny or ignore the attainments of the Covenanted Reformation or in any way contravene Scripture); 5) Tolerationism (e.g. refusing to discipline the scandalous, open communion and countenancing false ministers or false governments or false doctrine, etc.). Many other areas are also dealt with, not the least of which include a strong testimony against the Prelatical Priest George Whitefield (who, as the preface notes, is 'a person leavened with gross errors, enthusiastic delusions, etc.'). In the publisher's original reasons for publication we read, 'In this book the case and nature of schism and separation is cleared, and the true scriptural terms of church-communion, and grounds of separation from corrupt churches and ministers, carrying on backsliding courses from the Covenanted Reformation principles . . . , are clearly handled, and the same proven to be just and warrantable grounds of separation, and many useful cases of conscience concerning separation; and what are just and warrantable grounds of separation and what are not, are solidly, learnedly, and accurately discussed and resolved, and the case of separation clearly stated, handled and determined; and separation from corrupt ministers and churches is fully vindicated; and the true Scripture marks of time-servers and hirelings, who should be separated from, are given from the Word of God.' Calvin, Knox, Rutherford, Gillespie, Durham, Owen (who repented of his Independency and embraced Presbyterianism just before he died), and a host of other notable Reformers are cited throughout. Occasional hearing and occasional communion are also exposed and rebuked from Scripture. Appended to the book is, 'The Reasons agreed upon by the Reformers of the Church of Scotland, For which the Book of Common Prayer, urged upon Scotland, Anno 1637 was refused. As also the Reasons agreed upon by the Assembly of Divines at Westminster, for laying aside the English Book of Common Prayer. Together with Mr. George Graham's Renunciation and Abjuration of Episcopacy.' This is an almost flawless photocopy of this exceedingly rare and valuable book (which was obtained at great expense from the Bodleian Library [Oxford University], in England). It is one of the major Reformed classics concerning the topics that it addresses and it answers many common questions which Christians raise today regarding church affiliation. It is also a much needed landmark of Reformation testimony against the white devils of Independency and sectarianism and the black devils of Popery and Prelacy -- which can be seen to be covering the land once again -- contrary to the teaching of the Word of God and the attainments fought (and died), for during the Second Reformation." -- Publisher

    Frend, W.H.C., Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church: A Study of a Conflict From the Maccabees to Donatus, ISBN: 9780227172292 0227172299.
    "First published in 1965, this work remains the standard treatment of the interplay between church and state in the early centuries of the Christian era. . . ." -- Cyril J. Barber

    Grant, George, The Last Crusader: The Untold Story of Christopher Columbus, ISBN: 0891076905 9780891076902.
    "This carefully researched and enlightening study shows that Columbus was not only a man of God, but that his voyage was largely motivated by godly zeal. Written in narrative to appeal to the heroic heart of all generations, it is designed to rekindle our natural wonder even as it recaptures the true meaning of Columbus." -- GCB

    Grant, Robert McBride, Early Christianity and Society, ISBN: 0060634111 9780060634117.

    *Green, Edward M.B., Evangelism in the Early Church, ISBN: 0340107073 9780340107072.

    Guthrie, William D., Magna Carta and Other Addresses.

    Hambrick-Stowe, Charles E., The Practice of Piety: Puritan Devotional Disciplines in Seventeenth-Century New England, ISBN: 0807815187 9780807815182.
    "A valuable historical r‚sum‚ in which the author attempts to probe the Godward relationship of our founding fathers in an endeavor to recapture something of their lost piety." -- Cyril J. Barber

    Harrison, Cassain, Liam Neeson, Timothy West, Lee Pullbrook, and Nick Powell, Martin Luther, an empires special, distributed by PBS Home Video, ISBN: 0793696283 9780793696284.
    "Traces Luther's life. His attack on the all-powerful Catholic Church was a knife to the heart of an empire that had endured for over a thousand years. Luther became a monk and by the nailing of his treatise to the doors of the Wittenberg Cathedral, Martin Luther changed the world forever, unleashing forces that plunged Europe into war and chaos. Martin Luther not only revolutionize the Church, he offered the Christian world a new vision of man's relationship with God, and in turn redefined man's relationship with authority in general. This is a dramatic story of the collapse of the medieval world, of social, economic and political revolution, and of the birth of the modern age." -- Publisher

    Henderson, Alexander (1583?-1646), Church of Scotland. General Assembly. Commission, Reformation of Church Government in Scotland, Cleared From Some Mistakes and Prejudices by the Commissioners of the Generall Assembly of the Church of Scotland, now at London, 1644. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #23.

    Hetherington, William (1803-1865), History of the Westminster Assembly of Divines (1856). Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #10, #30.
    "This book is one of the best easy reading historical accounts published concerning this unsurpassed Assembly. Hetherington's purpose for writing this book is stated in the preface as follows:

    In common with all true Presbyterians, I have often regretted the want of a History of the Westminster Assembly of Divines . . . Especially in such a time as the present, when all distinctive Presbyterian principles are not only called in question, but also misrepresented and condemned, such a want has become absolutely unendurable, unless Presbyterians are willing to permit their Church to perish under a load of unanswered, yet easily refuted, calumny. And as the best refutation of calumny is the plain and direct statement of truth, it is by that process that I have endeavored to vindicate the principles and the character of the Presbyterian Church (p. i).
    "The Puritan history leading up to the Assembly (which this book takes a in-depth look at), is especially important and not only set the context for what became the major debates among the ministers present, but even dictated who was selected to this august body of scholars. Civil wars, national upheavals, emigration to the 'new world' and a host of other epoch making events surrounded this momentous period of history. These debates and their resolutions have defined and directed Christian thought and national cultures ever since their original ratification -- and Hetherington is not shy about noting the significance of this Assembly when he writes,
    But the man who penetrates a little deeper into the nature of those unrevealed but powerful influences which move a nation's mind, and mold its destinies, will be ready to direct his attention more profoundly to the objects and deliberations of an assembly which met at a moment so critical, and was composed of the great master-minds of the age; and the theologian who has learned to view religion as the vital principle of human nature, equally in nations and in the individual man, will not easily admit the weak idea, that such an assembly could have been an isolated event, but will be disposed earnestly to inquire what led to its meeting, and what important consequences followed. And although the subject has not hitherto been investigated with such a view, it may, we trust, be possible to prove, that it (the Westminster Assembly -- RB), was the most important event in the century in which it occurred; and that it has exerted, and in all probability will yet exert, a far more wide and permanent influence upon both the civil and the religious history of mankind than has generally been even imagined. (p. 17)
    "Hetherington covers the period from 1531 to 1662. Many consider this era a historical high water mark for doctrinal and practical Puritan precision. Also included is a chapter on the theological productions of the Westminster Assembly and six valuable appendices (one containing six biographical notices of the Scottish Commissioners including Rutherford, Gillespie, Henderson and Baillie).
    "This work is indispensable for understanding the work accomplished by the Westminster Assembly, Presbyterian and Independent history, Oliver Cromwell and much more. For example, consider the lofty and Christ honoring goal of the Assembly as summarized by Hetherington:
    There was one great, and even sublime idea, brought somewhat indefinitely before the Westminster Assembly, which has not yet been realized, the idea of a Protestant union throughout Christendom, not merely for the purpose of counterbalancing Popery, but in order to purify, strengthen, and unite all true Christian churches, so that with combined energy and zeal they might go forth, in glad compliance with the Redeemer's commands, teaching all nations, and preaching the everlasting gospel to every creature under heaven. This truly magnificent, and also truly Christian idea, seems to have originated in the mind of that distinguished man, Alexander Henderson. It was suggested by him to the Scottish commissioners, and by them partially brought before the English Parliament, requesting them to direct the Assembly to write letters to the Protestant Churches in France, Holland, Switzerland, and other Reformed Churches. . . . and along with these letters were sent copies of the Solemn League and Covenant, a document which might itself form the basis of such a Protestant union. The deep thinking divines of the Netherlands apprehended the idea, and in their answer, not only expressed their approbation of the Covenant, but also desired to join in it with the British kingdoms. Nor did they content themselves with the mere expression of approval and willingness to join. A letter was soon afterwards sent to the Assembly from the Hague, written by Duraeus (the celebrated John Dury), offering to come to the Assembly, and containing a copy of a vow which he had prepared and tendered to the distinguished Oxenstiern, chancellor of Sweden, wherein he bound himself 'to prosecute a reconciliation between Protestants in point of religion'. . . . On one occasion Henderson procured a passport to go to Holland, most probably for the purpose of prosecuting this grand idea. But the intrigues of politicians, the delays caused by the conduct of the Independents, and the narrow-minded Erastianism of the English Parliament, all conspired to prevent the Assembly from entering farther into that truly glorious Christian enterprise. Days of trouble and darkness came; persecution wore out the great men of that remarkable period; pure and vital Christianity was stricken to the earth and trampled under foot. (pp. 337-339)
    "Further demonstrating his grasp of the most important events of the second Reformation, Hetherington comments on the Solemn League (the epitome of second Reformation attainments),
    no man who is able to understand its nature, and to feel and appreciate its spirit and its aim, will deny it to be the wisest, the sublimest, and the most sacred document ever framed by uninspired men. (p. 134)
    "Anyone interested in the work of the Westminster Assembly -- and the men, teaching and events which were at the heart of the Puritan revolution against the forces of antichrist -- should read this book at least once. Third edition, 413 pages." -- Publisher
    Hetherington, W.M., History of the Westminster Assembly
    History of the Westminster Assembly of Divines, by William Maxwell Hetherington, D.D., LL.D.
    http://www.reformed.org/books/hetherington/west_assembly/index.html

    *Howie, John (1735-1793), The Scots Worthies. Biographia Scoticana: or, A Brief Historical Account of the Lives, Characters, and Memorable Transactions of the Most Eminent Scots Worthies . . . as also, an Appendix, containing a short historical hint of the wicked lives . . . of the . . . apostates and . . . persecutors in Scotland . . . 2nd edition, corrected and enlarged, 1781. A Christian classic. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1, #10. The series of 22 MP3 files from the book, produced by Still Waters Revival Books, are available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1-30.
    This same book series of audio files is available at AudioSermons.com.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/search.asp?seriesOnly=true&currSection=sermonstopic&sourceid=swrb&keyword=Book%3A+SCOTS+WORTHIES&keyworddesc=Book%3A+SCOTS+WORTHIES
    "Most commonly known as SCOTS WORTHIES, this edition contains Howie's footnotes (defending the Covenanters), and Howie's appendix titled 'The Judgment and Justice of God' (which chronicles God's judgments upon Reformation apostates and those who persecuted the Covenanters). It is the only edition in print which contains both these sections intended for publication by the author (as later editors often removed either one or both of these parts of this book). BIOGRAPHIA SCOTICANA covers the history of 'noblemen, gentlemen, ministers and others from Mr. Patrick Hamilton, who was born about the year of our Lord 1503, and suffered martyrdom at St. Andrews, Feb., 1527, to Mr. James Renwick, who was executed in the Grass-market of Edinburgh, Feb. 17, 1688. Together with a succinct account of the lives of other seven eminent divines, and Sir Robert Hamilton of Preston, who died about, or shortly after the Revolution.' This is one of our best history books (over 700 pages), covering all of the major Scottish Reformers. Howie summarizes his book as follows: 'The design of the following was to collect, from the best authorities, a summary account of the lives, characters, and contendings, of a certain number of our most renowned SCOTS WORTHIES, who, for their faithful services, ardent zeal, constancy in sufferings, and other Christian graces and virtues, deserve honourable memorial in the Church of Christ; and for which their names have been, and will be savoury to all the true lovers of our Zion, while Reformation principles are regarded.' Furthermore, the momentous nature of the struggles chronicled in this book are succinctly noted when Howie writes: 'the primitive witnesses had the divinity of the Son of God, and an open confession of Him, for their testimony. Our reformers from Popery had Antichrist to struggle with, in asserting the doctrines of the Gospel, and the right way of salvation in and through Jesus Christ. Again, in the reigns of James VI. and Charles I., Christ's REGALIA, and the divine right of Presbytery, became the subject matter of their testimony. Then, in the beginning of the reign of Charles II. (until he got the whole of our ancient and laudable constitution effaced and overturned), our Worthies only saw it their duty to hold and contend for what they had already attained unto. But, in the end of this and the subsequent tyrant's reign, they found it their duty (a duty which they had too long neglected), to advance one step higher, by casting off their authority altogether, and that as well on account of their manifest usurpation of Christ's crown and dignity, as on account of their treachery, bloodshed, and tyranny . . . which may be summed up. The Primitive martyrs sealed the prophetic office of Christ in opposition to Pagan idolatry. The reforming martyrs sealed His priestly office with their blood, in opposition to Popish idolatry. And last of all, our late martyrs have sealed His kingly office with their best blood, in despite of supremacy and bold Erastianism. They indeed have cemented it upon His royal head, so that to the world's end it shall never drop off again.' Moreover, the importance of this book can be clearly seen when Johnston, in TREASURY OF THE SCOTTISH COVENANT, reports that, Walter Scott refers to Howie as 'the fine old chronicler of the Cameronians'. . . Howie's book has been for upwards of a century a household word, occupying a place on the shelf beside THE BIBLE and THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.' Written for God, country and the covenanted work of Reformation. Stirring history!" -- Publisher
    Biographia Scoticana, John Howie
    Original from Oxford University, published 1885, digitized May 22, 2006. Described as a reprint of the 1781 edition. It does not appear to include the appendix cited above.
    http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC34190563&id=5iwAAAAAQAAJ&q=Scots+Worthies+1781&dq=Scots+Worthies+1781&ie=ISO-8859-1&pgis=1
    See also: A CLOUD OF WITNESSES FOR THE ROYAL PREROGATIVES OF JESUS CHRIST BEING THE LAST SPEECHES AND TESTIMONIES OF THOSE WHO HAVE SUFFERED FOR THE TRUTH IN SCOTLAND SINCE . . . 1680 and JOHN FOXE'S BOOK OF MARTYRS. ACTES AND MONUMENTS OF MATTERS MOST SPECIALL AND MEMORABLE. Available from: http://www.johnfoxe.org. Implemented by the Humanities Research Institute, University of Sheffield, England, and published by HRI Online Publications, Sheffield, 2011, Version 2.0, ISBN: 9780954260864.

    *Hughes, Philip E., The Register of the Company of Pastors of Geneva in the Time of Calvin, ISBN: 1592444865 9781592444861.
    The last chapter, about Calvin's last meeting with his pastors, is said to be one of the great pieces of Reformation literature.

    *Hurst, Henry, Whether Well-composed Religious Vows do not Exceedingly Promote Religion, 1661. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #27.
    "A Puritan sermon on a much neglected means to spiritual victory, ecclesiastical revival, and national reformation." -- Publisher

    *Hutchison, Matthew, The Reformed Presbyterian Church in Scotland: Its Origin and History, 1680-1876, 450 pages. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #18.
    "This is the only book-length history covering the period after 1680 (to 1876), when the majority Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland merged with the Free Church of Scotland. The history after 1822, when the Auchensaugh Renovation was removed as a term of communion, merely chronicles the wholesale backsliding of the church and eventual split in 1863; from which a majority emerged which joined with the Free Church of Scotland in 1876. A remnant of the minority of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland still exists, however they never returned to the original position of the church from which it began to depart in 1822 (with the removal of the Auchensaugh bond -- which bond is the Auchensaugh Renovation . . . This book is a fine illustration of the 'footsteps of the flock,' (as seen in the Protesters [paleopresbyterians], and their spiritual posterity), during the period of which it deals, while at the same time serving as a clear warning to those who have declined from Reformation attainments (i.e. the Resolutioners [neopresbyterians], and those who continue their deformation of the faith). 'By the National Covenant,' notes Thomas Sproull, 'our Fathers laid Popery prostrate. By the Solemn League and Covenant they were successful in resisting prelatic encroachments and civil tyranny. By it they were enabled to achieve the Second Reformation . . . They were setting up landmarks by which the location and limits of the city of God will be known at the dawn of the millennial day . . . How can they be said to go forth by the footsteps of the flock, who have declined from the attainments, renounced the covenants and contradicted the testimony of 'the cloud of witnesses.'. . . All the schisms (separations) that disfigure the body mystical of Christ . . . are the legitimate consequences of the abandonment of reformation attainments -- the violation of covenant engagements.' Understanding where the faithful covenanted servants of Christ have been historically, not only helps individuals to separate between truly constituted churches and the those that are false (because they have constitutionally backslidden from Reformation attainments); but is a necessary component to the keeping the fifth commandment, as the Reformed Presbytery has pointed out: ' Nor otherwise can a Christian know the time or place of his birth, or the persons whom God commands him to honor as his father and mother, than by uninspired testimony; and the same is true of his covenant obligation, if baptized in infancy. Against all who ignorantly or recklessly reject or oppose history as a bond of fellowship, in the family, in the state, but especially in the church, we thus enter our solemn and uncompromising protest.' (excerpted from: The Act, Declaration and Testimony for the Whole of Our Covenanted Reformation . . . by the Reformed Presbytery, pp. 177-178, the 1876 edition). This edition of THE REFORMED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN SCOTLAND: ITS ORIGIN AND HISTORY, 1680-1876 also contains an introductory note by William Goold (the editor of John Owen's WORKS). In introducing this book Goold writes, 'This volume may claim attention as supplying an essential link in the ecclesiastical history of Scotland. It is the history of that body of men who adhered to the civil part of the Second Reformation, according to which Presbytery was established and recognized by the State between 1638 and 1649 . . . The Church of which this volume is a history took its rise in its distinctive character at this period, and on the ground that it could not, while acknowledging the relief from oppression which the Revolution (of 1688), afforded, acquiesce in the arrangements made by the State for the recognition of the Church and the due exercise of its authority within its own spiritual domain (because the so-called 'glorious revolution' was Erastian to the core and also denied the previous national covenant engagements -- RB). . . . Apart, however, from their testimony in regard to this evil and danger, resulting from a Civil Government in which Prelacy was continued as an essential element, those who dissented from the Revolution Settlement, and from whom the Reformed Presbyterian Church arose, were animated with an earnest zeal for the maintenance of religious ordinances. They strove to exist as a Church, and how far they succeeded, and what difficulties they had to surmount in the attempt, is the interesting story recorded in this volume' (pp. v-vi). In summary, this book (of 450 pages), is an one-of-a-kind chronicle of an integral part of the history of the battle for the 'Crown Rights and Royal Prerogatives of the Lord Jesus Christ'." -- Publisher

    *Jackson, Jeremy, No Other Foundation: The Church Through Twenty Centuries, ISBN: 0891071695 9780891071693.

    Johnson, Gary L.W. and R. Fowler White, Whatever Happened to the Reformation? ISBN: 0875521835 9780875521831.

    *Josephus, Flavius, and William Whiston (translator), The Complete Works of Flavius Josephus, 4 volumes, ISBN: 9789568351762 9568351760. Alternate title: THE WORKS OF FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS.
    "Josephus' writings are indispensable for understanding Jewish thought, background, and history up to and around the time of Christ. Now Josephus is more accessible than ever!
    "In this edition, the entire text has been reset in modern, easy-to-read type. The Loeb numbering system (the standard way to cite Josephus), has been added so you can locate passages mentioned in other reference works -- and the confusing Roman numerals have been changed to simple Arabic ones. The entire text and notes of William Whiston's four-volume edition are included so you'll have the most complete edition possible. And the indexes have been thoroughly corrected and expanded. This is the edition to own!" -- CBD, referring to the Whiston translation
    The Works of Josephus
    http://www.biblestudytools.com/History/BC/FlaviusJosephus/

    *Kelly, Douglas F., The Emergence of Liberty in the Modern World: The Influence of Calvin on Five Governments From the 16th Through 18th Centuries, ISBN: 0875522971.
    "Examines Calvin's influence on the civil governments of Geneva, Huguenot France, Knox's Scotland, Puritan England, and Colonial America. Shows how Calvin's legacy continues to bear upon the issues that guide and agitate Western nations today." -- Publisher

    *Kennedy, D. James (1930-2007), with Jerry Newcombe, What if Jesus had Never Been Born? The Positive Impact of Christianity in History, ISBN: 0785271783 9780785271789.
    Hospitals, universities, literacy and education, capitalism and free-enterprise, representative government, separation of political powers, justice and common law, civil liberties, abolition of slavery, modern science, and so forth can all be attributed to Christianity.

    *Kennedy, D. James (1930-2007), with Jerry Newcombe, What if the Bible had Never Been Written? ISBN: 0785271546 9780785271543.
    "Following its predecessor, WHAT IF JESUS HAD NEVER BEEN BORN, WHAT IF THE BIBLE HAD NEVER BEEN WRITTEN is a veritable compendium of the major accomplishments of the western world. D. James Kennedy demonstrates quite capably that many of the most fundamental stages of advancement for mankind over the last 2000 years began with the impetus of people whose lives were influenced by the Holy Scriptures. The book reads easily and keeps the attention of the reader as the author moves from one aspect of human development to another. He also explodes some myths along the way with clear and concise excerpts from personal letters, writings and biographies of the individuals about whom he writes. All in all, I would recommend this book to those who question the validity and potency of the Bible and to those who need to bolster their faith and resolve in the the Book of books." -- Reader's Comment

    *Kerr, James (editor), The Covenants and the Covenanters: Covenants, Sermons, and Documents of the Covenanted Reformation. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1.
    "The Reformed Presbytery (in 1879), has well noted the following incongruity that is still with us today, 'We heard from various quarters the cry, 'maintain the truth, stand up for the principles of the Second Reformation:' and yet many of those who are the most loud in uttering this cry, appear desirous to bury in oblivion those imperishable national and ecclesiastical deeds, by which the church and kingdom of Scotland became 'married to the Lord.' (A Short Vindication of our Covenanted Reformation, p. 20). This book should go a long way to remedying the above noted ignorance and hypocrisy among those who now call upon the name of the Lord especially those who claim a Reformation heritage and are still open to further growth as it spells out in no uncertain terms what lay at the heart of the Second Reformation. Moreover, these covenants (landmarks of the Lord), stand as beacons to all nations of their continuing moral duty to bind themselves to Christ (First Commandment), or suffer His avenging wrath. (Ps. 2), [Psalm 2]. And make no mistake about it, the Lord will utterly destroy all those who quarrel with His covenant bonds, whether individuals, churches or nations the mystery of iniquity will fall! The prefatory note to this magnificent volume well describes its value: The Covenants, Sermons, and Papers in this volume carry the readers back to some of the brightest periods in Scottish history. They mark important events in that great struggle by which these three kingdoms (England, Scotland and Ireland -- RB), were emancipated from the despotisms of Pope, Prince, and Prelate, and an inheritance of liberty secured for these Islands of the Sea. The whole achievements of the heroes of the battlefields are comprehended under that phrase of Reformers and Martyrs, 'The Covenanted Work of Reformation.' The attainments of those stirring times were bound together by the Covenants, as by rings of gold. The Sermons here were the product of the ripe thought of the main actors in the various scenes -- men of piety, learning, and renown. Hence, the nature, objects, and benefits of personal and national Covenanting are exhibited in a manner fitted to attract to that ordinance the minds and hearts of men. The readers can well believe the statements of Livingstone, who was present at several ceremonies of covenant-renovation: 'I never saw such motions from the Spirit of God. I have seen more than a thousand persons all at once lifting up their hands, and the tears falling down from their eyes.' In the presence of the defences of the Covenants as deeds, by these preachers, the baseless aspersions of novelists and theologians fade out into oblivion. True Christians must, as they ponder these productions, be convinced that the Covenanters were men of intepreachers, the baseless aspersions of novelists and theologians fade out into oblivion. True Christians must, as they ponder these productions, be convinced that the Covenanters were men of intense faith and seraphic fervour, and their own hearts will burn as they catch the heavenly flame. Members of the Church of Christ will be stirred to nobler efforts for the Kingdom of their Lord as they meditate on the heroism of those who were the 'chariots of Israel and the horsemen thereof;' and they will behold with wonder that 'to the woman were given two wings of And Statesman will discover how princes, parliaments, and peoples united in the hearty surrender of themselves to the Prince of the kings and kingdoms of the earth; and will be aroused to promote that policy of Christian Statesmanship which, illustrating the purpose and will of God, the Father, shall liberate Parliaments and nations from the bonds of false religions, and assert for them those liberties and honours which spring from the enthronement of the Son of man, and King of kings and Lord of lords. This volume of documents of olden times is sent out on a mission of Revival of Religion, personal and national, in the present times. It would do a noble work if it helped to humble classes and masses, and led them to return as one man to that God in covenant from Whom all have gone so far away. A national movement, in penitence and faith, for the repeal of the Acts Recissory and the recognition of the National Covenants would be as life from the dead throughout the British Empire. The people and rulers of these dominions shall yet behold the brilliancy of the Redeemer's crowns; and shall, by universal consent, exalt Him who rules in imperial majesty over the entire universe of God. For, 'The seventh angel sounded, and there were great voices in heaven, saying, The kingdoms of this world are become the Kingdoms of our Lord and of His Christ.' Here we have some of the most moving sermons ever addressed to a people and their nations, given before the most solemn of occasions national covenant renewal! Alexander Henderson, Andrew Cant, Joseph Caryl, Edmond Calamy and a host of other Puritan Covenanters (even the turncoat Independent Philip Nye), are included here in easy to read modern (1895) type. Anyone interested in seeing the royal prerogatives of King Jesus once again trumpeted throughout the nations, on a national and international scale, needs this book for these men 'were setting up landmarks by which the city of God will be known at the dawn of the millennial day'." (Thomas Sproull cited in the Reformed Presbytery's Short Vindication, p. 38) -- Publisher
    Kerr, James (1847-1905), The Covenants and the Covenanters: Covenants, Sermons, and Documents of the Covenanted Reformation. Introduction on the National Covenants by James Kerr (1895)
    http://archive.org/details/covenantscovenan00kerr
    The Covenants and the Covenanters
    Project Gutenberg free e-text online.
    http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/19100
    The Covenants and the Covenanters: Covenants, Sermons and Documents of the Covenanted Reformation. Introd. on the National Covenants
    http://books.google.com/books?id=nrdKAAAAMAAJ&ie=ISO-8859-1&output=html

    *Knox, John (1505-1572), Appellation From the Sentence Pronounced by the Bishops and Clergy: Addressed to the Nobility and Estates of Scotland. Alternate titles: THE APPELLATION OF JOHN KNOX FROM THE CRUELL . . . SENTENCE PRONOUNCED AGAINST HIM BY THE FALSE BISHOPPES AND CLERGEY OF SCOTLAND, WITH HIS SUPPLICATION AND EXHORTATION TO THE NOBILITIE, ESTATES, AND COMMUNALTIE OF THE SAME REALME, and THE APPELLATION . . . TO THE SCOTTISH NOBILITY, and REFORMATION, REVOLUTION AND ROMANISM: AN APPEAL TO THE SCOTTISH NOBILITY, and THE APPELLATION FROM THE SENTENCE PRONOUNCED BY THE BISHOPS AND CLERGY: ADDRESSED TO THE NOBILITY AND ESTATES OF SCOTLAND, and THE APPELLATION. Cover title: REFORMATION, REVOLUTION AND ROMANISM: APPEAL TO THE SCOTTISH NOBILITY (1558). Available (singly as REFORMATION, REVOLUTION AND ROMANISM, in which key text have been underlined by a previous reader), on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available (REFORMATION, REVOLUTION AND ROMANISM), on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1 (MP3), #26. Available (APPELLATION FROM THE SENTENCE PRONOUNCED BY THE BISHOPS AND CLERGY: ADDRESSED TO THE NOBILITY AND ESTATES OF SCOTLAND), on the Library of Presbyterian Heritage Publications and Protestant Heritage Press CD-ROM Library. Available (APPELLATION FROM THE SENTENCE PRONOUNCED BY THE BISHOPS AND CLERGY: ADDRESSED TO THE NOBILITY AND ESTATES OF SCOTLAND), in THE WORKS OF JOHN KNOX, vol. 4. [John Knox; David Laing ((collector and editor)), THE WORKS OF JOHN KNOX, vol. 4, reprint of the 1855 edition printed for Bannatyne Club, Edinburgh (New York: AMS Press, 1966)].
    "David Chilton notes, 'Of all the sixteenth-century Reformers, John Knox remains the most ardently loved and fiercely hated. No other leader of his day saw so clearly the political issues in the light of Scripture. Nor has any of his contemporaries had so much direct influence upon the subsequent history of the world. He transformed a land of barbarians into one of the most hardheadly Calvinistic cultures ever to exist, and his doctrines lie at the core of all Protestant revolutionary activity. While he is often considered merely one of Calvin's lieutenants, he was actually a Reformer in his own right. In some respects he was the greatest of them all.' ("John Knox," in The Journal of Christian Reconstruction: Symposium on Puritanism and Law [Vallecito, CA: Chalcedon], Vol. V, No. 2, Winter, 1978-79, p. 194)
    "Furthermore, R.L. Greaves has noted that 'it has even been suggested -- and not altogether without merit -- that Knox was a key link in the development of political ideology that culminated in the American Revolution.' (Theology and Revolution in the Scottish Reformation: Studies in the Thought of John Knox [Grand Rapids, MI: Christian University Press, 1980], p. 156)
    "Moreover, Mason [Roger A. Mason -- compiler], states that this APPEAL [APPELLATION FROM THE SENTENCE PRONOUNCED BY THE BISHOPS AND CLERGY: ADDRESSED TO THE NOBILITY AND ESTATES OF SCOTLAND -- compiler], 'is the most important . . . of Knox's political writings.' (in the Introduction to his compilation of Knox's political writings entitled KNOX: ON REBELLION). [see annotation for KNOX: ON REBELLION elsewhere in this bibliography -- compiler]. It shows in a conclusive manner that Knox wanted a Theonomic Establishment which was careful to 'disapprove, detest, oppose and remove all false worship and all monuments of idolatry.' (cf. Westminster Larger Catechism, #108). It also clearly demonstrates that Knox believed in and promoted the continuing binding validity of the Old Testament case laws and the penal sanctions attached to them, including the death penalty.
    "Kevin Reed, in a editor's note, introducing this piece in his newly published SELECTED WRITING OF JOHN KNOX [available on the Puritan Hard Drive -- compiler], also points out that 'the Westminster Confession provides a distinct echo of Knox, when it states that the magistrate ""hath authority, and it is his duty, to take order, that unity and peace be preserved in the church, that the truth of God be kept pure and entire, that all blasphemies and heresies be suppressed, all corruptions and abuses in worship and discipline prevented or reformed, and all the ordinances of God duly settled, administered, and observed"" (Ch. 23:3, original wording). One secular historian once described Knox as 'Calvin with a sword,' making one wonder if he had not just been reading this very book. For 'where Calvin merely permitted disobedience to an ungodly ruler or immoral law, Knox championed armed rebellion -- a type of Calvinism that made religious revolution in Scotland possible.' (Christian History, Issue 46, p. 35). This is the best of the best; don't miss it!" -- Publisher
    Knox, John, Appellation From the Sentence Pronounced by the Bishops and Clergy: Addressed to the Nobility and Estates of Scotland
    This is a character scan (OCR) of the modernized text published by Protestant Heritage Press. While text may be cut and pasted it is subject to copyright.
    http://www.swrb.com/newslett/actualNLs/appellat.htm
    Knox, John (1505-1572), The Works of John Knox (1846), vol. 4.
    http://archive.org/stream/worksjohnknox07laingoog#page/n4/mode/2up
    Reformation, Revolution and Romanism (1558), John Knox, MP3 file.
    "This has been called John Knox's most important political writing. It also deals with Romanism, God's law, and much more.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?currSection=sermonssource&sermonID=1030075041
    See also:
    Goodman, Christopher, HOW SUPERIOR POWERS OUGHT TO BE OBEYED OF THEIR SUBJECTS: AND WHEREIN THEY MAY LAWFULLY BY GOD'S WORD BE DISOBEYED AND RESISTED, 1558. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #26. Available (HOW SUPERIOR POWERS OUGHT TO BE OBEYED), on the Library of Presbyterian Heritage Publications and Protestant Heritage Press CD-ROM Library.
    "From 1555 to 1558, Christopher Goodman served as co-pastor, with John Knox, of the congregation of English exiles in Geneva. During the course of his ministry, Goodman preached upon Acts 4:19 and 5:29: 'Whether it be right in the sight of God, to obey you rather than God, judge ye. We ought rather to obey God than men'. . . . In this book, Goodman contends against both ecclesiastical and political tyranny." -- Publisher
    Goodman, Christopher, How Superior Powers Ought to be Obeyed of Their Subjects
    http://www.constitution.org/cmt/goodman/obeyed.htm
    See also annotation for:
    Knox, John (1505-1572), THE HISTORY OF THE REFORMATION OF RELIGION WITHIN THE REALM OF SCOTLAND. . . . TOGETHER WITH THE LIFE OF THE AUTHOR, AND SEVERAL CURIOUS PIECES WROTE BY HIM, . . . BY THE REVEREND MR. JOHN KNOX, . . . TO WHICH IS ADDED, I. AN ADMONITION TO ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND . . . BY ANTONI GILBY. II. THE FIRST AND SECOND BOOKS OF DISCIPLINE; . . . GLASGOW, 1761. Alternate title: THE HISTORIE OF THE REFORMATION OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND CONTAINING FIVE BOOKS: TOGETHER WITH SOME TREATISES CONDUCING TO THE HISTORY. EDITED, WITH A LIFE OF KNOX AND A PREFACE, BY DAVID BUCHANAN. INCLUDES: "THE APPELLATION OF JOHN KNOX, FROM THE . . . SENTENCE PRONOUNCED AGAINST HIM (pp. 1-33); "THE ADMONITION OF JOHN KNOX TO HIS BELOVED BRETHREN THE COMMONALTY OF SCOTLAND" (pp. 34-42); "A FAITHFULL ADMONITION MADE BY JOHN KNOX TO THE TRUE PROFESSORS OF THE GOSPEL OF CHRIST WITHIN THE KINGDOM OF ENGLAND, 1554" (pp. 43-79); "THE COPIE OF A LETTER DELIVERED TO QUEEN MARY, REGENT OF SCOTLAND" (pp. 80-97); AND "A SERMON PREACHED BY JOHN KNOX [AUGUST 19, 1565]," ISBN: 0851513581 9780851513584. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1.

    Knox, John (1505-1572), The Early Church and the Coming Great Church. Available (WORKS OF JOHN KNOX), on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1.

    *Knox, John (1505-1572), The History of the Reformation of Religion Within the Realm of Scotland. . . . Together with the life of the author, and several curious pieces wrote by him, . . . By the Reverend Mr. John Knox, . . . To which is added, I. An admonition to England and Scotland . . . by Antoni Gilby. II. The first and second books of discipline; . . . Glasgow, 1761. Alternate title: THE HISTORIE OF THE REFORMATION OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND CONTAINING FIVE BOOKS: TOGETHER WITH SOME TREATISES CONDUCING TO THE HISTORY. EDITED, WITH A LIFE OF KNOX AND A PREFACE, BY DAVID BUCHANAN. INCLUDES: "THE APPELLATION OF JOHN KNOX, FROM THE . . . SENTENCE PRONOUNCED AGAINST HIM (pp. 1-33); "THE ADMONITION OF JOHN KNOX TO HIS BELOVED BRETHREN THE COMMONALTY OF SCOTLAND" (pp. 34-42); "A FAITHFULL ADMONITION MADE BY JOHN KNOX TO THE TRUE PROFESSORS OF THE GOSPEL OF CHRIST WITHIN THE KINGDOM OF ENGLAND, 1554" (pp. 43-79); "THE COPIE OF A LETTER DELIVERED TO QUEEN MARY, REGENT OF SCOTLAND" (pp. 80-97); AND "A SERMON PREACHED BY JOHN KNOX [AUGUST 19, 1565]," ISBN: 0851513581 9780851513584. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1.

    *Knox, John (1505-1572), National Repentance and Reformation. Alternate title: A BRIEF EXHORTATION TO ENGLAND FOR THE SPEEDY EMBRACING OF THE GOSPEL, 1559. Available in THE WORKS OF JOHN KNOX. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #25.
    "Formerly titled A BRIEF EXHORTATION TO ENGLAND FOR THE SPEEDY EMBRACING OF THE GOSPEL, 1559. Mitchell in THE SCOTTISH REFORMATION (p. 80), cites Dr. Merle D'Aubigné on Knox: 'The blood of warriors ran in the veins of the man who was to become one of the most intrepid champions of Christ's army . . . He was active, bold, thoroughly upright and perfectly honest, diligent in his duties, and full of heartiness for his comrades.' The warrior in Knox was certainly roused for battle in this production. Kevin Reed in SELECTED WRITINGS OF JOHN KNOX (p. 580), comments, 'Some historians have reflected negatively on the vehemence of Knox's remarks. Perhaps they should peruse the long list of the martyrs named in the appendix to this work. Critics may then find a clue for understanding the reformer's zeal. Knox is discussing serious matters of life and death -- spiritual issues which affect us deeply in this life, and for eternity.' Magistrates everywhere today need to hear this message again; God has not changed -- there are still corporate curses for disobedience at a national level and corporate blessings for those nations 'that kiss the Son' (cf. Psalm 2)." -- Publisher

    *Lorimer, Peter, John Knox and the Church of England: His Work in Her Pulpit and His Influence Upon Her Liturgy, Articles, and Parties. Alternate Title: JOHN KNOX AND THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND, HIS WORK IN HER PULPIT AND HIS INFLUENCE UPON HER LITURGY, ARTICLES, AND PARTIES. A MONOGRAPH FOUNDED UPON SEVERAL IMPORTANT PAPERS OF KNOX NEVER BEFORE PUBLISHED. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1.
    " 'The 'three mighties' in the army of the Reformation, are undoubtedly Luther, Calvin, and Knox. Each of the three has his appropriate place and his peculiar work. Luther cleared the ground; Calvin exhibited the plan of the new edifice; Knox was the workman who erected it.' (Wylie, Ter-centenary of the Scottish Reformation, p. 73, this book is listed under 'Cunningham' in this catalogue). Here Lorimer gives us an important look at a major chapter in the life of Christ's Reformation 'workman,' as founded upon several important papers of Knox never before published. Kyle elaborates: 'After the publication of Laing's collection, three smaller Knoxian writings were discovered. In 1875 these tracts were reprinted as part of Peter Lorimer's book JOHN KNOX AND THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. Scholarly criticism has verified Knox's authorship of these articles.' (The Mind of John Knox, p. 14). Lorimer himself says that 'the amount of fresh biographical and historical material supplied by these papers is so very considerable that it appeared to warrant and suggest a re-writing of the English chapter of Knox's life.' Furthermore, he continues, that though Knox is too often thought of only in connection 'with his work and success as the Reformer of Scotland,' it should be remembered that 'a large portion of the best and most energetic part of his life was spent in England, and among Englishmen out of England.' Written as a Monograph to 'make larger and freer use of Knox's own writings, in the way of culling their most personal and characteristic passages,' Lorimer intimates, 'I wished, as much as possible, to let Knox himself be seen and heard in my book.' Kevin Reed, one of the foremost Knox scholars alive today, calls this work 'an excellent account of Knox's ministry in England' (JOHN KNOX THE FORGOTTEN REFORMER, Presbyterian Heritage Publishing, p. 19). A great supplement to any study of Knox." -- Publisher

    *McFetridge, N.S., Calvinism in History. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    "A splendid book." -- Loraine Boettner
    "The rich Reformation heritage of truth and freedom is set forth in four chapters: 1. Calvinism as a Political Force, 2. Calvinism as a Political Force in the History of the USA, 3. Calvinism as a Moral Force, 4. Calvinism as an Evangelizing Force." -- Publisher
    "Arminianism, taking to an aristocratic form of church government, tend toward a monarchy in civil affairs, while Calvinism, taking to a republican form of church government, tends toward a democracy in civil affairs."

    *M'Crie, Thomas (1772-1835), Life of John Knox, 1855. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1.
    Life of John Knox: Containing Illustrations of the History of the Reformation in Scotland: with Biographical Notices of the Principal Reformers, and Sketches of the Progress of Literature in Scotland During the Sixteenth Century; and an Appendix, Consisting of Original Papers
    http://books.google.com/books?id=oAIFAAAAYAAJ&ie=ISO-8859-1&output=html

    Miller, Perry, and James Hoopes (editor), Sources for the New England Mind: The Seventeenth Century, ISBN: 0910776016 9780910776011.
    Includes bibliography.

    *Montgomery, Michael S. (compiler), American Puritan Studies: An Annotated Bibliography of Dissertations, 1882-1981, 419 pages, ISBN: 0313242372 9780313242373.
    American Puritan Studies: An Annotated Bibliography of Dissertations, 1882-1981
    http://info.greenwood.com/books/0313242/0313242372.html
    "This bibliography orders one major genre of research in American Puritan studies -- doctoral dissertations and published monographs based on them -- to facilitate access to many significant but often neglected studies, and to display per exemplum the remarkably broad array of topics that have interested students of the American Puritans. It comprises citations of and abstracts for 940 American, British, Canadian, and German doctoral dissertations from 1882 through 1981. Dissertations cited treat entirely or in part some aspect of the history, theology, literature, and culture of the American Puritans, from the time of the Mayflower through 1730, and the perceived influence of Puritanism on later American thought. Also included are historiographical studies on the idea of Puritanism as interpreted by later generations of Americans. Each citation is annotated with a brief abstract and/or the table of contents. For ease of access to the contents of this bibliography, Montgomery has provided four indexes: author/editor/compiler, short-title, degree-granting institution, and subject." -- Publisher
    American Puritan Studies: An Annotated Bibliography of Dissertations, 1882-1981, full view.
    http://books.google.com/books?id=cqjVAAAACAAJ&ie=ISO-8859-1&output=html

    *Murray, Iain, The Reformation of the Church: A Collection of Reformed and Puritan Documents on Church Issues, ISBN: 085151118X 9780851511184.
    "First published in 1965 and once again available. Documents are drawn largely from the 16th and 17th centuries and presents the finest thinking of the fathers on authority and freedom, the need for reformation, the nature of the government, unity, and membership of the Church of Jesus Christ." -- GCB

    *Neal, Daniel, and Joshua Toulmin, The History of the Puritans, or, Protestant Non-conformists: From the Reformation in 1517, to the Revolution in 1688; Comprising an Account of Their Principles; Their attempts for a farther reformation in the church, their sufferings, and the lives and characters of their most considerable divines, 3 volumes.
    "Reprinted from the latest edition and containing critical notes, this outstanding presentation of Protestant nonconformity (from 1517 to 1688), delineates the course of action taken by those dubbed Puritan, describes the seeds of liberty and democracy that they spread and that lie latent in their history and teachings, and presents a vivid picture of the effect of their stand for truth. This is an excellent work and is well-deserving of careful study. The benefits of reading these volumes is too great to be tabulated here. We can only hope that a new generation of men and women who are loyal to the Lord and His Word will peruse these pages to their own great profit." -- Cyril J. Barber

    *New Liberty Videos, The Forbidden Book: The History of the English Bible, DVD, New 2006 Version, on-camera spokesman: Dr. Craig Lampe; Narrator: Jim Birdsall; Director: Brian Barkley; Run Time: 60 minutes.
    " 'The Forbidden Book' is unlike anything you have ever seen before. Hosted by Dr. Craig Lampe, this one-hour documentary takes you on a fascinating journey through time. Follow our film crew across Europe as we SHOW YOU all the important places of Christian history.
    "Learn how God's Word was originally scribed in Hebrew and Greek. Walk with Dr. Lampe among the ruins of the very first Christian Church ever built above ground -- not in Israel, but in England! Discover how the Word was preserved through the 1,000 year period of the Dark and Middle Ages, when possession of scripture in any language other than Latin meant certain death at the hands of the organized church. Uncover the truth about the misunderstood books called 'Apocrypha' that were printed in every Protestant Christian's Bible until 1885.
    "Meet John Wycliffe, the first person to translate the Bible into English -- and see his church, which is still offering Sunday services today, as it has since the 1300's. Look at the door where Martin Luther, the first person to print the Bible in German, nailed his 95 Theses, starting the Protestant Reformation. See William Tyndale's illegal printing shop, which is a book store today, and find out why Tyndale was executed for being the first person to print the scriptures in English. Find out about the 1535 first complete printed English Bible of Myles Coverdale, the 1537 Matthews Bible, and King Henry the Eighth's 1539 'Great Bible' -- the first legal English Bible.
    "Learn why the Bible of the Protestant Reformation, the 1560 English Geneva Bible, had to be printed in Switzerland due to the reign of Queen 'Bloody' Mary. See how the 1568 BISHOPS BIBLE was revised to become the 1611 KING JAMES BIBLE, and how the KING JAMES VERSION slowly replaced the much more popular GENEVA BIBLE among early American Colonists.
    "The Forbidden Book is simply the most captivating and informative video ever produced on the subject of how we got the Bible, and how God has preserved His Word for thousands of years to countless generations." -- Publisher
    "The Forbidden Book is a DVD presentation examining the history of the Word of God in English. It is hosted by Dr. Craig Lampe, a Bible historian and International Director of the World Bible Society. Dr. Lampe owns the Rare Bible Showroom in Arizona and holds a virtual monopoly over rare and antique Bibles. His collection even includes a 1410 Wycliffe Manuscript valued at just under $3 million. It is one of the rarest Bibles in the world. He has a Coverdale Bible, Great Bibles, sells leaves of the Geneva Bible, and, amazingly enough, leaves from the Gutenberg Bible -- the first book ever published. If you happen to have one of these complete Bibles sitting in your attic, you should have it insured for about $100 million.
    "This DVD is an hour-long presentation on the history of the English Bible. The viewer will meet most of the historical figures responsible for bringing us the Bible as we know and love it today: Wycliffe, Hus, Gutenberg, Colet, Erasmus, Tyndale, Luther and so on. He will see some of the locations important to the history of the Bible, such as the Wittenberg door and Martin Luther's study. He will learn about the earliest English translations, in the Old World and in the New.
    "There are many amazing facts worked into the presentation. Lampe shows a scroll that is 1000 years old, and tells the viewer that it is word-for-word the same as the text of the Dead Sea Scrolls that were written a full millennium before. He describes how the Bible went from being available in 500 languages in 400 AD to being available in only 1 only 100 years later. He talks about a 110 year period in America during which 5000 editions of the Bible were produced. . . .
    "Before I close, I will warn that the host is quite harsh towards the Roman Catholic Church and their role in the history of the English Bible. And well he should be, as the papacy worked tirelessly to eradicate any person who dared to present the Scriptures to the common man. Of course the fears of the Church were founded, for when Scripture became accessible, the light quickly broke forth and spread throughout the world. -- Viewer's Comments
    "Did you know that during the period of AD 100 and AD 400 the Bible had been translated into nearly 500 languages? Did you know that from AD 400 to AD 500 it had been reduced to just one language? A language only know to the clergy and the educated. . . .
    "John Wycliffe, the brilliant 14th century Oxford scholar, translated the Bible from Latin into English in order to enlighten the masses oppressed through ignorance. His work was so despised by the established church, that Pope Martin V ordered Wycliffe's bones to be dug up and burned. Martin Luther was one of the few who challenged church authority in the 16th century and lived to tell the tale. . . .
    "William Tyndale was not spared like his friend Luther. Tyndale spent the last 500 days of his life in a cold castle dungeon. He was then tied to a stake, strangled and burned. His crime? . . . printing Bibles in the English language! Discover the fascinating story behind the preservation of the English Bible . . ." -- J.J. Calvin

    New Liberty Videos, Mysteries of the Dead Sea Scrolls: Secrets of God Revealed, Joel Lampe, Craig Lampe, Frank Seekins, New Liberty Videos, ISBN: 0966321669 9780966321661.
    "Learn the behind-the-scenes details of the 19,000 pieces of what has become known as the Dead Sea Scrolls.
    "Hebrew word pictures: In ancient Hebrew, every word is formed by adding pictures together to illustrate its meaning. Biblical Hebrew is composed of simple word pictures that illustrate the truths found in Scripture.
    "During the dark ages, superstition and ignorance controlled the minds of the masses. A few brave men obeyed God and brought the Bible to the world."

    Noll, Mark A. (editor), Eerdman's Handbook to Christianity in America, ISBN: 0802835821 9780802835826.
    Includes bibliography and index.

    Owen, John (1616-1683), An Humble Testimony Unto the Goodness and Severity of God in his Dealing With Sinful Churches and Nations. Or the only way to deliver a sinful nation from utter ruin by impendent judgments: in a discourse on the words of our Lord Jesus Christ, . . . By John Owen, D.D. The second edition Edinburgh, 1737. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #25.

    Packer, J.I. (editor), The Bible Almanac: A Comprehensive Handbook of the People of the Bible and How They Lived, ISBN: 0840751621 9780840751621.

    Paisley, Ian R.K. and J.A. Wylie, The Pope is the Antichrist: A Demonstration From Scripture, History, and his own Lips; Being a Precis of Dr. J.A. Wylie's classic, THE PAPACY IS THE ANTICHRIST.
    http://www.ianpaisley.org/article.asp?ArtKey=antichrist_intro

    Pauck, Wilhelm (editor), Melanchthon and Bucer, ISBN: 0664220193 9780664220198.

    Paul, Robert S., The Assembly of the Lord: Politics and Religion in the Westminster Assembly and the Grand Debate, ISBN: 0567085597 9780567085597.
    "Too bad this excellent book is so expensive. It is the kind of book that anybody interested in the background of the Westminster Assembly would enjoy reading. Detailed, scholarly, and thoroughly documented. We think it is well worth the price for the understanding that it imparts." -- GCB

    *Pendlebury, William, National Repentance and Reformation the way to Obtain National Blessings. A sermon preach'd at Rotherham in Yorkshire, on the eleventh of April, 1744, . . . by William Pendlebury, M.A.

    Phillips, Thomas, The Welsh Revival: Its Origin and Development, ISBN: 0851515428 9780851515427.
    "This rare book, published in 1860 as the first comprehensive account of the 1859 revival in Wales, holds a primary place in the authentic records of periods of remarkable spiritual recovery and growth. Phillips was an eye witness of much that he records. He also gives the testimony of others." -- GCB

    Post-Reformation Digital Library
    "The Post-Reformation Digital Library is a collection of resources relating to the development of theology during the Post-Reformation/Early Modern era (ca. 16th-18th centuries), hosted by the H. Henry Meeter Center for Calvin Studies of Calvin College and Calvin Theological Seminary.
    "The primary focus of this site is digital books available from Google Books as well as smaller digital libraries such as Internet Archive, which may have books not available on Google.
    "All users are encouraged to contribute to this project by reporting new books with a note under 'Comments' at the bottom of the relevant page. Please also copy and paste any broken links in the relevant comments page so that the editorial board can investigate. (Nota bene: this site is limited insofar as it aims at only those works of the authors that have been digitized. In the vast majority of cases this will not be representative of the author's work as a whole and is no substitute for due bibliographic research.)"
    http://libguides.calvin.edu/prdl

    *Powlison, David A.C., Competent to Counsel?: The History of Biblical Counseling, new edition. Alternate title: COMPETENT TO COUNSEL? THE HISTORY OF A CONSERVATIVE PROTESTANT ANTI-PSYCHIATRY MOVEMENT, ISBN: 0978556763 9780978556761.
    David Powlison is editor of Journal of Biblical Counseling, a staff member of the Christian Counseling and Educational Foundation, Glenside, Pennsylvania, and a graduate of Harvard University in 1972.

    *Presbyterian Heritage Publications, Library of Presbyterian Heritage Publications and Protestant Heritage Press CD-ROM Library and Library of Presbyterian Heritage Publications and Protestant Heritage Press CD-ROM Library (Dallas, TX [Presbyterian Heritage Publications, P.O. Box 180922, Dallas, 75218]: Presbyterian Heritage Publications, 1999).

    Reed, Kevin, The Decline of American Presbyterianism (A Book Review of Gary North's CROSSED FINGERS: HOW THE LIBERALS CAPTURED THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.
    http://www.swrb.com/newslett/actualnls/decline.htm
    Crossed Fingers: How the Liberals Captured the Presbyterian Church, by Gary North
    http://entrewave.com/freebooks/docs/html/gncf/table_of_contents.htm

    *Reformed Presbytery of North America ("Steelite"), David Steele (1803-1887), John Thorburn (1730?-1788), John Courtass (d. 1795), et al., Act, Declaration, and Testimony, for the Whole of the Covenanted Reformation, as Attained to, and Established in, Britain and Ireland; Particularly Betwixt the Years 1638 and 1649, Inclusive. As, Also, Against all the Steps of Defection From Said Reformation, Whether in Former or Later Times, Since the Overthrow of that Glorious Work, Down to This Present day (1876), (Philadelphia, PA: Printed by Rue and Jones, 1876), a new edition of the Ploughlandhead Testimony of 1761, the subordinate standard of the original "Steelite" Reformed Presbytery that was constitutes in 1840. Available (the 1850 edition only) on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available (the 1850 edition only) on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1.
    "And now, when time has proved that more recent Testimonies, Terms, and Covenants, have failed to preserve either unity or uniformity among those who framed them; it cannot be unseasonable to re-exhibit the original ACT, DECLARATION, AND TESTIMONY, which has been justly characterized as 'the most profoundly reasoned document ever emitted by the Reformed Presbyterian Church'." -- The Reformation Advocate Magazine, Vol. I, No. 8, December, 1875, page 267
    "Upholds the original work of the Westminster Assembly and testifies to the abiding worth and truth formulated in the Westminster family of documents. Upholds and defends the Crown Rights of King Jesus in Church and State, denouncing those who would remove the crown from Christ's head by denying His right to rule (by His law), in both the civil and ecclesiastical spheres. Testifies to the received doctrine, government, worship, and discipline of the Church of Scotland in her purest (reforming) periods. Applies God's Word to the Church's corporate attainments 'with a judicial approbation of the earnest contendings and attainments of the faithful, and a strong and pointed judicial condemnation of error and the promoters thereof.' (The Contending Witness magazine, Dec. 17/93, p. 558). Shows the church's great historical victories (such as the National and Solemn League and Covenant, leading to the Westminster Assembly), and exposes her enemies actions (e.g. the Prelacy of Laud; the Independency, sectarianism, covenant breaking and ungodly toleration set forth by the likes of Cromwell [and the Independents that conspired with him]; the Erastianism and civil sectarianism of William of Orange, etc.). It is not likely that you will find a more consistent working out of the principles of Calvinism anywhere. Deals with the most important matters relating to the individual, the family, the church and the state. Sets forth a faithful historical testimony of God's dealings with men during some of the most important days of church history. A basic text that should be mastered by all Christians." -- Publisher
    Act, Declaration, and Testimony (1876)
    https://archive.org/details/actdeclarationte00refo
    *Reformed Presbytery, "Steelite," (David Steele [1803-1887], James Campbell, Thomas Sproull, James Fulton), A Short Vindication of our Covenanted Reformation, 2nd edition, revised, and enlarged by a committee of the Reformed Presbytery ("Circular" and "Review" prefixed), 1879, 50 pages. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Also available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #2 (also #1, #25, and #30).
    "Until the church comes to terms with what is written in this book it will remain weak and divided. Covenant breakers will not prosper, as this rare item demonstrates from both Scripture and history. The power packed ordinance of covenanting (the National and Solemn League and Covenant in particular), was foundational to the second Reformation and the work of the Westminster Assembly. 'By the National Covenant our fathers laid Popery prostrate. By the Solemn League and Covenant they were successful in resisting prelatic encroachments and civil tyranny. By it they were enabled to achieve the Second Reformation . . . They were setting up landmarks by which the location and limits of the city of God will be known at the dawn of the millennial day . . . How can they be said to go forth by the footsteps of the flock, who have declined from the attainments, renounced the covenants and contradicted the testimony of 'the cloud of witnesses. . . . All the schisms (separations) that disfigure the body mystical of Christ . . . are the legitimate consequences of the abandonment of reformation attainments, the violation of covenant engagements.' If you are interested in knowing how to recognize a faithful church (or state), when and why to separate from unfaithful institutions, who has held up the standard of Covenanted Reformation attainments and who has backslidden (and why), what it means to subscribe to the Westminster Confession (1646), (and why most that say they do so today do not have any idea of what that means), and much more concerning individual, family, church and civil, individual, family, church and civil duties, this is one of the best books you will ever lay your hands on. It chronicles 'some instances of worldly conformity and mark(s) some steps of defection from our 'covenanted unity and uniformity,' noting how 'it is necessary to take a retrospect of our history for many years; for we did not all at once reach our present condition of sinful ignorance and manifold apostasy.' Presbyterian and the Reformed churches lay under the heavy hand of God's judgement in our day, because of the very defections noted throughout this fine work. 'We heard (hear) from various quarters the cry, "maintain the truth, stand up for the principles of the Second Reformation;" and yet many of those who are the most loud in uttering this cry, appear desirous to bury in oblivion those imperishable national and ecclesiastical deeds, by which the church and kingdom of Scotland became 'married to the Lord.' Are we married to the Lord, or have we thrown off the covenants of our forefathers; are we the chaste bride of Christ, or a harlot who is found in the bedchambers of every devilish suitor (whether ecclesiastical or civil), who tempts us with the favors of this world? Let us cry out, as with 'the noble Marquis of Argyle, upon the scaffold,' when he said, 'God hath tied us by covenants to religion and reformation. These that were then unborn are yet engaged, and it passeth the power of all the magistrates under heaven to absolve them from the oath of God. They deceive themselves, and it may be, would deceive others, who think otherwise.' Not for the weak of heart." -- Publisher
    A Short Vindication of our Covenanted Reformation, Reformed Presbytery
    http://www.covenanter.org/reformed/2015/8/24/a-short-vindication-of-our-covenanted-reformation

    *Reid, James, Memoirs of the Westminster Divines.
    "As far as I am able to judge, the Christian world, since the days of the apostles, had never a synod of more excellent divines than this." -- Richard Baxter
    "The Assembly was called into being by the English Parliament, and convened on July 1, 1643. The result of their deliberations was a CONFESSION OF FAITH and the famous SHORTER CATECHISM. The synod met over a period of several years and comprised the finest church historians, Hebraists, Greek scholars, theologians, and pastors of their time. This book records their activities. It is a fine work and should be read for its intrinsic worth." -- Cyril J. Barber
    "First published in 1811, this authoritative work of 756 pages contains biographical sketches of 106 who worked on the historic Westminster Confession of Faith (1646)." -- GCB
    Westminster Shorter Catechism Project
    "Click on any of the individual questions below to get the answer and Biblical references, as well as links to works by John Flavel, Thomas Watson, Thomas Boston, James Fisher, and John Whitecross, and others."
    http://www.shortercatechism.com/ Westminster Shorter Catechism With Proof Texts
    http://www.reformed.org/documents/WSC_frames.html

    *Reid, W. Stanford, Trumpeter of God: A Biography of John Knox, 372 pages, ISBN: 0801077087 9780801077081.
    Knox laid the foundation for Presbyterianism and the Covenanted Reformation.

    *Renwick, A.M., and A.M. Harman, The Story of the Church, 2nd enlarged edition, ISBN: 0802800920 9780802800923 0851104649 9780851104645. Includes index.
    "First published in 1958, this concise summary of the history of the church is one of the very best for laypeople. Since its first appearance, this work has attained the status of a classic. . . ." -- Cyril J. Barber

    *Renwick, James (1662-1688), Select Works of John Renwick, at True Covenanter
    http://www.truecovenanter.com/renwick/index.htm

    *Renwick, James (1662-1688), The Testimony of Some Persecuted Presbyterian Ministers of the Gospel Unto the Covenanted Reformation of the Church of Scotland, and to the Present Expediency of Continuing to Preach the Gospel in the Fields, and Against the Present anti-Christian Toleration in its Nature and Design, Tending to Bury all These in Oblivion, Lately Obtruded Upon, and Accepted by the Body of this Nation, 1688. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    A Testimony Against anti-Christian Toleration, James Renwick; Alexander Shields
    http://www.truecovenanter.com/renwick/renwick_testimony_16880117.html

    *Renwick, James (1662-1688), Alexander Shields, and Other "Society People," An Informatory Vindication of a Poor, Wasted, Misrepresented Remnant of the Suffering, Anti-prelatic, Anti-Erastian . . . 1744. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #27.
    "INFORMATORY VINDICATION (1687), a statement of principles issued by the Society People (see Societies, United), during James VII's reign. Prepared mainly by James Renwick, latterly in consultation with Alexander Shields, it was published in Utrecht. Its full title reflects something of the contents: AN INFORMATORY VINDICATION OF A POOR WASTED MISREPRESENTED REMNANT OF THE SUFFERING ANTI-POPISH ANTI-PRELATIC ANTI-ERASTIAN ANTI-SECTARIAN TRUE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF CHRIST IN SCOTLAND UNITED TOGETHER IN A GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE. BY WAY OF REPLY TO VARIOUS ACCUSATIONS IN LETTERS INFORMATIONS AND CONFERENCES GIVEN FORTH AGAINST THEM. It refuted charges brought against the 'Remnant' of schism (in their eyes a great evil) . . . The VINDICATION mourned the estrangement from other Presbyterians who had accepted the government's INDULGENCES OR EDICTS OF TOLERATION, and expressed love for them as fellow-ministers 'with whom again we would desire to have communion in ordinances'. The separation had been forced upon the Society People by the tyranny and temper of the times, but it did not affect their position as being in the succession of the historic Kirk of Scotland. The document aimed to clear away the hostility and misunderstanding about them that had grown up in Scotland and Holland." (Cameron, editor, Dictionary of Scottish Church History and Theology, p. 429)
    "In proof of the catholic, unsectarian, Christian spirit of Renwick and his followers, the clear statements of the INFORMATORY VINDICATION, the work which most fully and clearly defines their position, may be referred to . . . In these noble utterances, we have strikingly exemplified the true spirit of Christian brotherhood . . . This is the genuine import of the vow of the Solemn League and Covenant, which binds Covenanters to regard whatever is done to the least of them, as done to all and to every one in particular. While firmly holding fast all Scriptural attainments, and contending earnestly for the faith once delivered to the saints, we should cordially rejoice in the evidences of grace in Christ's servants wherever we find them. We should love them as brethren, fulfil the law of Christ by bearing their burdens, wish them God speed in all that they are doing for the advancement of His glory, and fervently labour and pray for the coming of the happy period when divisions and animosities shall cease, and when there shall be one King, and His name one in all the earth. The testimony of Renwick and his associates is of permanent value and of special importance in our day, as it was directed against systems of error and idolatry, which serve to corrupt the Church and enslave the State. Against Popery in every form Renwick was a heroic and uncompromising witness. At the peril of life, he publicly testified against the usurpation of the papist James, and rejected him as having no claim to be regarded as a constitutional sovereign, and as utterly disqualified to reign in a Protestant reformed land. This was the main ground of his objection against James' toleration, for which the Indulged ministers tendered obsequious thanks to the usurper. Yet this edict of toleration was issued for the purpose of opening the way for the practice of Rome's abominations, and for the advancement of papists to places of power and trust in the nation. None of the Cameronians would, for any earthly consideration, even to save their lives, for a moment admit that a papist had any right to exercise political power in a reformed land. Our martyred forefathers we regard as worthy of high respect and imitation, for their deeply cherished dread of the growing influence of Popery, and for their determined resistance to its exclusive and extravagant claims. The system of Popery is the abnegation of all precious gospel truth; and is a complete politico-religious confederacy against the best interests of a Protestant nation. The boast of its abettors is that it is semper eadem ever the same. Rome cannot reform herself from within, and she is incapable of reformation from external influences and agencies. The Bible never speaks of Antichrist as to be reformed, but as waxing worse and worse till the time when he shall be completely subverted and irrecoverably destroyed. Whatever changes may be going on in some Popish countries, whereby the power of the Papacy is weakened, it is evident that the principles and spirit of the Romish priesthood, and of those who are under their influence, remain unchanged. The errors of the anti-Christian system, instead of being diminished, have of late years increased. Creature worship has become more marked and general. The Immaculate Conception has been proclaimed by Papal authority as the creed of Romanism. In these countries, and some other Protestant lands, the influence of Popery in government and education, and so on the whole social system, has been greatly on the increase. Among those who have most deeply studied inspired prophecy, there is a general expectation that the period of Babylon's downfall is hastening on, and is not far distant. There is a general presentiment too, that the Man of Sin, prior to his downfall, will make some dire and violent attempt through his infatuated followers against the truth, and against such as faithfully maintain it. The 'Slaying of the Witnesses,' which we are disposed to regard as yet future may take place, not so much by the actual shedding of blood, though it is plain that Jesuit policy and violence will not hesitate to re-enact former persecution and massacre, to accomplish a desired purpose. It may mainly be effected, as Scott, the expositor, suggests, by silencing the voice of a public testimony in behalf of fundamental truths throughout Christendom; and of this there are at present unmistakable signs not a few, throughout the churches in various countries. The Protestant church in all its sections should be thoroughly awake to its danger from the destructive errors, idolatry and power of its ancient irreconcilable enemy; and should, by all legitimate means, labour to counteract and nullify its political influence. The ministry and the rising youth of the church should study carefully the Popish controversy, and should be intimately acquainted with the history of the rise and progress of the Papacy its assumed blasphemous power its accumulated errors and delusions, and its plots, varied persecutions and cruel butcheries of Christ's faithful witnesses. Above all, they should set themselves earnestly, prayerfully and perseveringly to diffuse the Bible and Gospel light in the dark parts of their native country, and among Romanists in other lands. By embracing fully and holding fast, in their practical application, the principles of the British Covenants, and by imbibing the spirit of covenanted martyrs men like Renwick and the Cameronians, we will be prepared for the last conflict with Antichrist. The firm and faithful maintenance of a martyr-testimony will be a principle instrument of the victory of truth over the error and idolatry of Rome. They overcame him by the blood of the Lamb, and the word of their testimony; and they loved not their lives unto the death. (Rev. 12:11 [Revelation 12:11]). Finally, the testimony of Renwick is valuable, as throwing light on great evils connected with systems of civil government, and with Protestant churches, and as pointing out clearly the duty of faithful witnesses in relation to them. Two great principles, the one doctrinal, and the other practical, were essential to it, or rather constituted its whole specialty. These were, first, that, according to the national vows, and the reformation attainments, the whole civil polity of the nation should be conformed to the Scriptures, and secondly, the positive duty of distinct separation from whatever systems in the state and church that are opposed to entire allegiance to Messiah the Prince. (Houston, The Life of James Renwick, pp. 52-55)
    "Some of them, particularly in Scotland, loved not their lives unto death for the word of God, and for the testimony which they held. Rev. vi. 9. [Revelation 6:9]. These refused to have communion in public ordinances not only with prelatical ministers, but even with the acceptors of indulgences or licenses from the civil power, to exercise their ministry under certain limitations. The INFORMATORY VINDICATION, which certainly contains the genuine principles of church communion, held by the sufferers for the cause of Christ in that period, declares, that they could by no means own or countenance the administrations of the indulged ministers; because they considered the indulgence, in any of the forms in which it was granted by the civil power, as derived from the supremacy claimed by that power in ecclesiastical matters; as laying the office of the ministry under unwarrantable restriction; and as tending, in a great measure, to suppress and bury the covenanted reformation, cf. Informatory Vindication, Head iv." (Anderson, Alexander and Rufus; or a Series of Dialogues on Church Communion [1862], p. 294)
    "To the friends of evangelical truth, and the faithful witnesses for the redeemer's royal prerogatives, the services of Renwick, at the crisis in which he exercised his public ministry, were invaluable. He was eminently the man for the time. Through the influence of the unhappy Indulgence, the strict Covenanters were reduced to what they style themselves in the Informatory Vindication, a 'wasted, suffering, anti-popish, anti-prelatic, anti-erastian, anti-sectarian remnant.' By the death of Cargill and Cameron, they were left as 'sheep without a shepherd,' broken and scattered. Through the fierceness of persecution, and the machinations of enemies, they were in danger of falling into confusion, and of being entirely wasted and destroyed. We admire the gracious providence of God in preparing, at this particular crisis, an instrument of such rare and suitable endowments for feeding 'the flock in the wilderness,' and for unfurling and upholding so nobly the 'Banner of Truth' amidst hosts of infuriated enemies. James Renwick, though a very youth when he entered on his arduous work, and trained under great outward disadvantages, had a powerful and well-cultivated mind. He was endowed with singular administrative talent, and had great tact and skill in managing men. He was an acute and logical thinker, an eloquent and attractive public speaker, and was distinguished by fertility and force as a writer. The INFORMATORY VINDICATION his testimony against King James' 'toleration, with his 'Letters,' and 'Sermons and Lectures,' bear ample evidence of his sound judgment, comprehensive mind, and ability as an author. His prudence, meekness and loving disposition, combined with his sanctified zeal, and heroic courage, deservedly gave him great influence among those to whom he ministered. He was eminently fitted to be 'a first man among men.' The Lord held him in the hollow of his hand, and made him a 'polished shaft in his quiver.' The services which Renwick rendered to the Protestant cause were invaluable. He organized the scattered remnant, and imparted new life and ardour to their proceedings. He set forth clearly the principles of the 'Society people;' and in a number of able and logical papers, clearly defined their plans of action. He rendered it, in a great measure, impossible for enemies to misrepresent and accuse them falsely to the Government. He was their Secretary in their correspondence with foreign churches; and he did much to evoke the prayerful sympathy of Protestants in other lands in behalf of the victims of persecution in Scotland. The presence and influence of Renwick among the suffering Presbyterians were of the highest importance in his own day; and not to them alone, but also to the whole church of Christ in these lands, and to the constitutional liberties of the nation. So far as we can see, but for the singular power and devoted spirit of Renwick, and the firm and unyielding position which the Cameronians through him were led to assume, the cause of truth would have been completely borne down, and Erastianism, and Popery, and Despotism had triumphed. Renwick and his followers were the vanguard 'in the struggle for Britain's liberties, and for the Church's spiritual independence.' Though, like other patriots born before their time, they were doomed to fall, yet posterity owes to them a large part of the goodly heritage which they enjoy. (Houston, The Life of James Renwick [1865], pp. 36-37). Emphases added throughout the preceding quotations. This is a very rare and valuable specimen of Paleopresbyterian (Covenanter) thought don't miss it! 142 pages, plus new material added by the present publisher." -- Publisher
    An Informatory Vindication, 1687, James, Renwick, Alexander Shields and Other "Society People"
    http://www.truecovenanter.com/societies/informatory_vindication.html

    Ridley, Nicholas, and Henry Christmas, Works of Nicholas Ridley. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    "Ridley was 'an eminent reformer and Protestant martyr . . . Having concurred in the proclamation of Lady Jane Grey, he was committed to the Tower. Condemned to death for heresy and burnt in 1555.' (Darling, Cyclopedia Bibliographica, p. 2557).

    Of all our English martyrs, . . . Ridley has been esteemed by far the most learned . . . he learned to repeat, without book, almost all the epistles in Greek . . . The courage and zeal he manifested in promoting the (first English -- RB), reformation was such, that he was considered, next to Cranmer, its greatest supporter amongst the clergy . . . the purity of his life corresponded with his knowledge . . . The reformation was greatly promoted by his learning, zeal, and active exertions while he lived, and perhaps more so by his death in its defence. In England, as everywhere else, the ancient observation has been verified, that the blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church. (Thomas Smith, Select Memoirs of the Lives Labours, and Sufferings, of Those Pious and Learned English and Scottish Divines, p. 173 ff, 1828).
    "Along with a biographical notice, and among 16 other works, letters, and disputations, this book contains Ridley's BRIEF DECLARATION OR TREATISE AGAINST TRANSUBSTANTIATION. 'Ridley is allowed to have been master of that subject more than any man of his age,' (Smith, p. 175). See his TREATISE AGAINST IMAGE WORSHIP, and his CONFERENCES WITH LATIMER. Printed from the 1843 Parker Society edition, indexed, 485 pages." -- Publisher

    Ringenberg, William C., The Christian College: A History of Protestant Higher Education in America, ISBN: 0802819966 9780802819963

    *Robbins, John W. (1949-2008, editor), Christ and Civilization, ISBN: 1891777246 9781891777240.
    "A new 48-page booklet. Includes a complete listing (in an additional 16 pages), of the books currently available from The Trinity Foundation."
    Christ and Civilization
    http://www.trinityfoundation.org/PDF/200a-ChristandCivilization.pdf

    *Roberts, William Louis (1798-1864), The Duty of Nations, in Their National Capacity, to Acknowledge and Support the True Religion, 1853. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #25.
    "Excerpted from THE REFORMED PRESBYTERIAN CATECHISM below, this book deals with the inescapable necessity, of the demand found in the Word of God, for the Civil establishment of Christ as King and Lawgiver over every nation on earth. If you are sick of the cease-fire with humanism, set forth by the syncretistic, Satanic and pragmatic pagan politicians of our day (those who bargain with votaries of Antichrist [the Pope], publicly tolerate all manner of false religions (e.g. Islam), and idolatry, and compose their policy and draw their pretended authority from the beast [and not the Word of God], this book is for you! For all pagan politics is summed up in the words of the Cameronian (Covenanter) political philosopher Alexander Shields, as 'rotting away under the destructive distempers of detestable neutrality, loathsome lukewarmness, declining, and decaying in corruptions, defections, divisions, distractions, confusions; and so judicially infatuated with darkness and delusions, that they forget and forego the necessary testimony of the day.' (A Hind let Loose, 1797 edition, p. 20). Pick up this book and begin the political walk in the 'footsteps of the flock,' traveling the covenanting road of Reformation and Scripture (with the magisterial Reformers of the past)!" -- Publisher
    On the Duty of Covenanting and the Permanent Obligations of Religious Covenants, being section 11 in the Reformed Presbyterian Catechism, 1853, by William L. Roberts
    http://www.swrb.com/newslett/actualnls/PresCatCov.htm
    A Hind Let Loose; Or An Historical Representation of the Testimonies of the Church of Scotland. . . . by Mr. Alexander Shields, Minister of the Gospel, in St. Andrews.
    http://www.truecovenanter.com/shields/
    Reformed Presbyterian Catechism, William L. Roberts D.D.
    http://archive.org/details/ReformedPresbyterianCatechism

    *Roberts, William Louis (1798-1864), The Reformed Presbyterian Catechism, ISBN: 0524065543 9780524065549. A Christian classic. Considered to be among the ten greatest books in the English language. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. ATLA 1991-2638.
    A magnificent catechism that sets forth the Crown Rights of The King of Glory and Lord of Lords. It also presents incontrovertible evidence that the United States Constitution is not a Christian document, and that it is, in fact, a slavery document.
    See also: THE SCOTTISH COVENANTING STRUGGLE, ALEXANDER CRAIGHEAD, AND THE MECKLENBURG DECLARATION, SECRET PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION, CONSPIRACY IN PHILADELPHIA: THE ORIGINS OF THE U.S. CONSTITUTION, and A THEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF AMERICAN HISTORY.
    "A manual of instruction, drawing from such notable authors as William Symington and J.R. Willson, presenting 'arguments and facts confirming and illustrating the 'Distinctive Principles' of the Reformed Presbyterian Church. Chapters deal with: 'Christ's Mediatorial Dominion in general;' Christ's exclusive Headship over the Church;' 'The Supreme and Ultimate Authority of the Word of God in the Church;' Civil Government, the Moral Ordinance of God;' Christ's Headship over the Nations;' 'The Subjection of the Nations to God and to Christ;' The Word, or Revealed Will of God, the Supreme Law in the State;' 'The Duty of Nations, in their National Capacity, to acknowledge and support the True Religion:' 'The Spiritual Independence of the Church of Christ:' 'The Right and Duty of Dissent from an immoral Constitution of Civil Government;' 'The Duty of Covenanting, and the Permanent Obligations of Religious Covenants;' 'The Application of these Principles to the Governments, where Reformed Presbyterians reside, in the form of a Practical Testimony;' and finally 'Application of the Testimony to the British Empire.' A most important book, as we approach (possibly) the end of the great apostasy and will be in need of preparing for the dawning of the glorious millennial blessings to come; the days prophesied in which the church 'shalt also suck the milk of the Gentiles, and shalt suck the breast of kings'." (Isa. 60:16), [Isaiah 60:16] -- Publisher
    Reformed Presbyterian Catechism, William L. Roberts D.D.
    http://archive.org/details/ReformedPresbyterianCatechism

    *Roberts, William Louis (1798-1864), SWRB's Works of William Roberts, 6 volumes and articles. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.

    Robertson, Edwin, Wycliffe: Morning Star of the Reformation, ISBN: 0551011424 9780551011427.
    "This short book (125 pages), was written to commemorate and celebrate this famous Bible translator's place in our Christian heritage. Wycliffe was a man burdened for a Gospel for all people and a vision of God's grace being freely available to all." -- GCB

    *Rushdoony, Rousas J. (1916-2001), Christianity and the State, ISBN: 9996717755. Available through Exodus Books.
    "The need to return to a Biblical doctrine of civil government is evidenced by our century's worldwide drift into tyranny. Humanism invariably rushes in to fill the world's theological vacuums: the need of the hour is to restore a full-orbed, Biblical, theology of the state. This work sets forth that theology." -- GCB

    *Rutherford, Samuel (1600-1661), Lex, Rex, or the Law and the Prince, ISBN: 0873779517. A Christian classic. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #10, #25.
    Lex, rex is Latin for "law is king."
    "LEX, REX is 'the great political text of the Covenanters.' (Johnston citing Innes in Treasury of the Scottish Covenant, p. 305). 'Rutherford was the first to formulate the great constitutional principle Lex est Rex -- the law is King . . . much of the doctrine has become the constitutional inheritance of all countries in modern times.' (Idem.)
    "Gilmour writes [in SAMUEL RUTHERFORD], 'that, as regards religious fervour, scholastic subtlety of intellect, and intensity of ecclesiastical conviction, Samuel Rutherford is the most distinctively representative Scotsman in the first half of the seventeenth century'." -- Publisher
    "Without a doubt one of the greatest books on political philosophy ever written. Rutherford here has penned a great Christian charter of liberty against all forms of civil tyranny -- vindicating the Scriptural duty to resist tyrants as an act of loyalty to God." -- Publisher
    "That resistance to lawful authority -- even when that authority so called has, in point of fact, set at nought all law -- is in no instance to be vindicated, will be held by those only who are the devotees of arbitrary power and passive obedience. The principles of Mr. Rutherford's LEX, REX, however obnoxious they may be to such men, are substantially the principles on which all government is founded, and without which the civil magistrate would become a curse rather than a blessing to a country. They are the very principles which lie at the basis of the British Constitution, and by whose tenure the House of Brunswick does at this very moment hold possession of the throne of these realms." -- Rev. Robert Burns, D.D., in his Preliminary Dissertation to WODROW'S CHURCH HISTORY
    "Though Rutherford is affectionately remembered in our day for his Letters, or for laying the foundations of constitutional government (against the divine right of kings), in his unsurpassed LEX, REX, his Free Disputation should not be overlooked for it contains the same searing insights as Lex, Rex. In fact, this book should probably be known as Rutherford's 'politically incorrect' companion volume to LEX, REX. A sort of sequel aimed at driving pluralists and antinomians insane. Written against 'the Belgick Arminians, Socinians, and other Authors contending for lawlesse liberty, or licentious Tolerations of Sects and Heresies,' Rutherford explains the undiluted Biblical solution to moral relativism, especially as it is expressed in ecclesiastical and civil pluralism! (Corporate pluralism being a violation of the first commandment and an affront to the holy God of Scripture)." -- Publisher
    "This [THE DUE RIGHT OF PRESBYTERIES OR A PEACEABLE PLEA FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND . . .], could be considered the LEX, REX of church government -- another exceedingly rare masterpiece of Presbyterianism! Characterized by Walker as sweeping 'over a wider field than most'." -- Publisher
    A HIND LET LOOSE by Alexander Shields is sometimes referred to as 'Lex, Rex volume two.'
    Lex, Rex, or The Law and the Prince, Samuel Rutherford
    "Rutherford is to be praised for his teaching that the king is subject to the law of God. The Bible has nothing but condemnation for those who frame mischief by a law and declares rhetorically, Shall the throne of iniquity have fellowship with thee? (Ps. 94:20 [Psalm 94:20]). Deuteronomy 17 is the classic passage in defense of Lex, Rex, wherein the king is charged to read therein all the days of his life: that he may learn to fear the Lord his God, to keep all the words of this law. (Deut. 17:19 [Deuteronomy 17:19])
    Lex, Rex: The law and the Prince, a dispute for the just prerogative of king and people, containing the reasons and causes of the defensive wars of the kingdom of Scotland, and of their expedition for the ayd and help of their brethren of England. In which a full answer is given to a seditious pamphlet, intituled, Sacro-sancta regum majestas, penned by J. Maxwell. By S. Rutherford. [Followed by], De jure regni apud Scotos; a dialogue, tr. by R. Macfarlan (repr. from the ed. of 1799).
    http://books.google.com/books?id=jtYDAAAAQAAJ&ie=ISO-8859-1&output=html
    Rutherford, Samuel (1600-1661), Lex, rex: The law and the Prince, a Dispute for the Just Prerogative of King and People . . . (1843)
    http://archive.org/details/lexrexlawandpri00ruthgoog
    The Covenant Between God and Kings, from A DEFENSE OF LIBERTY
    http://www.constitution.org/vct/vindiciae1a.htm

    *Schaff, Philip (editor), Church Fathers Series, 38 volumes.
    *Schaff, Philip (editor), The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers: First Series.
    *Schaff, Philip (editor), A Select library of Nicene and post-Nicene fathers of the Christian church, Second series.
    Christian Classics Ethereal Library CCEL CD-ROM 2000
    http://www.ccel.org/cdrom/cdrom.html

    *Schaff, Philip, Schaff's History of Christianity, 8 volumes, ISBN: 0802880479 9780802880475.
    "A brilliant, detailed account of the history of Christianity up to and including the continental Reformation. Well written, and easy to read. One of the most informative and valuable treatments available. Based on the edition published in 1910." -- Cyril J. Barber
    The History of the Christian Church, Philip Schaff
    http://www.reformedreader.org/history/schaff/

    Scharpff, Paulus, History of Evangelism: Three Hundred Years of Evangelism in Germany, Great Britain and the United States of America.

    *Shields, Alexander (1660?-1700), A Hind Let Loose, or An Historical Representation of the Testimonies of the Church of Scotland for the Interest of Christ With the True State Thereof in all its Periods. Together with a Vindication of the Present Testimony Against Popish, Prelatical, and Malignant Enemies of That Church, as it is now Stated, for the Prerogatives of Christ, Privileges of the Church, and Liberties of Mankind; and Sealed by the Sufferings of a Reproached Remnant of Presbyterians There, Witnessing Against the Corruptions of the Time: Wherein Several Controversies of Greatest Consequence Are Enquired Into, and in Some Measure Cleared; Concerning Hearing of the Curates, Owning of the Present Tyranny, Taking of Ensnaring Oaths and Bonds, Frequenting of Field-Meetings, Defensive Resistance of Tyrannical Violence, With Several Other Subordinate Questions Useful for These Times, 1797, 1744, 1687. A Christian classic. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #2, #26.
    "First printed in 1687 (near the end of the 'killing times'), we have used the 1797 edition for this rare bound photocopy because all of the Latin has been translated into English (an obvious improvement for English readers). This rare Covenanter classic, concerning Calvinistic political philosophy and tactics of civil resistance, is comparable to Samuel Rutherford's LEX, REX; in fact it could rightly be referred to as 'Lex, Rex volume two.' It is solidly in the line of John Knox's teachings on civil disobedience and addresses numerous topics that are relevant to today's Christian. 'In A HIND LET LOOSE, Shields justified the Camerionian resistance to royal absolutism and the divine right of kings. He argued that government is divinely ordained, but the people are entitled to bring a king to judgement for wrongdoing. Parliament is commissioned by the people to oversee the nation's affairs, but the compact between the people and their rulers does not entail a forfeiture of the people's power to depose tyrants and confer authority on someone else. Government is by consent, and must justify itself to the consciences of the people. God has given men the right of self defense, and this extends to a right not only passively to resist, but also to kill relentless persecutors' writes Isbell in Nigel Cameron, editor, DICTIONARY OF SCOTTISH CHURCH HISTORY AND THEOLOGY, p. 773. Controversial chapter titles include: 'Concerning Owning of Tyrants Authority;' 'Defensive Arms Vindicated;' 'Of Extraordinary Execution of Judgement by Private Men;' and 'Refusing to Pay Wicked Taxation Vindicated.' This book sets forth the Crown rights of King Jesus, against all usurpers in both church and state, giving a history of some of faithful sufferings endured by the elect, in maintaining this truth. It bears testimony against 'the popish, prelatical and malignant enemies' of Christ and proclaims the only true basis of liberty for mankind. 'The matter is argued with a vast abundance of Biblical illustration, and with much reference to Reformation and Puritan divines. It should be consulted, if practicable, by all who wish fully to understand the inner spirit of the Covenanting Movement,' writes Purves in FAIR SUNSHINE (p. 202). Isbell interestingly notes that Shields was once 'amanuensis to the English Puritan John Owen'." -- Publisher
    A Hind Let Loose; Or An Historical Representation of the Testimonies of the Church of Scotland. . . . by Mr. Alexander Shields, Minister of the Gospel, in St. Andrews.
    http://www.truecovenanter.com/shields/index.htm#shields_hind_let_loose
    A Hind let Loose: or, An Historical Representation of the Testimonies of the Church of Scotland, for the Interest of Christ: With the True State Thereof in all its Periods, Shields, Alexander
    http://archive.org/details/hindletlooseorhi00shie
    The Covenant Between God and Kings. from A DEFENSE OF LIBERTY
    http://www.constitution.org/vct/vindiciae1a.htm

    *Singer, C. Gregg (1910-1999), From Rationalism to Irrationality: The Decline of the Western Mind From the Renaissance to the Present. amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/B000UF20OO/webedbiblicalcou">(Wipf and Stock, 2006), 479 pp.
    "Now, frankly students, this course is presented from obviously the Reformed Theology. I hold unabashedly, unashamedly to the whole of Reformed Theology as we find it specifically in the Westminster Confession of Faith and the Longer and Shorter Catechisms.
    "At the same time I hold to a position in regard to Apologetics generally known as Presuppositionalism, and particularly that view held by Cornelius Van Til.
    "This book is an attempt to enlarge and to broaden the scope of Van Til's own Apologetical system, and also his Epistemology. By that I mean, and I worked this book with him, so anything that I say is not to be construed as a criticism of Cornelius Van Til. I might add he wrote me a letter. He is delighted with this book. But what I did was to take his principles, both of Apologetics and of Epistemology, and apply them to all realms of modern thought.
    "Dr. Van Til, for good and sufficient reason, sought to limit to the main stream of what we might call pure Philosophy, that is from Saint Thomas, well even before them, back to the Greeks, but particularly in the more modern period, from Saint Thomas Aquinas, William of Ockham (Occam), down through Descartes, the Rationalists, the Empiricists, down to Kant and Hegel, and of course Modern Philosophy and Modern Theology. Very seldom has he gone into what we might call the arena of Political Philosophy, or the arena of Social Thought, or the arena of Psychology and Psychiatry, the realm of Educational Philosophy, and into Art, Music, and so on, to the Fine Arts.
    "This book is an attempt to apply his system, and show what happens when the Western mind has forsaken his principles, or the principles which he has espoused, and turned into its own way. And thus the book called FROM RATIONALISM TO IRRATIONALITY. The thesis being that the Rationalism inherent in Saint Thomas and the post-Thomists, and more particularly, and more openly, in the Philosophy of the Renaissance, and Descartes, and Spinosa, and Leibniz has, as it's gained momentum in the modern world, brought Western Culture to its knees. We are living, as I would think, in the death throws of the Western Cultures, the Western Civilization." -- Dr. C. Gregg Singer, in the introductory address to his course in Apologetics soon after FROM RATIONALISM TO IRRATIONALITY came off the press in 1979
    Apologetics: #01: Classical and Medieval Thought #1
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Apologetics, 56 min.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=2250511453
    "Locke endeavored to set forth a political philosophy which would anchor his democratic political thought on what he felt were the firm foundations of his empiricism. However, his insistence that nature has bestowed upon mankind certain basic and inalienable rights was an assumption quite contrary to his empiricism. His denial of conscience as an innate possession or quality makes it impossible for men to know that they possess the rights of life, liberty, and property. The very concept of a human right is moral in nature and has its basis of authority in the human conscience. It is thus impossible for men to know through the senses that they have these cherished human rights. Granted that it was far from Locke's intention to undermine or destroy the traditional English concept of personal rights, his empiricism removed from his political thought the necessary foundations on which a government could be built for the protection of these rights. His empiricism supported neither the idea that men have such rights nor that they are inalienable. (p. 61)
    "Underlying the secular and naturalistic assumptions of the thought of the Enlightenment was a related and equally serious problem. In their political and economic thought the leaders of this era were passionately devoted to the pursuit of freedom, and yet they seemed to be completely unaware of this incompatibility between their quest for freedom on the one hand and their reliance upon natural law on the other. How can an impersonal and deterministic concept of law produce and sustain a meaningful concept of freedom? Blindly convinced that there was no problem involved in the contradiction, the leaders of the Enlightenment pushed boldly ahead in the quest for political and economic liberty. However, their failure to recognize the issues involved in this quest led not only to the disaster of the French Revolution but to the growth of the totalitarian political and economic philosophies which first appeared in Hegel and Marx during the nineteenth century and reached their culmination in the totalitarianism of the twentieth century." (p. 73) -- quoted at the blog, Imago Veritatis: Post-modern Reformed Paleo-orthodoxy
    Singer used this as textbook for his course in Apologetics. Epistemology is a recurring theme throughout the textbook and the course. The series of 24 addresses on Apologetics is available free online. See "Apolgetics" under:
    Works of C. Gregg Singer
    http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr3ch.html#cgsinger

    *Singer, C. Gregg (1910-1999), John Calvin: His Roots and Fruits, 78 pages.
    "What then is the role of the state in economic matters? Is it to stand idly by and take no steps or initiate no policies to defend the poor? The state, in the economic realm, is under a mandate to enforce the moral law and to punish those who break it for the sake of economic gain. It may prevent monopolistic and other business practices which are contrary to the Biblical ethic, as well as stealing and other forms of dishonesty and may pass laws for this purpose. It is certain that Calvin would support more statutes of this kind than some advocates of free enterprise would tolerate today. In general, however, Calvin agreed that the state had no right to undertake schemes of redistributing wealth in order to achieve economic equality. The legislative taking of wealth under the guise of legality is no less stealing than if it is done by robbers and thieves. Such schemes, rather than being an application of Christian principles, are actually a form of human rebellion against the will of God for the right ordering of society." -- C. Gregg Singer in "Calvinism and Economic Thought and Practice.
    Notes: "Appeared in volume II of THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF CHRISTIANITY . . . and was later printed by Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company . . . 1967, for their Philosophical and historical studies series."
    Contents: The author; Preface; I The patristic foundations of calvinism; II Calvinism: the summit of reformation theology; III The later history of calvinism; IV Influence of calvinism on western history and culture; V Calvinism and economic thought and practice; VI Calvinism and Philosophy; VII Calvinism and education; VIII Calvinism and social thought and practice; Bibliography.

    *Singer, C. Gregg (1910-1999), A Theological Interpretation of American History, 1994 edition, 354 pages (Greenville, SC: A Press, 1994, 1981, 1975, 1974, 1964). A Christian classic.
    This book portrays "the influence of theology and the changing doctrines in the life of the church on the pattern of American political, constitutional, social and economic development.
    "The author shows that the decline of constitutional government in this country is the result of the departure from historical Christian faith and the resulting rise of alien political philosophies. Particularly does he emphasize the intimate relationship between theological liberalism on the one hand and political, social, and economic liberalism on the other. This theological liberalism has been a major agent in the decline of the Constitution in the political life of the people and in the appearance of a highly centralized government." -- Publisher
    "There is between the democratic philosophy and theological liberalism a basic affinity which has placed them in the same camp in many major political struggles.
    "This condition exists because theological liberalism shares the basic postulates of the democratic philosophy. . . .
    "Theological liberalism at heart has been a continuing protest against Calvinism, particularly against its insistence on the Sovereignty of God and the Total Depravity of the race. These two Biblical doctrines have often proved to be a stumbling block to theologians within the church as well as to the unbelieving world.
    "The result of theological liberalism has been the movement away from constitutionalism and away from liberty, and a movement toward collectivistic society and totalitarian regime." -- C. Gregg Singer, A Theological Interpretation of American History, p. 290
    See also: John Knox, the Scottish Covenanters, and the Westminster Assembly (tape 3 of 5), in a series of addresses History Notes on Presbyterianism, Reformation, and Theology by Dr. C. Gregg Singer on SermonAudion.com
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12607114250
    See also:
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer at SermonAudio.com (161 messages)
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/search.asp?SpeakerOnly=true&currSection=sermonsspeaker&Keyword=Dr.^C.^Gregg^Singer
    "The Erastian Revolution, anno 1689, was 'utterly inconsistent with the covenanted constitution of the Reformed Church of Scotland, anno 1648.'
    In fact, the relationship between Church and State has been in decline since 1661. "In early 1661 . . . the Scottish Parliament passed the Act Rescissory, which established the king as supreme judge in all matters civil and ecclesiastical, and which made owning the covenants [National and Solemn League], unlawful. These acts undid all the works of Reformation from 1638 to 1650 and made it high treason to acknowledge Jesus Christ as head of the church. . . ." See Act, Declaration, and Testimony, 1876, Part II.
    Another turning point occurred in 1758 with the reunion of the Old Side and the New Side of American Presbyterian Church. "This signaled the end of the influence of Calvinism in American Politics." For a detailed discussion see:
    From Old School to New School in Crossed Fingers: How the Liberals Captured the Presbyterian Church, by Gary North
    http://entrewave.com/freebooks/docs/html/gncf/Chapter02.htm
    An example of the positive influence of theological doctrine on American political development is the Presbyterian General Assembly meeting in 1774, in which the Assembly instructed local congregations to press for the dissolution of ties with Great Britain. The result was a flood of resolutions, the most important of which was the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence which became a pattern for our national Declaration of Independence. See: James Geddes Craighead (1832-1895), SCOTCH AND IRISH SEEDS IN AMERICAN SOIL: THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE SCOTCH AND IRISH CHURCHES, AND THEIR RELATIONS TO THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF AMERICA.
    In 1787 there were two conventions in Philadelphia: the Constitution Convention and a convention of the Presbyterian Church. "In 1787-88, American Presbyterians revised the Westminster Confession of Faith [know as the "American Version (1789)"], in order to make it conform to the political pluralism that also lay behind the U.S. Constitution,(26) which was being ratified at the same time that the presbyteries were voting for the revision of the Confession. The Presbyterians removed that clause in Chapter XXIII:3 which had authorized the civil magistrate to call a synod for advice.(27) This was one of the last traces of the theocratic Calvinism of the Scottish Covenanters -- or Calvin's theocratic Calvinism, for that matter. (The final trace was the Confession's assertion that the failure to take an oath to a lawful authority is a sin [XXII:3]. That provision was abandoned in the 1903 revision, and Machen's Orthodox Presbyterian Church did not restore it in 1936). From that time on, Presbyterians became defenders of a secularized republican order. They believed that God's civil covenant could be made on a common-ground confessional basis, without a mandatory covenantal civil oath, operating under a providential natural law order that did not mandate Trinitarian confession. Obedience to this natural order, they believed, would bring national prosperity. This was the liberal worldview of English Whig politics, and no group in America was more dedicated to defending it than the Presbyterians." -- Gary North, Crossed Fingers, p. 106
    Many scholars consider alterations to the Westminster Confession of Faith (1646), originally compiled by the Westminster Assembly of Divines, to be a "reverse plagiarism," an alteration of the original document by someone beside the author, and then passed off to the public, under the original title, as the work of the original authors. Plagiarize: to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another), as one's own use (a created production), without crediting the source; to commit literary theft: present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary)
    Revisers have altered the content of the original WCF (1646), have removed key doctrine related to Christ's Crown and Covenant, and yet have retained the name given by the Westminster Assembly. Consequently, revisers have deceived many in the Church into believing that their alterations are the work of the Westminster Assembly of Divines in 1646.
    Most Presbyterian and Reformed denominations and seminaries today prescribe to the Westminster Confession of Faith (1879), the "American Version." Ideas have consequences. Because theology is truth, when men delete or alter key doctrines, or replace sound doctrine deducted from God's infallible Word by logic, with human imaginations, then the course of history is changed.
    For a detailed analysis of the devastating consequences to American history caused by non-Biblical alterations in the Westminster Confession of Faith (1646) and non-Biblical alterations to constitutional government in the United States see the following:
    A Theological Interpretation of American History
    http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr9chc.html#stiahis
    In Great Britain the Independents and Calvinistic Baptists edited the Westminster Confession (1646) for their own use, but they gave the new confessions a different name, the Savoy Declaration and the Baptist Confession. Certainly this was the honest procedure.
    "In 1788 the U.S. Constitution and the revised Westminster Confession were ratified. For a detailed discussion see:
    Authority: Biblical, Confessional, Ecclesiastical in Crossed Fingers: How the Liberals Captured the Presbyterian Church, by Gary North
    http://entrewave.com/freebooks/docs/html/gncf/Chapter03.htm
    See also the following:
    Appendix A: Major Changes of the Savoy Declaration
    http://www.bible-researcher.com/wescoappa.html
    Appendix B: Major Changes of the PCUSA (1788-1958)
    http://www.bible-researcher.com/wescoappb.html
    Appendix C: Major Changes of the UPCUSA and PCUS (1958-1983)
    http://www.bible-researcher.com/wescoappc.html
    Preface to Confession and Catechisms of the Orthodox Presbyterian Church (OPC)
    http://opc.org/documents/Preface.pdf
    Trinitarianism Verses Polytheism: Unresolved Questions of Article VI, Section 3 of the U.S. Constitution (broken link)
    http://members.aol.com/vtpa/pvtpa001.html
    Selection of Covenant Heads for Positions of Leadership
    http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr9chc.html#covenantheads
    Timeline of the liberalization of the Presbyterian Church in Crossed Fingers by Gary North
    http://entrewave.com/freebooks/docs/html/gncf/timeline.htm
    A THEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF AMERICAN HISTORY, Chapter 6, "Theological Liberalism After 1920 and its Political Consequence."
    Timeline of decline in American society after World War I
    http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr9chc.html#suffrage.
    *Price, Greg L., Biblical Civil Government Versus the Beast; and, the Basis for Civil Resistance. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    "This is the best modern testimony for the biblical principles of civil magistracy -- which were so prominent during the height of the Second Reformation -- that we have seen. Price documents the teachings of many of the major Reformers (and some of the church fathers), and in an easy reading manner simplifies what can at times become a very complex subject. This particular Reformation message, proclaiming Christ's Kingship over the nations (and the practical outworking of the same), has been buried from the view of the general public for some time now, but is once again being brought to light in this very helpful introductory book. A sobering appendix has been added (written by a friend of the Covenanted Reformation), which shows why it is unlawful for a Christian to swear any oath to uphold and defend the U.S. Constitution. This appendix also compares the points of difference between classic (or historic), Reformed teaching and modern Reformed teaching regarding magistracy and religion. Special attention is given to the OPC, the PCA and the RPCNA and the changes that these groups have made to second Reformation confessional standards (concerning matters related to the civil magistrate). Statements by B.B. Warfield are also contrasted to the older Reformed views. You won't find a better easy-to-read and easy to understand introduction to this important topic -- a topic which impacts directly on every Christian's testimony for the crown rights of King Jesus!" -- Publisher
    "It is this author's contention that the modern churches have let go of this important piece of the faith [Christ's Kingship over the nations -- compiler], once for all delivered to the saints. Thereby they have delivered the church, not to kings as nursing fathers, but to the cruel civil domination of the enemies of the true religion, their sheep being taught that they must submit passively to every pretended civil authority as the ordinance of God. By this defection, these leaders of the flock have also undermined the magistracy, allowing and even encouraging wicked men to remove this blessed ordinance from its foundation in God its creator, and from its subjection to Christ His King, thereby directly opposing God's benevolent ends in instituting civil government: Thus have [they] made the commandment of God of none effect by [their] tradition. . . . teaching for doctrines the commandments of men. (Matt. 15:6,9 [Matthew 15:6,9]). Furthermore, by their false teaching regarding civil government, they have made themselves guilty of the very sin of which we are often accused: opposing the ordinance of God. If this wasn't enough, however, consider that their sin is worse than that of the garden variety rebel, inasmuch as their opposition to God's institution is not so much practical as it is principal; and because of their position as teachers and guides of the flock of God. 'Be not many masters, knowing that we shall receive the greater condemnation. . . . For we can do nothing against the truth, but for the truth.' (James 3:1; 2 Cor. 13:8 [2 Corinthians 13:8]) -- Greg Price, Biblical Civil Government Verses the Beast, p. 64
    Biblical Civil Government Versus the Beast; and, the Basis for Civil Resistance, Greg Price
    http://www.swrb.com/newslett/actualnls/BibCG_GP.htm
    After 1920 "Forces of liberalism were able to gain a commanding position in the liberal arts colleges and seminaries run by most of the major denominations. . . .
    "The denial of the inspiration and infallibility of the Scripture proved to be tantamount to a rejection of their doctrinal authority; one by one, the great evangelical doctrines of the past were rewritten in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable. . ." -- C. Gregg Singer, A Theological Interpretation of American History, p. 187
    "The basic issue is the reduction of the total scope of government, on both the federal and state level, to those spheres which are clearly conferred upon it by the Scriptures, and the surrender of those extra-Biblical powers which liberal political philosophies and practice have given to it during the last one hundred years or so. . . .
    "When Jesus Christ returns, this span of history will cease. Perhaps at this point the cleavage between the biblical position and the views of Hegel, Marx, Spengler, Toynbee, and other contemporaries, becomes most obvious. The modern mind simply cannot accept the idea that humanity does not control its own destiny. It refuses to believe that the ultimate manifestation of the glory of Jesus Christ is beyond all human manipulation, whether they be statesmen or educators. It denies that the sovereign Ruler of the universe will bring all sinful humanity to judgment in a final accounting for its long history of willful rebellion against His righteousness, goodness, and mercy." -- Gregg C. Singer
    The roots of liberty and limited government are in the Protestant Reformation. We believe the key to the maintenance of liberty and limited government is to be found in the Scottish covenanting struggle.

    Smith, Timothy Lawrence, Revivalism and Social Reform: American Protestantism on the Eve of the Civil War, ISBN: 080182477X 9780801824777. Alternate title: REVIVALISM AND SOCIAL REFORM IN MID-NINETEENTH-CENTURY AMERICA.
    Includes bibliography and index.

    Sylvester, Nigel, God's Word in a Young World: The Story of Scripture Union, ISBN: 0862012597 9780862012595.
    "A wonderful retelling of the Scripture Union story from its inception in 1867 to the present day."

    *Symington, William (1795-1862), Messiah the Prince or, The Mediatorial Dominion of Jesus Christ, ISBN: 0966004434 0921148054. The 1884 edition is available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Also available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #13, #25, and #26.
    "It was deemed essential to the salvation of men that their Redeemer should possess the powers at once of a prophet, a priest, and a king. These offices, while essentially distinct, are necessarily and inseparably connected with one another. Such a union has been by some utterly denied; and its denial has laid foundation for some capital errors, which have exerted a pernicious influence on the Christian church. By others it has been criminally overlooked; and the neglect with which it has been treated has occasioned vague and conflicting conceptions regarding the great work of man's deliverance from sin and wrath by the mediation of the Son of God." -- William Symington
    "It is the standard work on the kingdom of God in English! There is nothing else like it; it is one-of-a kind! It covers the necessity, reality, and qualifications of Christ's dominion over not only the church, but all nations too. Anything less is to rob Christ of His magnificent, majestic, mediatorial glory -- for He is the King of kings and Lord of lords. 'While books on the priestly work of the Redeemer, and especially on the Atonement, are numerous,' notes the introduction to the American edition, 'no formal and exhaustive discussion of the kingly office of the Messiah . . . and its application to various classes of moral agents is elsewhere to be found . . . It is cause for satisfaction that the only treatise, as yet, upon this subject, is a work of signal ability, lucid in arrangement, reverent in spirit, and with hardly an exception, sound and judicious in its conclusion. Its very merits are probably, in part, the reason why no other work on the same subject has appeared, and until it is supplanted by a better work -- an event not likely soon to occur -- it will have a value peculiar to itself'." -- Publisher
    Chapters include "The Necessity of the Mediatorial Dominion," "The Universality of the Mediatorial Dominion," "The Mediatorial Dominion Over the Church," and "Over the Nations," plus much more.
    Symington, William, Messiah the Prince or, The Meditorial Dominion of Jesus Christ (1881)
    http://archive.org/details/messiahtheprince00symiuoft
    Symington, William, Messiah the Prince or, The Mediatorial Dominion of Jesus Christ
    Online free e-text of the 1999 Christian Statesman Press edition.
    http://www.reformed.org/eschaton/symington/index.html?mainframe=/eschaton/symington/index_mtp.html
    Symington, William, Messiah the Prince or, The Mediatorial Dominion of Jesus Christ
    http://reformedchurchpublications.org/messiah_the_prince_by_william_symington.htm

    *Thomson, John Henderson (editor), John McMain, and David Scott (introduction), A Cloud of Witnesses for the Royal Prerogatives of Jesus Christ Being the Last Speeches and Testimonies of Those who Have Suffered for the Truth in Scotland Since . . . 1680. Alternate title: THE FIFTEENTH EDITION, ENLARGED AND CORRECTED: A CLOUD OF WITNESSES, FOR THE ROYAL PREROGATIVES OF JESUS CHRIST: OR, THE LAST SPEECHES AND TESTIMONIES OF THOSE WHO HAVE SUFFERED FOR THE TRUTH IN SCOTLAND, SINCE THE YEAR 1680: WITH AN APPENDIX, CONTAINING THE QUEENSFERRY PAPER; TORWOOD EXCOMMUNICATION; A RELATION CONCERNING MR. RICHARD CAMERON, MR. DONALD CARGIL, AND HENRY HALL; AND AN ACCOUNT OF THOSE WHO WERE KILLED WITHOUT PROCESS OF LAW, AND BANISHED TO FOREIGN LANDS: WITH A SHORT VIEW OF SOME OF THE OPPRESSIVE EXACTIONS, ISBN: 0873779231. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    "With the Testimonies of John Nisbet the Younger, John Nisbet of Hardhill, Robert Miller, Thomas Harkness, &c. A Letter of John Semple's and of Archibald Stewart's. The Paper found upon Mr. Cameron at Airsmoss, and an Acrostick upon his name. The Testimony of John Finlay in Kilmarnock. The Epitaphs upon the Grave Stones of Mr. Samuel Rutherford, Mr. John Welwood, and the noble Patriots who fell at Pentland-hills, &c.
    "Also includes The Testimony of some persecuted Presbyterian Ministers of the Gospel, unto the Covenanted Reformation of the Church of Scotland, and to the present expediency of continuing to preach the Gospel in the fields, and against the present anti-Christian Toleration in its nature and design, &c. Given in to the Ministers at Edinburgh, by Mr. James Renwick, upon the 17th Jan. 1688. And Mr. Richard Cameron's Last Sermon; preached on Kype Water in Evandale, July 18th, 1680, three days before he was killed at Airs-moss. (Pittsburgh: Printed for David Reed, by Eichbaum & Johnston, 1824), 1884 edition.
    Wherefore seeing we also are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth so easily beset us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us, Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God. (Hebrews 12:1,2)
    "Presbyterian Covenanter martyrs of Scotland, their last speeches and testimonies. The first edition appeared in 1714, and as more material was collected it was added to the 15 editions that were printed over the next 100 years."
    "An amazing book compiled to show how -- and especially why (from their own dying testimonies) -- the Covenanters suffered, bled and died. These brave martyrs for Christ laid the foundation for liberty and truth in both church and state. They have much to say to us today . . . . Though the issues and ferocity of persecution (by the Popes, prelates, and Erastians), were more obvious during the times covered in this book, the message to contemporary Christians could not be clearer: we are involved in a life and death struggle. Few books are this moving or this edifying -- a real treasure! (658 pp., 1884 ed.)." -- Publisher
    The 1871 edition was praised by Spurgeon.
    A Cloud of Witnesses, 1871 edition, free online e-text. Original from Oxford University. Digitized Aug 31, 2006.
    http://books.google.com/books?id=4vMCAAAAQAAJ&dq=thomson+a+cloud+of+witnesses&ie=ISO-8859-1

    Thorowgood, Thomas (d. ca. 1669), Moderation Iustified, and the Lords Being at Hand Emproved, in a sermon at VVestminster before the Honorable House of Commons assembled in Parliament: preached at the late solemne fast, December 25. 1644. By Thomas Thorowgood B. of D. Rector of Grimston in the county of Norfolke: one of the Assembly of Divines. Published by order from that House, Matt. 10:16 [Matthew 10:16], 1644.

    Timm, Alberto Ronald, The Academy of Geneva and its Role in the Spread and Consolidation of the Calvinistic Movement

    *Tocqueville, Alexis de, Democracy in America, 2 volumes, revised edition, ISBN: 0060915226.
    Translated by Henry Reeve and revised by Francis Bowen. Edited by Philip Bradley
    "Tocqueville in the early part of the 19th century was commissioned by the French government to travel throughout the United States in order to discover the secret of the astounding success of this experiment in democracy. . . . A classic of political and sociological reporting and analysis . . ." -- Publisher
    Democracy in America
    http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/home.html

    Tracy, Joseph, Great Awakening: A History of the Revival of Religion in the Time of Edwards and Whitefield, new edition, ISBN: 085151233X 9780851512334 0851517129 9780851517124.
    "This volume remains second to none in its definitive treatment of the 'Revival of Religion in New England in 1740', one of the most important and remarkable eras in the history of the Christian church in modern times." -- Publisher
    "The most comprehensive account of the major 18th century revival." -- Roberts
    "The author follows his theme from the local revivals of the 1730s to the floodtide of 1740-1742. The material is broad-based and includes numerous quotes from the time period." -- GCB
    "I have read a number of works on revivals and this revival in particular. This is the one book on the subject that I have gone back to time and again. It is scholarly, thorough, and devotionally helpful. As I read of the changes in the lives in the villagers of New England I became more and more impressed with how true revivals are such awesome and precious things.
    "This book is very helpful for our day as well. In describing the excesses of this revival (especially those that had to do with Davenport), and in the detailed accounts of unwanted side-phenomena, we see sad similarities to what has been experienced in some of our churches today. This book shows what a true revival looks like." -- Reader's Comment

    *Westminster Assembly (1643-1652), The Westminster Confession of Faith (1646) [completed and first printed in 1646, approved by the Assembly, August 27, 1647, Session 23 -- compiler] (Glasgow, Scotland: Free Presbyterian Publication [133 Woodlands Road, Glasgow G3 6LE], 1994), ISBN: 0902506080 (casebound), and ISBN: 0902506358 (paperback). Among the ten greatest works in the English language. Available (THE WESTMINSTER CONFESSION OF FAITH (1646) with all its subordinate documents in searchable format) on the Puritan Hard Drive. Also available (THE WESTMINSTER CONFESSION OF FAITH (1646) with all its subordinate documents in searchable format) on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1.
    Westminster Confession of Faith (1646) With Scripture Proofs
    http://www.reformed.org/documents/wcf_with_proofs/
    Westminster Assembly (1643-1652), The Confession of Faith, the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, With the Scripture Proofs at Large: Together With The sum of Saving Knowledge (contained in the Holy Scriptures, and held forth in the said Confession and Catechisms), and Practical use Thereof, Covenants National and Solemn League, Acknowledgment of Sins and Engagement to Duties, Directories, Form of Church-government, &c. of Public Authority in the Church of Scotland, With Acts of Assembly and Parliament, Relative to, and Approbative of the Same (1757) [the original version of 1646, prior to the changes of the "American Version" of 1789 -- compiler]
    http://archive.org/details/confessionofscot00chur
    " 'The product of Puritan conflict,' stated Shedd, reaching 'a perfection of statement never elsewhere achieved.' All that learning the most profound and extensive, intellect the most acute and searching, and piety the most sincere and earnest, could accomplish, was thus concentrated in the Westminster Assembly's Confession of Faith, which may be safely termed the most perfect statement of Systematic Theology ever framed by the Christian Church,' writes Hetherington. (The History of the Westminster Assembly of Divines, p. 345).
    "Concerning The Shorter Catechism, which is one of the items also included in this book, Mitchell notes: 'it is a thoroughly Calvinistic and Puritan catechism, the ripest fruit of the Assembly's thought and experience, maturing and finally fixing the definitions of theological terms to which Puritanism for half a century had been leading up and gradually coming closer and closer to in its legion of catechisms.' (Westminster Assembly: Its History and Standards, p. 431).
    "THE WESTMINSTER CONFESSION OF FAITH (1646) is the greatest of all the creeds of the Christian church. The church of Christ cannot be creedless and live. Especially in an age of doubt and confusion, it is her duty to define and proclaim the one true faith. Nowhere has the Reformed church done this so effectively as in the WESTMINSTER CONFESSION, and family of documents. This book represents Reformed thinking at its purest and best. It was intended, as part of the Covenanted Reformation taking place during its compilation, to be adopted as the binding confessional standard for every individual, family, court, church, and legislature in the British Isles." -- Publisher
    This is considered to be the definitive publication of the Westminster family of documents. It includes the following:

    1. "To the Christian Reader, Especially Heads of Families"
      http://www.reformed.org/documents/wcf_standards/index.html?mainframe=/documents/wcf_standards/p005-to_head_of_families.html
    2. "Mr. Thomas Manton's Epistle to the Reader"
      http://www.reformed.org/documents/wcf_standards/index.html?mainframe=/documents/wcf_standards/p005-to_head_of_families.html
    3. THE CONFESSION OF FAITH (1646), the full and original edition with Scripture proofs written out
      http://www.reformed.org/documents/wcf_with_proofs/
    4. THE LARGER CATECHISM with Scripture proofs written out
      http://www.reformed.org/documents/wlc_w_proofs/index.html
    5. THE SHORTER CATECHISM with Scripture proofs written out
      http://www.reformed.org/documents/WSC_frames.html
    6. THE SUM OF SAVING KNOWLEDGE
      http://www.reformed.org/master/index.html?mainframe=/documents/sum/sum.html
    7. "The National Covenant"
      http://www.reformed.org/documents/wcf_standards/index.html?mainframe=/documents/wcf_standards/p345-nat_covenant.html
    8. "The Solemn League and Covenant"
      http://www.reformed.org/documents/wcf_standards/index.html?mainframe=/documents/wcf_standards/p355-solemn_league.html
    9. "A Solemn Acknowledgement of Publick Sins and Breaches of the Covenant; and a Solemn Engagement to all the Duties Contained Therein"
      http://www.truecovenanter.com/covenants/scotland_covenant_renewal_1648.html
    10. THE DIRECTORY FOR PUBLIC WORSHIP
      http://www.reformed.org/documents/wcf_standards/index.html?mainframe=/documents/wcf_standards/p369-direct_pub_worship.html
    11. THE FORM OF PRESBYTERIAL CHURCH GOVERNMENT
      http://www.reformed.org/documents/wcf_standards/index.html?mainframe=/documents/wcf_standards/p395-form_presby_gov.html
    12. "The Directory for Family-Worship, Approved by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, for Piety and Uniformity in Secret and Private Worship, and Mutual Edification"
      http://www.reformed.org/documents/wcf_standards/index.html
    THE WESTMINSTER CONFESSION OF FAITH (1646) is said to be the finest summary of THE HOLY BIBLE available. It is recommended for daily devotions. See the following resources:
    1. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE WESTMINSTER STANDARDS AS A CREED
      http://www.fpcr.org/blue_banner_articles/signific.htm
    2. "The Complete Scripture Index to the Westminster Confession (1646), Larger and Shorter Catechisms." Alternate title: SCRIPTURE INDEX TO THE WESTMINSTER STANDARDS. Available on Library of Presbyterian Heritage Publications [and] Protestant Heritage Press CD. Also available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    3. Bordwine, James, A GUIDE TO THE WESTMINSTER STANDARDS: CONFESSION OF FAITH AND LARGER CATECHISM, ISBN: 0940931303 9780940931305.
      Includes a unique, 100-page topical index to both the CONFESSION and the LARGER CATECHISM.
    4. WESTMINSTER LARGER CATECHISM WITH PROOF TEXTS
      http://www.reformed.org/documents/wlc_w_proofs/index.html
    5. THE SHORTER CATECHISM WITH SCRIPTURE PROOFS.
      Arguably the greatest tract ever created, all factors considered.
      http://www.reformed.org/documents/WSC_frames.html
      THE SHORTER CATECHISM
      Free downloadable PDF file.
      http://www.greenvillepresbyterian.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/shorter-catechism.pdf
    6. Westminster Shorter Catechism Project
      "Click on any of the individual questions below to get the answer and Biblical references, as well as links to works by John Flavel, Thomas Watson, Thomas Boston, James Fisher, and John Whitecross, and others."
      http://www.shortercatechism.com/
    7. Commentaries on the Westminster Standards Including the Westminster Confession of Faith, The Larger Catechism, and The Shorter Catechism
      http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr3ch.html#cwswcsc
    8. The Westminster Confession of Faith (1646), (The Westminster Standards), and Related Works: A Study Guide
      http://www.lettermen2.com/suggest.html
    9. The Scottish Covenanted Reformation continued the work of The Westminster Assembly. David Steel (1803-1887), is considered to be one of the most faithful Covenanter ministers in America. Notice that the citation following is an authorized, complete edition of their final TESTIMONY.
      Reformed Presbytery of North America ("Steelite"), David Steele (1803-1887), John Thorburn (1730?-1788), John Courtass (d. 1795), et al., ACT, DECLARATION, AND TESTIMONY, FOR THE WHOLE OF THE COVENANTED REFORMATION, AS ATTAINED TO, AND ESTABLISHED IN, BRITAIN AND IRELAND; PARTICULARLY BETWIXT THE YEARS 1638 AND 1649, INCLUSIVE. AS, ALSO, AGAINST ALL THE STEPS OF DEFECTION FROM SAID REFORMATION, WHETHER IN FORMER OR LATER TIMES, SINCE THE OVERTHROW OF THAT GLORIOUS WORK, DOWN TO THIS PRESENT DAY (1876) (Philadelphia, PA: Printed by Rue and Jones, 1876).
      This is a new edition of the Ploughlandhead Testimony of 1761. It was the subordinate standard of the original "Steelite" Reformed Presbytery that was constitutes in 1840.
      https://archive.org/details/actdeclarationte00refo
    10. Church and State
      Works listed here discuss the decline of the influence of Calvinism and the Covenanted Reformation in Great Britain and the United States. The various alterations to the Westminster Standards are also discussed.
      http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr9chc.html#churchstate
    11. Heresies Defined and the Necessity of Heresies Explained, by George Gillespie, Scottish Commissioner to the Assembly of Divines at Westminster
      http://www.truecovenanter.com/gillespie/ggilles09.html

    *Willson (Wilson), James M. (1809-1866), Some Reasons for Retaining the Westminster Confession as the Basis of Ecclesiastical Union. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #24.
    "Explains why the use of the Westminster Confession is one of the best ways in which to obtain godly ecclesiastical union. This booklet pays special attention to the biblical teaching regarding civil government and shows why changes to the original WCF (regarding this matter), has resulted, not surprisingly, in much ecclesiastical disunity. It also contains some interesting notes on the millennial power and glory that will be exhibited in both church and state 'in the day of the Lord's power.' Excerpted from The Original Covenanter and Contending Witness Magazine, (volumes 1:1-4).

    Wilson, David, A Modest Apology for the Conduct of Seceders, in Refusing to Join in Christian Communion With Sectarians, Latitudinarians, etc., who Have Departed From the Purity of Reformation Once Attained to in These Kingdoms. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #27.
    "An exceedingly rare work published in 1773. Sets forth a strong case for separation from all bodies that are backslidden from the work of covenanted reformation, as it was attained during the days of the Westminster Assembly, and as set forth in the WESTMINSTER CONFESSION OF FAITH [1646] and its related documents (regarding the government, worship, doctrine and discipline of Christ's church). Denounces the 'detestable indifference or neutrality' of not maintaining covenant obligations, which bind all reformers, 'to endeavour the extirpation of all superstition, heresy, schism, and whatsoever should be found contrary to sound doctrine.' Also proves that there is no liberty or love that is contrary to God's Word. Maintains Christian charity throughout by distinguishing between loving the persons in error, and taking part with, or encouraging them in their sinful confederacies or actions. A great work on the subjects of purity, faithfulness and separation. It is in keeping with the sentiments expressed in the Reformed Presbytery's ACT, DECLARATION AND TESTIMONY which states: 'The first cry against the presbytery and its members was -- 'schism -- schismatics.' This charge was promptly and publicly met and refuted, by showing from the Scriptures, that schism -- 'is in the body,' 1 Cor. 12:26; and from the approved writings of our covenanting fathers, that 'sometimes to avoid schism, we must separate.' Our worthy ancestors knew better than to adopt the vocabulary of papal Rome. Besides, 'the majority making defection are the real separatists'. (Samuel Rutherford)" -- Publisher

    *Woodbridge, John D., Mark A. Noll, and Nathan O. Hatch, The Gospel in America: Themes in the Story of America's Evangelicals, ISBN: 0310372402 9780310372400.

    Woods, David Walker, John Witherspoon, ISBN: 9781432672799 1432672797.
    "A republic once equally poised must either preserve its virtue or lose its liberty. . . . He is the best friend of American liberty who is most sincere and active in promoting pure and undefiled religion." -- John Witherspoon
    "John Witherspoon, a Presbyterian minister and president of what is now Princeton University, was the only pastor to sign the Declaration of Independence." -- Francis Schaeffer

    Workman, Herbert B., Persecution in the Early Church, ISBN: 0192830252 9780192830258.
    "This important assessment of persecution in the early centuries of the Christian era analyzes the clash between church and state, probes the causes of hatred, chronicles the great persecutions, and recounts the experiences of those who were persecuted for their faith." -- Cyril J. Barber

    *Wylie, James A. (1808-1890), The History of Protestantism, 2 volumes. A Christian classic. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    "This massive (8.5' X 11'), two-volume set contains nearly 2000 pages and more than 500 illustrations. It chronicles Protestantism in its progress from the first century to the late 17th century (though the focus is clearly on the 16th and 17th centuries). From Luther's burning of the Papal Bull 'excommunicating' him, to Calvin's refusing the Lord's supper to the Libertines of Geneva (who said they would kill him for doing so), the pages of this book testify to the life and death struggle for truth that remains to this day. The pictures in these books are also excellent for introducing children to major historical events relating to the struggle, sacrifice and victory of Christ's church on earth. The writing of Wylie is well worth the time invested to gain an overview of the great controversy between the true church and the false. Paisley, in his foreword, states, 'The Reformation of the 16th century was the greatest revival of New Testament Christianity since the days of Pentecost. Then once more the gospel in its purity was preached with apostolic power and with apostolic results.' He continues, 'Wylie's . . . is the best history extant. I welcome its republishing. Read it. Study it. Circulate it and by so doing you will help to dispel the dark cloud of priestly superstition, popish idolatry and papal tyranny encircling our land.' When it was first published Rome banned this book, buying up and burning all the copies that they could lay their hands on. It was more hated and denounced by Papists than any other book of its time. In our day, when the Pope addresses the United Nations, is often the subject of news reports, and regularly meets with national civil leaders (and when professing Protestants are defecting to 'the whore of Babylon,' and signing 'peace' treaties with this great enemy of Christ [to fight cultural battles]), these books are needed more than ever. William Cunningham's words, though written many years ago, should be heeded by all faithful Christians today, for he said, 'it is quite evident, from the signs of the times, that the Popish controversy must be fought over again . . . It is incumbent upon ministers of the gospel to prepare themselves for the contest'." -- Publisher
    Wylie, J.A. (1808-1890), The History of Protestantism (1902), vol. 1 of 3.
    http://archive.org/details/historyofprotes01wyli
    Wylie, The history of Protestantism, vol. 2 of 3.
    http://archive.org/details/historyofprotes02wyli
    Wylie, The history of Protestantism, vol. 3 of 3.
    http://archive.org/details/historyofprotes03wyli

    Wylie, James Aiken (1808-1890), History of Protestantism Coloring Book, 3 volumes. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #30.

    Wylie, James Aiken (1808-1890), History of Protestantism in the Netherlands. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #30.

    Wylie, James A. (1808-1890), History of the Waldenses

    Wylie, James A. (1808-1890), Pilgrimage From the Alps to the Tiber; or, The Influence of Romanism on Trade, Justice and Knowledge.

    Wylie, James A. (1808-1890), Protestantism in Scotland (1878), Book 24 (illustrated), from Wylie's THE HISTORY OF PROTESTANTISM. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1.
    "For the period covered by this book, Scotland went from a nation of uncivilized barbarians to national covenants with Christ, and then through many ups and downs as various factions tried to destroy true Christianity. From darkness to Hamilton, Wishart, Knox, and Melville, through to the Covenanters, the Westminster Assembly and the tragic deception used by Charles II, Wylie's racy style makes it hard to put this book down. Few other nations and periods of history provide such edifying reading. Highlights include Knox's call to the ministry, his interview with Queen Mary, his trial for treason, Melville's work, the National and Solemn League and Covenant, the civil war, the Westminster Assembly, and more." -- Publisher

    Wylie, James A. (1808-1890), The Road to Rome via Oxford: or, Ritualism Identical With Romanism.

    *Wylie, Samuel B. (1773-1852), The Two Sons of Oil; or, The Faithful Witness for Magistracy and Ministry Upon a Scriptural Basis (1850 edition, reprinted 1995). A Christian classic. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #13, #26.
    "A Covenanter classic opening Revelation 11:3-4 and Zechariah 4:14. It has been hailed as the 'best presentation of the position of the Covenanter Church that has been written.' Noting that the 'time has been, when the whole body of Presbyterians, in Scotland, England, and Ireland, unanimously subscribed' to these principles, 'for civil and ecclesiastical reformation' and that thousands bled and died for the glorious covenanted cause of civil and ecclesiastical reformation; Wylie sets out to explain and defend 'that cause. Not because it is an ancient cause; not because many have sealed it with their blood; but, because,' as he says, 'I thought it the doctrine of the Bible, and the cause of Christ.' This book explains how to tell if a government (especially a civil government), is faithful to Christ and thus to be obeyed for conscience's sake. It also gives direction regarding when and how to resist (and disassociate), yourself from governments which get their power from 'the beast.' Moreover, this book gives clear testimony as to what the Bible requires of civil magistrates, noting 'that civil rulers should exercise their power in protecting and defending the religion of Jesus.' It also gives plain reasons why dissent from the government of the United States (and other covenant breaking nations), is the legitimate Scriptural pattern." -- Publisher
    The Two Sons of Oil; or, the Faithful Witness for Magistracy and Ministry Upon a Scriptural Basis, Samuel B. Wylie
    http://www.swrb.com/newslett/actualNLs/two-sons-of-oil.htm
    The two Sons of oil, or, The faithful Witness for Magistracy and Ministry Upon a Scriptural Basis (1850),
    Samuel Brown Wylie and James McLeod Willson
    http://archive.org/details/twosonsofoilorfa00wylirich

    Wylie, Samuel B., James M'Kinney, John Black, John Niel McLeod, Reformed Presbyterian Church in North America, General Synod, Minutes of the Supreme Judicatory of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in America: Presbytery from A.D. 1801 to A.D. 1809; Synod from A.D. 1809 to A.D. [1853].

    See also:The sovereign grace of god: his everlasting mercy and lovingkindness, The doctrine of man (human nature, total depravity), The love and justice of God, God's sovereign hand in history, History, "his-story," Christian scholarship, Christ's influence on western civilization, The protestant reformation, The dutch reformation, Calvinism, Background, foundation, and history of the covenanted reformation of scotland, Church history and history of local churches, The history of reformation of the church, The puritan revolution, The reformed presbytery of scotland and the reformed presbytery of america, Christian biography, A theological interpretation of american history, Works of c. gregg singer, The providence of god, The christian foundation of america, colonial history, Works by and about puritans, Toleration, liberty of conscience, pluralism, and neutrality, Selection of covenant heads for positions of leadership, Persecution, The history of martyrs, Revisionist history, Modern myths and fallacies, Selection of covenant heads for positions of leadership, The decline of american society, irrationality, Meltdown 2008: the greatest depression in history, God's deliverance of nations, Secret societies, ungodly alliances, voluntary associations, Covenanting in America, The Scottish covenanting struggle, Alexander Craighead, and the Mecklenburg Declaration, The application of scripture to the corporate bodies of church and state, Church government, Servant leadership, Selection of covenant heads for positions of leadership, The application of scripture to the corporate bodies of church and state, Unity and uniformity in the visible church: unity in the truth, National establishment of religion: establishmentarianism, Corporate faithfulness and sanctification, Covenant theology and the ordinance of covenanting, The covenanted reformation of scotland, The covenanted reformation of scotland short title listing, The westminster confession of faith (1646) (westminster standards) and related works a study guide, The puritan revolution, The reformed presbytery of scotland and the reformed presbytery of america, Covenanting in america, Unfaithful reformed ministries, The counter reformation, The destruction of American liberty, Reformation eschatology, Books considered to be among the ten greatest in the english language, Pseudo-christian movements: a selection of works, and so forth, and so on.

    Related WebLinks

    Puritan Hard Drive Collection.
    Containing 12,500 plus Puritan and Reformation resources on an external USB hard drive, "with an embedded database and custom search/interface program now added, the most extensive and powerful reformation study tool ever produced!"
    "Over 12,500 Classic and Contemporary Puritan and Reformation Resources On SWRB's New, Portable, USB Puritan Hard Drive (SWRB-PHD) -- Now Including An Embedded Database and SWRB's New, Custom, Proprietary Search/Interface Knowledgebase Program (With Over 70,000 Category Cross References), For Easy, Virtually Effortless, Access To All 12,500+ Puritan And Reformation Resources (Books, MP3s and Videos), and the Power to Search, Build, Print and Even Save An Unlimited Number of Study Lists Related to Whatever Authors, Topics and Titles You Most Need To Know and Understand!
    "The new Puritan Hard Drive. also works on both PCs and Macs." -- Publisher
    PuritanDownloads.com
    Download contents: Authors, Titles, Categories, and MP3s for the Puritan Hard Drive.
    http://www.puritandownloads.com/swrb-puritan-hard-drive.html

    Still Waters Revival Books, Reformation Bookshelf 30 CD Set, ISBN: 0921148674 9780921148678.
    This is the WorldCat (OCLC) record for the entire 30 CD set. It gives the title of each CD. See the WorldCat (OCLC) record for each CD for a listing of the titles included on that CD. "Comprehensive Author Index Containing all the Books Found in the Entire 30 CD Reformation Bookshelf Set" is available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #30, ISBN: 0921148380 9780921148388.

    John Knox, the Scottish Covenanters, and the Westminster Assembly (tape 3 of 5), in a series of addresses History Notes on Presbyterianism, Reformation, and Theology by Dr. C. Gregg Singer on SermonAudion.com
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12607114250

    Works of C. Gregg Singer
    http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr3ch.html#cgsinger

    #01: Introduction: A Span of History
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Decline of American Culture
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?ID=72902195856

    Apologetics #04: The Renaissance and the Reformation
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Apologetics, 47 min.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=3105181649

    Apologetics #24: The Recovery of Christian Theism
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Apologetics, 58 min.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?ID=3205142039

    The topical listing for "A Theological Interpretation of American History"
    http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr9chc.html#stiahis

    The Story of Presbyterianism, C. Gregg Singer, Ph.D.
    http://www.fpcjackson.org/resources/apologetics/story.htm

    The One Foundation, a sermon by C.H. Spurgeon
    Preaching on the text For other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ. (1 Corinthians 3:11)
    Metropolitan Tabernacle Pulpit, 1879, Sermon 1494.
    "As churches we are not legislators, but subjects; it is not for us to frame constitutions, invent offices, and decree rites and ceremonies, but we are to take everything out of the mouth of Christ, and to do what he bids us, as he bids us, and when he bids us. Parliaments and kings have no authority whatever in the church, but Christ alone rules therein. If any portion of a church be not based upon Christ it is a mere deforming addition to the plan of the great Architect, and mars the temple which God has built, and not man. What a blessed thing it is to feel that you belong to a church which has a rock under it, because it is constituted by Christ's authority. We feel safe in following an ordinance which is of his commanding, but we should tremble if we had only custom and human authority for it. . . .
    "When sermons are preached without so much as the mention of Christ's name, it takes more than charity, it requires you to tell a lie to say 'That was a Christian sermon;' and if any people find their joy in a teaching which casts the Lord Jesus into the background, they are not his church, or else such teaching would be an abomination to them. . . .
    "All the decrees of popes and councils, all the resolutions of assemblies, synods, presbyteries, and associations, and all the ordinances of men as individuals, however great they be, when they are all put together, if they at all differ from the law of Christ, are mere wind and waste paper, nay, worse, they are treasonable insults to the majesty of King Jesus. Those who build apart from the authority of Christ build off of the foundation, and their fabric will fall. There is no law and no authority in a true church but that of Christ himself; we who are his ministers are his servants and the servants of the church, and not lords or law-makers. To his law a faithful church brings all things as to the sure test. As churches we are not legislators, but subjects; it is not for us to frame constitutions, invent offices, and decree rites and ceremonies, but we are to take everything out of the mouth of Christ, and to do what he bids us, as he bids us, and when he bids us. Parliaments and kings have no authority whatever in the church, but Christ alone rules therein."
    "Let us put this, our first point, in a few sentences. It is not the union of men with men that makes a church if Jesus Christ be not the centre and the bond of the union. The best of men may come into bonds of amity, and they may form a league, or a federation, for good and useful purposes, but they are not a church unless Jesus Christ be the basis upon which they rest. He must be the ground and foundation of the hope of each and of all." -- C.H. Spurgeon
    http://www.spurgeongems.org/vols25-27/chs1494.pdf

    Robbins, John W. (1949-2008), Forgotten Principles of the Reformation, an article.
    "These also are principles of the Reformation, largely forgotten among those who call themselves Reformed. We ought to remember and defend the solas, [Sola Scriptura, Sola Gratia, Sola Fide, Solus Christus, Soli Deo Gloria -- compiler], but we ought also to remember and defend the equally Biblical principles of logical consistency, Scripture alone, the right of private judgment, and separation of church and state."
    http://www.trinityfoundation.org/journal.php?id=202

    Geneva Bible, 1599. Alternate title: THE BIBLE, THAT IS, THE HOLY SCRIPTURES CONTEINED IN THE OLDE AND NEWE TESTAMENT: TRANSLATED ACCORDING TO THE EBREW AND GREEKE, AND CONFERRED WITH THE BEST TRANSLATIONS IN DIUERS LANGUAGES; WITH MOST PROFITABLE ANNOTATIONS UPON ALL THE HARD PLACES, AND OTHER THINGS OF GREAT IMPORTANCE, 1599.
    The 1599 Geneva Bible, Tolle Lege edition, online
    http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=matthew%201&version=GNV

    The Historicism Research Foundation
    http://www.historicism.net

    Christian Classics Ethereal Library CCEL CD-ROM 2000
    http://www.ccel.org/cdrom/cdrom.html

    Christian History CD-ROM
    http://www.christianityonline.com/christianhistory/current/



    The History of Martyrs

    But many that are first shall be last; and the last shall be first. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Matthew 19:30)

    Our Triune God has ordained that the preeminent leader of the Church is the Lord Jesus Christ, the God Man, Our Righteousness. (John 1:1-18; Matthew 19:30; Matthew 28:18-20; Isaiah 49:7; Colossians 1:16-19; Colossians 2:9,10; Hebrews 12:1,2; Revelation 5:1-14; Revelation 19:11-15; Revelation 20:11-15; Revelation 22:12, and so forth, and so on). Human leadership is also divinely ordained and tends to devolve to those who are most perfectly at one with Christ, and to those who also know the most Truth (the Apostle Paul, Saint Augustine, Martin Luther, John Calvin, Puritan leaders, The Scots Worthies, and so forth, and so on.)
    And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Matthew 19:28). See:
    (Matthew 19:28, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    Then his master said unto him, It is well done good servant and faithful, Thou hast been faithful in little, I will make thee ruler over much: enter into thy master's joy. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Matthew 25:21 1599 Geneva Bible)
    Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Matthew 25:34). See: (Matthew 25:34, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    And he said unto him, Well, good servant: because thou hast been faithful in a very little thing, take thou authority over ten cities. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Luke 19:17, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    Therefore I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Luke 22:29, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together. (Romans 8:17). See: (Romans 8:17, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    Know ye not that we shall judge angels? how much more things that pertain to this life? (1 Corinthians 6:3). See: (1 Corinthians 6:3, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    And hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus. (Ephesians 2:6). See: (Ephesians 2:6, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    To execute vengeance upon the heathen, and corrections among the people:
    To bind their kings in chains, and their nobles with fetters of iron,
    That they may execute upon them the judgment that is written: this honor shall be to all his Saints. Praise ye the Lord.
    (Psalm 149:7-9, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence. (1 Timothy 2:12), (1 Timothy 2:12, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    And he that overcometh, and keepeth my works unto the end, to him will I give power over the nations. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Revelation 2:26). See: (Revelation 2:26, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    To serve God is to reign. -- Seneca

    The Christ is the only One truly called. . . . The flesh has always struggled against Him, as we see when we survey the history of God's people. The struggle was especially acute at Golgotha. -- S.G. De Graaf

    *Anderson, William, The Voice of Renwick, The Last of the Scottish Martyrs, 1882. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    "A rare work setting forth the stirring story of the young minister and martyr James Renwick. It explains the main points (of Covenanted Reformation), for which he and many other Covenanters suffered and died. Also makes practical applications which can be applied to today. -- Publisher

    Anonymous, The book of martyrs, with an account of the acts and monuments of church and state, from the time of our blessed saviour, to the year 1701. . . . Abstracted from the best authors and original papers. Illustrated with . . . plates. In two volumes. . . . Vol. 1. London, 1702. 2 vols.

    Bilton, Henry. The History of the English Martyrs, who Suffer'd Death for Opposing the Romish Religion, from the reign of King Henry the IVth, 1400, to the end of the reign of Queen Mary the 1st, . . . London, 1720.

    Bray, Thomas, Papal Usurpation and Persecution, as it has been exercis'd in ancient and modern times with respect both to princes and people; . . . The whole divided into two tomes, . . . and design'd as supplemental to the Book of martyrs, . . . By a sincere lover of our Protestant establishment both in church and state. London, 1712.

    Burnet, Gilbert, The Lives and Sufferings of the English Martyrs, who Were Executed and Burnt for Their Religion, from the reign of Henry the IVth, to the end of the reign of Queen Mary I. and to the reformation of the Church of England. Published by Bishop Burnet, . . . London, 1755.

    Carslaw, W.H., Three Heroes of the Covenant: The Life and Times of William Guthrie, Donald Cargill and James Renwick, Last of the Martyrs, 1902. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #26.

    Carslaw, W.H., Six Martyrs of the Scottish Reformation, 1907. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #26.

    Carter, Robert, and Brothers, Martyrs and Covenanters of Scotland.

    Clarke, Samuel (1599-1682), A General Martyrology: Containing a collection of all the greatest persecutions which have befallen the Church of Christ from the Creation to our present times: Where is given an exact account of the Protestant sufferings in Queen Mary's reign: Together with a large collection of lives of great persons, eminent divines, and singular Christians: To which is added the state and sufferings of the Church of Scotland, from the Revolution.

    Clergyman and others, The Biographical and Martyrological Dictionary: Containing the lives, sufferings, and deaths, of the most eminent martyrs and confessors of Christ, . . . To the whole is annexed, a general index, . . . By a clergyman and others. Newcastle upon Tyne, 1790.

    Frend, W.H.C., Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church: A Study of a Conflict From the Maccabees to Donatus, ISBN: 9780227172292 0227172299.
    "First published in 1965, this work remains the standard treatment of the interplay between church and state in the early centuries of the Christian era. . . ." -- Cyril J. Barber

    Guthrie, James (1612?-1661), The Ordinary of Newgate his Account, of the Behaviour, Confession, and Dying Words of the Malefactors who Were Executed at Tyburn, on Monday the 12th of This Instant February, 1728.

    Hefley, James, and Marti Hefle, By Their Blood: Christian Martyrs of the 20th Century, ISBN: 0915134284 9780915134281.
    "Too often we forget that God's people are suffering and being martyred. Here in a vivid book we are awakened. What FOXE'S BOOK OF MARTYRS did for generations past this book does for our generation." -- GCB
    "The book begins with accounts of the martyrs during the Boxer Rebellion in China, continues with martyrs in Japan and Korea, Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, Nazi Germany, and of the Soviet Union and its communist regimes. Then there are martyrs from the Middle East, Africa, the Caribbean, and from Latin America. . . .
    "The stories themselves are gruesome. There is no viciousness like the viciousness of those who worship humanly-conceived gods. Like the Roman Catholic inquisitors in the sixteenth century, men in all nations have at one time or another sought to physically torture Christians to make them recant their testimonies. It is said that for every Christian Stalin murdered in Russia, two or more were raised up by God, until Stalin ordered the killing stopped for fear the whole nation would become Christians. Despite the lurid details of the torture, we recommend that everyone read the books that tell of martyrs dying for the cause of God and truth. This goes for children. Before you cry out, remember what they are watching on television, and seeing in movies, yes, and reading in Stephen King books, and others of that kind. Horror stories are best-sellers in our times. Let the children learn what horrible things are being done to Christians merely because they believe and obey God's word, and because of it worship the Lord Jesus Christ. . . ." -- Jay P. Green, Sr.

    *Howie, John (1735-1793), The Scots Worthies. Biographia Scoticana: or, A Brief Historical Account of the Lives, Characters, and Memorable Transactions of the Most Eminent Scots Worthies . . . as also, an Appendix, containing a short historical hint of the wicked lives . . . of the . . . apostates and . . . persecutors in Scotland . . . 2nd edition, corrected and enlarged, 1781. A Christian classic. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1, #10. The series of 22 MP3 files from the book, produced by Still Waters Revival Books, are available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1-30.
    This same book series of audio files is available at AudioSermons.com.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/search.asp?seriesOnly=true&currSection=sermonstopic&sourceid=swrb&keyword=Book%3A+SCOTS+WORTHIES&keyworddesc=Book%3A+SCOTS+WORTHIES
    "Most commonly known as SCOTS WORTHIES, this edition contains Howie's footnotes (defending the Covenanters), and Howie's appendix titled 'The Judgment and Justice of God' (which chronicles God's judgments upon Reformation apostates and those who persecuted the Covenanters). It is the only edition in print which contains both these sections intended for publication by the author (as later editors often removed either one or both of these parts of this book). BIOGRAPHIA SCOTICANA covers the history of 'noblemen, gentlemen, ministers and others from Mr. Patrick Hamilton, who was born about the year of our Lord 1503, and suffered martyrdom at St. Andrews, Feb., 1527, to Mr. James Renwick, who was executed in the Grass-market of Edinburgh, Feb. 17, 1688. Together with a succinct account of the lives of other seven eminent divines, and Sir Robert Hamilton of Preston, who died about, or shortly after the Revolution.' This is one of our best history books (over 700 pages), covering all of the major Scottish Reformers. Howie summarizes his book as follows: 'The design of the following was to collect, from the best authorities, a summary account of the lives, characters, and contendings, of a certain number of our most renowned SCOTS WORTHIES, who, for their faithful services, ardent zeal, constancy in sufferings, and other Christian graces and virtues, deserve honourable memorial in the Church of Christ; and for which their names have been, and will be savoury to all the true lovers of our Zion, while Reformation principles are regarded.' Furthermore, the momentous nature of the struggles chronicled in this book are succinctly noted when Howie writes: 'the primitive witnesses had the divinity of the Son of God, and an open confession of Him, for their testimony. Our reformers from Popery had Antichrist to struggle with, in asserting the doctrines of the Gospel, and the right way of salvation in and through Jesus Christ. Again, in the reigns of James VI. and Charles I., Christ's REGALIA, and the divine right of Presbytery, became the subject matter of their testimony. Then, in the beginning of the reign of Charles II. (until he got the whole of our ancient and laudable constitution effaced and overturned), our Worthies only saw it their duty to hold and contend for what they had already attained unto. But, in the end of this and the subsequent tyrant's reign, they found it their duty (a duty which they had too long neglected), to advance one step higher, by casting off their authority altogether, and that as well on account of their manifest usurpation of Christ's crown and dignity, as on account of their treachery, bloodshed, and tyranny . . . which may be summed up. The Primitive martyrs sealed the prophetic office of Christ in opposition to Pagan idolatry. The reforming martyrs sealed His priestly office with their blood, in opposition to Popish idolatry. And last of all, our late martyrs have sealed His kingly office with their best blood, in despite of supremacy and bold Erastianism. They indeed have cemented it upon His royal head, so that to the world's end it shall never drop off again.' Moreover, the importance of this book can be clearly seen when Johnston, in TREASURY OF THE SCOTTISH COVENANT, reports that, Walter Scott refers to Howie as 'the fine old chronicler of the Cameronians'. . . Howie's book has been for upwards of a century a household word, occupying a place on the shelf beside THE BIBLE and THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.' Written for God, country and the covenanted work of Reformation. Stirring history!" -- Publisher
    Biographia Scoticana, John Howie
    Original from Oxford University, published 1885, digitized May 22, 2006. Described as a reprint of the 1781 edition. It does not appear to include the appendix cited above.
    http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC34190563&id=5iwAAAAAQAAJ&q=Scots+Worthies+1781&dq=Scots+Worthies+1781&ie=ISO-8859-1&pgis=1
    See also: A CLOUD OF WITNESSES FOR THE ROYAL PREROGATIVES OF JESUS CHRIST BEING THE LAST SPEECHES AND TESTIMONIES OF THOSE WHO HAVE SUFFERED FOR THE TRUTH IN SCOTLAND SINCE . . . 1680 and JOHN FOXE'S BOOK OF MARTYRS. ACTES AND MONUMENTS OF MATTERS MOST SPECIALL AND MEMORABLE. Available from: http://www.johnfoxe.org. Implemented by the Humanities Research Institute, University of Sheffield, England, and published by HRI Online Publications, Sheffield, 2011, Version 2.0, ISBN: 9780954260864.

    Lawson, John Parker, John Lothian, and David Hay Fleming, Life of George Wishart, the Most Distinguished Martyr for the Reformation in Scotland: With an Appendix Containing the Life and Murder of Cardinal Beaton, and Biographical Sketches of Gawin Dunbar and Sir David Lindsay. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #18.

    *McFeeters, J.C., Sketches of the Covenanters. A Christian classic. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1.
    "Stirring accounts of sacrifice and martyrdom for the Reformed Faith that will bring tears to eyes of all but the backslidden. Follows the chain of events which gave Scotland two Reformations and a Revolution. Knox, the National Covenant, the Westminster Assembly, the Field Meetings, and much more is covered. The history of great battles for Christ and His royal rights are recounted in this moving history book. Sheds much light upon the warfare with the dragon for true liberty. One of our best history books, highly recommended!" -- Publisher Sketches of the Covenanters
    http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/13570

    Nisbet, John, A True Relation of the Life and Sufferings of John Nisbet in Hardhill, his Last Testimony to the Truth; With a short account of his last words on the scaffold, December 4. 1685. Never hitherto published . . . Edinburgh, 1718. Available in Tweedie, SELECT BIOGRAPHIES II.

    R.B. The History of the Lives of Those Famous English Divines, That Were Most Zealous in Promoting the Reformation: . . . By R. B., London, 1709.

    Ridpath, George, The Massacre of Glenco. Being a true narrative of the barbarous murther of the Glenco-men, in the highlands of Scotland, by way of military execution, on the 13th of Feb. 1692. . . . 1704.

    Shields, Alexander (1660?-1700), The Life and Death of That Eminently Pious, Free, and Faithful Minister and Martyr of Jesus Christ, Mr. James Renwick: With a Vindication of the Heads of his Dying Testimony, 1806, 2nd edition. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #2.

    Simpson, Robert, The Banner of the Covenant; or, Historical Notices of Some of the Scottish Martyrs whose lives and sufferings have not hitherto been sketched in a separate . . . 1847.

    Staughton, S., A Selection of Remarkable Events in the Lives of the Primitive Fathers, Eminent Reformers, and Martyrs, in the Christian Church: . . . By S. Staughton, Coventry, 1791.

    *Thomson, John Henderson (editor), John McMain, and David Scott (introduction), A Cloud of Witnesses for the Royal Prerogatives of Jesus Christ Being the Last Speeches and Testimonies of Those who Have Suffered for the Truth in Scotland Since . . . 1680. Alternate title: THE FIFTEENTH EDITION, ENLARGED AND CORRECTED: A CLOUD OF WITNESSES, FOR THE ROYAL PREROGATIVES OF JESUS CHRIST: OR, THE LAST SPEECHES AND TESTIMONIES OF THOSE WHO HAVE SUFFERED FOR THE TRUTH IN SCOTLAND, SINCE THE YEAR 1680: WITH AN APPENDIX, CONTAINING THE QUEENSFERRY PAPER; TORWOOD EXCOMMUNICATION; A RELATION CONCERNING MR. RICHARD CAMERON, MR. DONALD CARGIL, AND HENRY HALL; AND AN ACCOUNT OF THOSE WHO WERE KILLED WITHOUT PROCESS OF LAW, AND BANISHED TO FOREIGN LANDS: WITH A SHORT VIEW OF SOME OF THE OPPRESSIVE EXACTIONS, ISBN: 0873779231. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    "With the Testimonies of John Nisbet the Younger, John Nisbet of Hardhill, Robert Miller, Thomas Harkness, &c. A Letter of John Semple's and of Archibald Stewart's. The Paper found upon Mr. Cameron at Airsmoss, and an Acrostick upon his name. The Testimony of John Finlay in Kilmarnock. The Epitaphs upon the Grave Stones of Mr. Samuel Rutherford, Mr. John Welwood, and the noble Patriots who fell at Pentland-hills, &c.
    "Also includes The Testimony of some persecuted Presbyterian Ministers of the Gospel, unto the Covenanted Reformation of the Church of Scotland, and to the present expediency of continuing to preach the Gospel in the fields, and against the present anti-Christian Toleration in its nature and design, &c. Given in to the Ministers at Edinburgh, by Mr. James Renwick, upon the 17th Jan. 1688. And Mr. Richard Cameron's Last Sermon; preached on Kype Water in Evandale, July 18th, 1680, three days before he was killed at Airs-moss. (Pittsburgh: Printed for David Reed, by Eichbaum & Johnston, 1824), 1884 edition.
    Wherefore seeing we also are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth so easily beset us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us, Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God. (Hebrews 12:1,2)
    "Presbyterian Covenanter martyrs of Scotland, their last speeches and testimonies. The first edition appeared in 1714, and as more material was collected it was added to the 15 editions that were printed over the next 100 years."
    "An amazing book compiled to show how -- and especially why (from their own dying testimonies) -- the Covenanters suffered, bled and died. These brave martyrs for Christ laid the foundation for liberty and truth in both church and state. They have much to say to us today . . . . Though the issues and ferocity of persecution (by the Popes, prelates, and Erastians), were more obvious during the times covered in this book, the message to contemporary Christians could not be clearer: we are involved in a life and death struggle. Few books are this moving or this edifying -- a real treasure! (658 pp., 1884 ed.)." -- Publisher
    The 1871 edition was praised by Spurgeon.
    A Cloud of Witnesses, 1871 edition, free online e-text. Original from Oxford University. Digitized Aug 31, 2006.
    http://books.google.com/books?id=4vMCAAAAQAAJ&dq=thomson+a+cloud+of+witnesses&ie=ISO-8859-1

    Walker, Patrick, Six Saints of the Covenant, 2 volumes, 629 pages. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    "Covers the lives of Peden, Semple, Welwood, Cameron, Cargill and Smith. These two volumes are edited with illustrative documents, introduction, notes, and a glossary by David Hay Fleming. Walker's advantage in writing of these men, as Hay Fleming points out, can be seen in 'that he lived in the times of which he wrote, that he personally knew many of the Covenanters and martyrs of whom he wrote, and that he was himself a shrewd observer and was endowed with a tenacious memory.' Walker himself had endured imprisonment and torture for the Covenanted cause of Christ and Burton writes that his 'unadorned descriptions of suffering and heroism convey a lesson to the heart which no genius or learning could strengthen,' indexed." -- Publisher

    Wheatley, James, The Lives, Tryals, and Sufferings, of the Holy Apostles, Primitive Fathers and Martyrs, who have . . . suffered for the faith and gospel of Our Lord Jesus Christ. By James Wheatley, Bristol, 1751.

    See also: Toleration, liberty of conscience, pluralism, and neutrality, Chapter 10: christian biography, Biography of covenanters, The covenanted reformation short title listing, persecution, Persecution, Affliction, adversity, trials, Selection of covenant heads for positions of leadership, Christian biography, Biography of covenanters, and so forth, and so on.



    Church Government

    Without Bible magistracy -- law enforcement, judgment, justice, criminal prosecution, civil prosecution, punishment of wrongdoers, equal justice for the "insane" and "mentally ill" (who in most cases are demoniacs), regulation of finance, business, and just regulation in all spheres of human activity -- in the absence of law enforcement, and regulation there is no government in church or in state. Punishment of wrong doers is the primary function of a nation's government. Likewise, without church discipline there is no church government and, of course, no church.

    *Anonymous [Sundry Ministers of London], A Vindication of the Presbyteriall-government, and Ministry: Together, with an Exhortation, to all the ministers, elders, and people, within the bounds of the province of London, whether joyning with us, or separating from us. Published, by the ministers, and elders, met together in a provinciall assembly, Novemb. 2d. 1649. Wherein, amongst other things, these ensuing particulars are contained; 1. That there is a Church-government, by divine right. 2. That the magistrate, is not the fountain of Church-government. 3. That the presbyterial-government, is by divine right. 4. The inconveniencies of the congregationall-way. 5. That the ruling-elder is by divine right. 6. That it is the will of Jesus Christ, that all sorts of persons should give an account of their faith, to the minister, and elders, before admission to the Lords Supper; . . . 7. Directions to the elders, for the right managing of their office. 8. Directions to such as are admitted to the Lords Supper, . . . 9. Rules to preserve people, from the errours of these times. 10. That separation from our churches, is justly charged with schisme. 11. That ministers formerly ordained by bishops, need no new ordination. 12. The necessity and usefulness of catechizing. Licensed, entred, and printed according to order, 1649. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.

    Baillie, Robert (1599-1662), A Dissuasive From the Errours of the Time: Wherein the Tenets of the Principall Sects, Especially of the Independents, are Drawn Together in one Map, for the Most Part in the Words of Their own Authours, and Their Maine Principles are Examined by the Touch-stone of the Holy Scriptures. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    "Chapter titles include: The origin and progress of the Brownists; The doctrine of the Brownists; The origin and progress of the Independents, and of their carriage in New England; The carriage of the Independents in Holland; The carriage of the Independents at London; An enumeration of the common tenets of the Independents; It is unjust scrupulosity to require satisfaction of the true grace of every Church member; Concerning the right of prophesying; Whether the power of ecclesiastical jurisdiction belongs to the people, or to the Presbytery?; Independency is contrary to God's Word; The thousand years of Christ, his visible reign upon Earth, is against Scripture (contra Premillennialism -- RB)." -- Publisher

    Baillie, Robert (1599-1662), A Review of the Seditious Pamphlet Lately Published [sic] in Holland by Dr. Bramhell, Pretended Bishop of London-derry, Entitled, His Faire Warning Against the Scots Discipline: in which his malicious and most lying reports, to the great scandall of that government, are fully and clearly refuted: as also the Solemne League and Covenant of the three nations justified and maintained, 1649. Alternate title: BAILLIE'S REVIEW OF BRAMHALL'S SEDITIOUS PAMPHLET . . . ALSO THE HOLY LEAGUE AND COVENANT OF THESE THREE NATIONS JUSTIFIED AND MAINTAINED. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.

    Baillie, Robert (1599-1662), The Unlawfulness and Danger of Limited Prelacy, or Perpetual Presidency in the Church, 1641. Alternate title: THE UNLAVVFULNESSE AND DANGER OF LIMITED EPISCOPACIE. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #23.
    "A defense of: Henderson, Alexander. THE VNLAVVFULNES AND DANGER OF LIMITED PRELACIE."

    Baillie, Robert (1599-1662), Adamson, Patrick (1537-1592), and Welch, John (1568?-1622), An Historical Vindication of the Government of the Church of Scotland: From the Manifold Base Calumnies Which the Most Malignant of the Prelats did Invent of old, and now Lately Have Been Published With Great Industry in two Pamphlets at london: The one intituled Issachars burden, &c. written and published at Oxford by John Maxwell, a Scottish prelate, excommunicate by the Church of Scotland, and declared an unpardonable incendiary by the parliaments of both kingdoms: the other falsly intituled A declaration made by King James in Scotland, concerning church-government and presbyteries: but indeed written by Patrick Adamson, pretended Archbishop of St. Andrews, contrary to his own conscience, as himselfe on his death-bed did confesse and subscribe before many witnesses in a write hereunto annexed. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #23.

    Ballantyne, J., George Clark, David Brown, and Alexander Brown, A Comparison of Established and Dissenting Churches, 1824.

    Bannerman, D. Douglas, Worship, Order, and Polity of the Presbyterian Church, ISBN: 052402443X 9780524024430.

    *Bannerman, James, The Church of Christ: A Treatise on the Nature, Powers, Ordinances, Discipline, and Government of the Christian Church, 1869, 2 volumes. A Christian classic. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #24.
    "Two large volumes. A classic on the Church and worship! This is one of the most extensive studies of its kind ever compiled. Nothing compares to it on this subject. Regarding these gems, Iain Murray has stated, 'In our day, however greatly we need an evangelical revival, we need more than that. We need another Reformation, a movement which will go 'to the root of the mischief' and bring back the visible church to the pattern of God's Word in her government, ordinances and ministry. The republication of Bannerman is a step in that direction . . . For those who wish to study the doctrine of the Church in its several aspects as it was held by the majority of the Reformers, Puritans, Covenanters and leaders of 'The Third Reformation,' it will prove an invaluable textbook." -- Publisher

    Bannerman, James, The Independent System of Church Polity as Opposed to the Presbyterian. Alternate title: THE INDEPENDENT THEORY OF THE MINISTRY. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    "As good a short treatment as you will find anywhere concerning this subject. Hits all the disputed points.
    "The independent view of the ministry critiqued and biblically refuted. Very pertinent given the turmoil, disunity, and confusion in the modern church. Independents must deal with these arguments if they want to retain credibility. Excerpted from Bannerman's CHURCH OF CHRIST." -- Publisher

    Breckenridge, Robert J., Presbyterian Government not a Hierarchy, but a Commonwealth, and, Presbyterian Ordination, not a Charm, but an act of Government: The Substance of two Arguments Delivered Before the Synod of Philadelphia met in Baltimore, October, 1843. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #24.

    Brown, John (of Edinburg, 1784-1858), The Exclusive Claims of Puseyite Episcopalians to the Christian Ministry Indefensible: With an inquiry into the divine right of episcopacy and the apostolic succession: in a series of letters to the Rev. Dr. Pusey by John Brown. To which is prefixed an article on the Anglican reformation, 1844.

    Brown, John (of Haddington, 1722-1787), Letters on the Constitution, Government, and Discipline, of the Christian Church; Humbly Submitted to the Ensuing Venerable Assembly, of the Church of Scotland, 1767, ISBN: 0921148798 9780921148791. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #7.

    Brown, John (of Haddington, 1722-1787), Of the Nature, Formation, and Fellowship of the Christian Church, 1796. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #7.

    Brown, John (of Haddington, 1722-1787), Reformation Attainments Versus Backsliding Religious Professors Available (THE ABSURDITY AND PERFIDY OF ALL AUTHORITATIVE TOLERATION), on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #7, #25, #26.
    "Here Brown deals with three major Reformation attainments (anti-tolerationism, establishmentarianism and the obligations of lawful covenants as they biblically bind posterity), that Satan has always been especially concerned to overthrow -- in every major demonic move to open the floodgates of lawlessness, anarchy and misrule. Fletcher, in the preface to the 1797 edition, relates this truth as it comes to bear on various religious professors, stating, 'Papists were enemies to our covenants because they were a standard lifted up against their system of abominable idolatries. Episcopalians were enemies to them, because they were a standard lifted up against their anti-scriptural church-officers and inventions of men in the worship of God. Some Presbyterians are enemies to them in our day through ignorance of their nature and ends; and others through fear of being too strictly bound to their duty'." (cited in Johnston, Treasury of the Scottish Covenant, p. 486) -- Publisher
    Brown, John (of Haddington, 1722-1787), The Absurdity and Perfidy of all Authoritative Toleration of Gross Heresy, Blasphemy, Idolatry, Popery, in Britain
    http://archive.org/details/absurdityperfidy00brow

    Calamy, Edmund (1600-1666), Jus Divinum Ministerii Evangelici. Or, The Divine Right of the Gospel-Ministry: Divided Into two Parts. The First Part Containing a Justification of the Gospel-ministry in General. The necessity of ordination thereunto by imposition of hands. The unlawfulnesse of private mens assuming to themselves either the office or work of the ministry without a lawfull call and ordination. The second part containing a justification of the present ministers of England, both such as were ordained during the prevalency of episcopacy from the foul aspersion of anti-christianism: and those who have been ordained since its abolition, from the unjust imputation of novelty: proving that a bishop and presbyter are all one in Scripture; and that ordination by presbyters is most agreeable to the Scripture-patern. Together with an appendix, wherein the judgement and practice of antiquity about the whole matter of episcopacy, and especially about the ordination of ministers, is briefly discussed. Published by the Provincial Assembly of London, 1654.

    Campbell, William M., Samuel Rutherfurd, Propagandist and Exponent of Scottish Presbytarianism: An Exposition of his Position and Influence in the Doctrine and Politics of the Scottish Church.

    Campbell, William McMaster, The Triumph of Presbyterianism.

    Church of Scotland (Alexander Peterkin, editor), The Book of the Universal Kirk of Scotland. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    Church of Scotland, Alexander Peterkin, The Booke of the Universall Kirk of Scotland: Wherein the Head is and Conclusion is Devys it be the Ministers and Commissionar is of the particular kirks thereof, are specially expressed and contained (1839)
    http://archive.org/details/bookeofuniversal00chur

    *Church of Scotland General Assembly, 1638-1649, The Acts of the General Assemblies of the Church of Scotland, From the Year 1638 to the Year 1649 Inclusive, 1682. A Christian classic. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Also available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #11.
    "Exceedingly rare, these are the acts from what many consider the greatest general assembly gatherings since the days of the apostles. The work accomplished and ratified at these meetings has been called 'the most perfect model' of Presbyterial Church Government 'as yet attained.' Sitting during the momentous days of the Covenants (National and Solemn League), and the Westminster Assembly, this general assembly included the likes of Samuel Rutherford and George Gillespie. Judicially binding on covenanted Presbyterians (WCF 31:3), these Acts demonstrate how these godly leaders officially dealt with individual, family, ecclesiastical and civil Reformation (including national and international matters). Furthermore, it should not be forgotten that these rulings had major national and international ramifications in their day and that they still guide faithful Presbyterians at the close of the twentieth century (as terms of ministerial and Christian communion in the Reformed Presbyterian church). Moreover, they contain 'noble examples to be followed in testifying against all corruptions embodied in the constitutions of either churches or states.' (Reformed Presbytery, Act, Declaration and Testimony for the Whole of Our Covenanted Reformation, p. 216). Christ's Kingship has never since been so boldly and clearly proclaimed to the nations by a duly constituted general assembly -- neither has His rule and reign been upheld and actually embodied into the laws of a nation (civil and ecclesiastical), as it was during these days in Scotland. Much of this can be attributed to the work (humanly speaking), done by the ministers present while these Acts were debated and passed. Regarding doctrine, worship, government and discipline there are few books that will be as helpful -- especially to elders and those advanced in the faith. Additionally, if you want a glimpse at the heart of the Second Reformation this is one of the best places to look. It may also be considered 'the eye of the Puritan storm,' seeing that the Scottish Covenanters exerted such a godly influence among their English Presbyterian brothers (and the Westminster Assembly), during these days -- the two nations having covenanted with God (in the Solemn League and Covenant), for the international 'reformation and defense of religion . . . the peace and safety of the three kingdoms . . . the glory of God, and the advancement of the kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, etc.' Over 500 pages and indexed for easy reference to all major topics." -- Publisher

    Cunningham, Alexander, Jean Calvin, and The´odore de Be'ze, An Essay Concerning Church Government: Out of the Excellent Writings of Calvin and Beza.

    Cunningham, William (1805-1861), Discussions on Church Principles: Popish, Erastian, and Presbyterian. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #23.
    Cunningham, William (1805-1861), Discussions on Church Principles: Popish, Erastian, and Presbyterian
    http://archive.org/details/discussionsonchu00cunnuoft

    *Cunningham, William (1805-1861), The Westminster Confession on the Relationship Between Church and State. Alternate title: REMARKS ON THE TWENTY-THIRD CHAPTER OF THE CONFESSION OF FAITH, AS BEARING ON EXISTING CONTROVERSIES. A Christian classic. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #25.
    "Chapter eight excerpted from DISCUSSIONS ON CHURCH PRINCIPLES. Answers the false claims that the Westminster Divines contradicted themselves on this issue and/or that they were Erastians. Proves that changes made to the original Westminster Confession, concerning church and state issues, were in error -- clearly demonstrating why this is so." -- Publisher
    The Westminster Confession on the Relation Between Church and State, William Cunningham
    http://www.westminsterconfession.org/a-godly-society/the-westminster-confession-on-the-relation-between-church-and-state.php

    *Durham, James (1622-1658), Concerning Scandal. A Christian classic. Alternate title: THE DYING MAN'S TESTAMENT TO THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND: OR, A TREATISE CONCERNING SCANDAL. A Christian classic. Available (1659 edition), on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    "The Rise of The Following Treatise
    "Having had occasion to consider the Book of the Revelation, and being on the Epistle to the Church of Pergamos in the second chapter, ground was given to speak something of Scandal, by reason of several doctrines clearly arising from that place. Upon this occasion I did first essay the writing of something of the doctrine of scandal in general, intending only to have spent a sheet or two thereupon, as elsewhere on some other subjects. When this was brought to a close, I found the place to give ground to speak of public church offenses, as they are the object of church discipline and censures. And being convinced, that that subject was not impertinent to be spoken of, I yielded to spend some thoughts upon it also, which did draw to a greater length than at first was intended or was suitable for a digression. This being finished, as it is, and any more thoughts of this subject laid by, it occurred again to me to think of doctrinal scandals or of scandalous errors. And considering that the scandals mentioned in that place, are of such nature, and that such are very frequent in this time, I yielded also to put together what thoughts the Lord would furnish concerning the same, whereupon followed the third part of this treatise.
    "When this was even at the closing, there was a fourth part of the same subject that did occur to me to be thought on, which before that had never been minded, and that was concerning scandalous church divisions. To this my mind and inclination was exceedingly averse at first, as knowing it not only to be difficult in itself to be meddled in, but also exceedingly above me, who am altogether unsuitable to hazard on such a subject. Yet considering the rise of the motion, and how the Lord had helped through the other parts, I did resolve to condescend to follow it, at least so far till it might appear what was his mind to me therein, and accordingly did follow it till it came to the period (whatever it be), that now it is at.
    "This is the true rise and occasion of this treatise, and of the several parts thereof, and therefore I have continued its entry in the original mold thereof, to wit, in laying down some general doctrines from that place of Scripture, and if there is afterward any more particular relation to the second and third chapters of the Revelation than to other Scriptures, this simple narration of the rise thereof may satisfy any concerning the same. Whereof we shall say no more, but first lay down grounds of all from that text, and then proceed in the treatise, which is divided in four parts, upon the reasons formerly hinted."
    "The Grounds Of This Treatise
    "Among other things that troubled the church in the primitive times, scandal, or offense, was a chief one. The many directions that are given concerning it, and the reproofs that are of it, show that it is a main piece of a Christian's conversation to walk rightly in reference thereto, and a great evidence of looseness where it is not heeded. On verse 6 [Rev. 2 (Revelation 2:6)], we show that this was a sole fault of the Nicolaitans to be careless of offending, or of giving of offense, and not to regard scandal; and here the Lord holds it forth to be so by comparing it with Balaam's practice (v. 14 [Revelation 2:14]), which is aggreaged from this, that he taught Balak to lay a stumbling block before Israel. From which these doctrines may be gathered:
    1. That there is such a fault incident to men in their carriage, even to lay stumbling-blocks before others and to offend them.
    2. That men ought to walk so as not to offend others, or so as to lay no stumbling-block before them. So that it is not enough not to stumble themselves (if this could be separated from the other), but also they ought to be careful not to stumble others.
    3. The Lord takes special notice how men do walk in reference to others in this, and is highly provoked where he sees any guilty of it.
    4. The Devil has ever endeavored to have offenses abounding in the church, and to make some lay such stumbling-blocks before others.
    5. It is most hurtful to the church, and destructive to souls where offenses abound, and men walk not tenderly in reference to these; so that the Lord expresses it with a twofold woe (Matt. 18 [Matthew 18]), as being a woe beyond sword and pestilence.
    6. We may gather that corrupt doctrine never [lacks] offenses joined with it, and that ordinarily those who spread that, are untender in this.
    7. That offenses often accompany the rise and beginning of any work of Christ's among a people; these tares of offenses are ordinarily then sown.
    8. That some offenses are of a public nature, and that church officers should take notice of such, and that it is offensive to Christ when they are overlooked and not taken heed unto.
    9. Church officers, even such as other ways are approved in their carriage and ministry, may fall in this fault, as by comparing the Epistles to Pergamos and Thyatira, is clear.
    10. When officers fall in this fault, it is yet no reprovable thing in members that are pure in respect of their own personal carriage, to continue in communion with such a church, the ordinances other ways being pure." -- Author's Introduction
    "In this work Mr. Durham, in opening and examining the different scandals which deface the visible church, causing both the professed people of God, and the heathen to stumble and fall in the snares of sin and the devil, shows carefully and clearly the various means of avoiding and remedying these offenses, and what the people of God in their various places and stations must do to maintain the beauty of Zion in godliness and holiness, in purity and in peace.
    "James Durham's work on scandal and offense is the first of several books Naphtali Press plans to publish by 17th century Scottish Presbyterians. Many of the works of this group of writers are classic statements on the subjects they treat. This book of Durham's is such a work.
    "John Macleod (Scottish Theology), says, 'His book on the Scandal of Church divisions has long been looked upon as the Scottish classic on its topic.' John Macpherson (Doctrine of the Church in Scottish Theology) says, 'Taken all in all it is the very best book we have on the subject.' According to James Walker (The Theology and Theologians of Scotland): 'He is the author of a book which once was very famous. For a hundred years and more you find it constantly referred to. Unhappily, as in so many other instances, it has a forbidding, or at all events not an attractive name. Yet I am not sure that anywhere a better idea is to be obtained of our old ecclesiasticism, and of its freedom to a large extent from the severity and rancorousness which have been so often attributed to it, than from the book 'On Scandal,' by this judicious man, who, with his thorough, searching, cumbrous intellect, reminds you not seldom of John Owen.'
    "The work is divided into four parts. The first deals with scandal and offense in general, where he defines these terms, and discusses private offenses between individuals, and how they are given and taken. In the second part he writes concerning public scandals, or such that need to be in some way taken notice of by the government of the church, and the various scriptural teachings on the order, implementation, and motive of church discipline. The third is about scandalous errors; the spreading of error, why it spreads, the Lord's design in it, Satan's devices in spreading error, and the duties of Christians in a time when error prevails. Of particular interest is a lengthy treatment of the minister's duty toward those seduced to error, where the four steps of discovery (or trial), conviction, admonition and rejection of an heretic are discussed. The last part concerns scandalous divisions in the church, how they arise, the evil of them, grounds for unity, things to overlook in order to unite, things to do in order to unite, and how to unify where the division concerns differences in church government.
    "Excerpted from The Dying Man's Testament to the Church of Scotland, or, A Treatise Concerning Scandal by James Durham. Copyright. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved." Publisher
    "This book ought to be required reading in seminaries and, indeed, for all who would serve as elders in Christ's church. It will repay careful study and breathe grace into our handling of the disciplinary problems that often confront us. Sessions will find real blessing if they study together Part Two [public scandals], especially." -- Gordon J. Keddie, Semper Reformanda, Vol. 2, No. 3
    "The appearance of a new and handsomely reset edition of James Durham's classic and unique work on ecclesiastical discipline is a timely and welcome event in these days of laxity in doctrine and morality within the church. The author was a Covenanter who ministered in the Church of Scotland during the Cromwellian interregnum. Possessed of a fragrant saintliness and an irenic spirit, he completed this volume on his deathbed, at age 36, under the title, 'The Dying Man's Testament to the Church of Scotland.' Durham grieved over the divisions that racked the Christian community of his time and was concerned that church discipline not be abused either by flagrant neglect or excessive rigor. The weighty scriptural balance he brings to his subject is unequalled." -- Gordon J. Keddie, Semper Reformanda, Vol. 2, No. 3
    "The book is divided into four parts -- Part One: Concerning Scandals in General -- dealing with offenses between individual Christians. Part Two -- Concerning Public Scandals -- dealing with church discipline. Part Three: Concerning Doctrinal Scandals -- dealing with the spread of error in the church. Part Four: Concerning Scandalous Divisions -- dealing with divisions between godly men occasioned by such things as different outlooks and practices. The editor has spared no effort to make this old classic readable and useful." -- Austin R. Walker, Banner of Truth, Issue 337
    "In this work Mr. Durham, in opening and examining the different scandals which deface the visible church, causing both the professed people of God, and the heathen to stumble and fall in the snares of sin and the devil, shows carefully and clearly the various means of avoiding and remedying these offenses, and what the people of God in their various places and stations must do to maintain the beauty of Zion in godliness and holiness, in purity and in peace. This edition is based on the text of the edition printed in 1680, with revisions to contemporize the spelling, punctuation, and usage. This book has long been looked upon as the Scottish classic on this topic." -- GCB
    Concerning Scandal (extracts)
    http://www.naphtali.com/scanextr.htm

    Edwards, Thomas, Reasons Against the Independent Government of Particular Congregations: As Also Against the Toleration of Such Churches to be Erected in This Kingdom -- Together With an Answer to Such Reasons as are Commonly Alleged for Such a Toleration, 1641. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #24, #26.

    *Gillespie, George (1613-1648), Aaron's Rod Blossoming; or, the Divine Ordinance of Church Government Vindicated, 1646. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available in THE PRESBYTERIAN'S ARMOURY.
    "The remainder of the title reads: 'So as the Present Erastian Controversy Concerning the Distinction of Civil and Ecclesiastical Government, Excommunication and Suspension, is Fully Debated and Discussed, from the Holy Scriptures, for the Jewish and Christian Antiquities, from the Consent of Later Writers, from the True Nature and Rights of Magistracy, and from the Groundlessness of the Chief Objections made Against the Presbyterial Government, in Point of a Domineering Arbitrary Unlimited Power'."
    "In short, this book deals with the biblical view of the separation of church and state, and is especially pertinent concerning the modern political climate, in which the old Erastian tree of civil ecclesiastical interference is growing strong and spreading much poisonous fruit. As with just about everything else Gillespie wrote, this book has been widely recognized as THE classic in its field. Three major sections cover 'Of the Jewish Church Government;' 'Of Christian Church Government;' and 'Of Excommunication from the Church, and of Suspension from the Lord's Table.' Lachman, in his Preface writes, 'It presents the classic Reformed point of view, one now little heard and perhaps less understood. Gillespie writes carefully and clearly, in many respects resembling the better know John Owen in the clarity and power of his reasoning.' Bannerman states, 'This famous treatise is unquestionably the most able, learned, systematic, and complete work on the Erastian controversy in existence. It deserves, and will repay, the most careful study.' (The Church of Christ, vol. 2, p. 432). Beattie, (Memorial Volume, p. xxxvi, 1879), called this book, 'the ablest plea for Presbytery ever made'." -- Publisher
    Gillespie, George (1613-1648), Aaron's Rod Blossoming, or, The Divine Ordinance of Church Government Vindicated (1844)
    http://archive.org/details/aaronsrodblosso00gillgoog
    Aaron's rod blossoming, or, The divine ordinance of Church-government vindicated, (full view), George Gillespie
    http://books.google.com/books?id=ivUDAAAAQAAJ&ie=ISO-8859-1&output=html

    Gillespie, George (1613-1648), An Assertion of the Government of the Church of Scotland in the Points of Ruling-elders and of the Authority of Presbyteries and Synods: With A postscript in Answer to a Treatise Lately Published Against Presbyteriall Government.
    Gillespie, George, Assertion of the Gov't of the Church of Scotland
    http://www.truecovenanter.com/gillespie/gillespie_assertion_govt_kirk_scotland.html

    *Gillespie, George (1613-1648), George Buchanan, John Brown (of Wamphray), David Hay Fleming, The Presbyterian's Armoury, 3 volumes, 1846. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    "In terms of 'bang for your book buying buck,' you will not find more fire-power 'under one roof' than in THE PRESBYTERIAN'S ARMOURY! Can be purchased as the three volume set or individually as listed below."

    Volume One of THE PRESBYTERIAN'S ARMOURY
    "Contains GILLESPIE'S LIFE AND WRITINGS by Hetherington, plus all of the following works by George Gillespie: A DISPUTE AGAINST ENGLISH POPISH CEREMONIES, 1637; AN ASSERTION OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND, 1644; 111 PROPOSITIONS CONCERNING THE MINISTRY AND GOVERNMENT OF THE CHURCH, 1644; two of Gillespie's sermons, preached before the House of Common (1644), and the House of Lords (1645); and Gillespie's answers to Coleman which defend Presbyterian polity against Erastianism. 'Noted for his erudition, keen mind, powerful debating skills and articulate speech and often called 'Great Mr. Gillespie' in his day, he has been referred to as the prince of Scottish theologians and the supreme defender of Presbyterian church government.' (Nigel Cameron, editor, Dictionary of Scottish Church History and Theology, 474 pages)."
    Volume Two of THE PRESBYTERIAN'S ARMOURY
    "Contains all of the following works by George Gillespie: AARON'S ROD BLOSSOMING, OR THE DIVINE ORDINANCE OF CHURCH GOVERNMENT VINDICATED; A TREATISE OF MISCELLANY QUESTIONS; NOTES OF DEBATES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES AT WESTMINSTER (February 1644 to January 1645). Gillespie is most famous for his AARON'S ROD which Walker called 'the chef d'oeuvre' of Scottish ecclesiastical theology. (cited in Nigel Cameron, editor, Dictionary of Scottish Church History and Theology, pp. 359-360). He was a thundering preacher and a prominent member of the famous Westminster Assembly. Johnston, TREASURY OF THE SCOTTISH COVENANT cites the following concerning Gillespie: 'That is an excellent youth; my heart blesses God in his behalf. There is no man whose parts in a public dispute I do so admire. He has studied so accurately all the points that are yet to come to our Assembly; he has got so ready, so assured, so solid a way of public debating; that however there be in the Assembly divers very excellent men, yet, in my poor judgement, there is not one who speaks more rationally and to the point than that brave youth has done ever (Baillie from his Letters and Journals). He was one of the great men that had a chief hand in penning our most excellent Confession of Faith and Catechisms. He was a most grave and bold man, and had a most wonderful gift given him for disputing and arguing. The end of a dispute held by him with some of the promoters of the Engagement was, that Glencairn said, 'There is no standing before this great and mighty man.' He was called malleus Malignantium, 'the hammer of the Malignants' (Woodrow's Analecta), 558 pages."
    Volume Three of THE PRESBYTERIAN'S ARMOURY
    "Contains: Samuel Rutherford's LEX, REX, or THE LAW AND THE PRINCE; John Brown of Wamphray's APOLOGETICAL RELATION; David Calderwood's PASTOR AND PRELATE, OR REFORMATION AND CONFORMITY SHORTLY COMPARED; and CAUSES OF THE LORD'S WRATH AGAINST SCOTLAND AGREED UPON BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, 1651. LEX, REX is 'the great political text of the Covenanters.' (Johnston citing Innes in Treasury of the Scottish Covenant, p. 305). 'Rutherford was the first to formulate the great constitutional principle Lex est Rex -- the law is King . . . much of the doctrine has become the constitutional inheritance of all countries in modern times.' (Idem.). Brown's anti-prelatical work deals with the lawfulness of defensive wars, ecclesiastical and civil government, the hearing of curates, etc. Brown's writing has been said to be 'decidedly superior to most of the Scottish writers of his day, and even to Owen.' Calderwood upholds Presbyterianism over and against prelacy. THE CAUSES OF GOD'S WRATH was written anonymously (James Guthrie was the reputed author), and was at one time burnt along with LEX, REX, 615 pages." -- Publisher
    The Covenant Between God and Kings, from A DEFENSE OF LIBERTY
    http://www.constitution.org/vct/vindiciae1a.htm

    *Goodman, Christopher, How Superior Powers Ought to be Obeyed of Their Subjects: And Wherein They may Lawfully by God's Word be Disobeyed and Resisted, 1558. Available (LIBRARY OF PRESBYTERIAN HERITAGE PUBLICATIONS AND PROTESTANT HERITAGE PRESS CD-ROM LIBRARY), on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #26. Available on Library of Presbyterian Heritage Publications and Protestant Heritage Press CD-ROM Library.
    "From 1555 to 1558, Christopher Goodman served as co-pastor, with John Knox, of the congregation of English exiles in Geneva. During the course of his ministry, Goodman preached upon Acts 4:19 and 5:29: Whether it be right in the sight of God, to obey you rather than God, judge ye. We ought rather to obey God than men. At the request of his brethren, Goodman subsequently published an expanded version of his exposition, HOW SUPERIOR POWERS OUGHT TO BE OBEYED OF THEIR SUBJECTS: AND WHEREIN THEY MAY LAWFULLY BY GOD'S WORD BE DISOBEYED AND RESISTED. WHEREIN ALSO IS DECLARED THE CAUSE OF ALL THIS PRESENT MISERY IN ENGLAND, AND THE ONLY WAY TO REMEDY THE SAME. In this book, Goodman contends against both ecclesiastical and political tyranny.
    "This new edition of SUPERIOR POWERS includes a scripture index, a subject index, a biographical essay on the life of Christopher Goodman, and the original foreword by William Whittingham." -- Publisher from Library of Presbyterian Heritage Publications and Protestant Heritage Press CD-ROM Library
    "Very rare. One of the dozen most important political writings appearing in English in the latter half of the sixteenth century. Together with THE FIRST BLAST OF THE TRUMPET and THE APPELLATION (retitled REFORMATION, REVOLUTION AND ROMANISM in this catalogue), by John Knox, and Ponet's TREATISE OF POLITIQUE POWER, this book marks the first definite shift of opinion under the pressure of religion, away from the doctrine of almost unlimited obedience which characterized the political thought of the first half of the century laying the foundation for future ideas about civil disobedience. In that day, a proclamation of Philip and Mary had decreed the death of a rebel for anyone found in possession of the book." -- Publisher
    Available on the Library of Presbyterian Heritage Publications and Protestant Heritage Press CD-ROM Library.
    http://www.constitution.org/cmt/goodman/obeyed.htm

    Guthrie, William, and John Howie, A Collection of Lectures and Sermons, Preached Upon Several Subjects, mostly in the time of the late persecution. Wherein a faithful doctrinal testimony is transmitted to posterity for the doctrine, worship, discipline and government of the Church of Scotland against popery, prelacy, Erastianism, &c.

    Keyes, Kenneth Scofield, C. Gregg Singer, George Aiken Taylor, E.C. Scott, B. Hoyt Evans, A Manual for new Members [Presbyterian Church in America -- compiler], 33 pages.
    "Reprinted from The Presbyterian Journal."
    Contents: I. The story of Presbyterianism / C. Gregg Singer -- II. What Presbyterians believe / G. Aiken Taylor -- III. Presbyterian government / E.C. Scott -- IV. Joining the Presbyterian Church / B. Hoyt Evans -- Appendix. The creed of Presbyterians -- The Westminster Assembly, 1643-1648 -- A brief history of the developments in the Presbyterian Church in the United States (Southern) which led to the formation of the Presbyterian Church in America / by Kenneth S. Keys [sic] -- PCA vision 2000 presented to the 1987 General Assembly.

    *Knox, John (1505-1572), Appellation From the Sentence Pronounced by the Bishops and Clergy: Addressed to the Nobility and Estates of Scotland. Alternate titles: THE APPELLATION OF JOHN KNOX FROM THE CRUELL . . . SENTENCE PRONOUNCED AGAINST HIM BY THE FALSE BISHOPPES AND CLERGEY OF SCOTLAND, WITH HIS SUPPLICATION AND EXHORTATION TO THE NOBILITIE, ESTATES, AND COMMUNALTIE OF THE SAME REALME, and THE APPELLATION . . . TO THE SCOTTISH NOBILITY, and REFORMATION, REVOLUTION AND ROMANISM: AN APPEAL TO THE SCOTTISH NOBILITY, and THE APPELLATION FROM THE SENTENCE PRONOUNCED BY THE BISHOPS AND CLERGY: ADDRESSED TO THE NOBILITY AND ESTATES OF SCOTLAND, and THE APPELLATION. Cover title: REFORMATION, REVOLUTION AND ROMANISM: APPEAL TO THE SCOTTISH NOBILITY (1558). Available (singly as REFORMATION, REVOLUTION AND ROMANISM, in which key text have been underlined by a previous reader), on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available (REFORMATION, REVOLUTION AND ROMANISM), on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1 (MP3), #26. Available (APPELLATION FROM THE SENTENCE PRONOUNCED BY THE BISHOPS AND CLERGY: ADDRESSED TO THE NOBILITY AND ESTATES OF SCOTLAND), on the Library of Presbyterian Heritage Publications and Protestant Heritage Press CD-ROM Library. Available (APPELLATION FROM THE SENTENCE PRONOUNCED BY THE BISHOPS AND CLERGY: ADDRESSED TO THE NOBILITY AND ESTATES OF SCOTLAND), in THE WORKS OF JOHN KNOX, vol. 4. [John Knox; David Laing (collector and editor), THE WORKS OF JOHN KNOX, vol. 4, reprint of the 1855 edition printed for Bannatyne Club, Edinburgh (New York: AMS Press, 1966)].
    "David Chilton notes, 'Of all the sixteenth-century Reformers, John Knox remains the most ardently loved and fiercely hated. No other leader of his day saw so clearly the political issues in the light of Scripture. Nor has any of his contemporaries had so much direct influence upon the subsequent history of the world. He transformed a land of barbarians into one of the most hardheadly Calvinistic cultures ever to exist, and his doctrines lie at the core of all Protestant revolutionary activity. While he is often considered merely one of Calvin's lieutenants, he was actually a Reformer in his own right. In some respects he was the greatest of them all.' ("John Knox," in The Journal of Christian Reconstruction: Symposium on Puritanism and Law [Vallecito, CA: Chalcedon], Vol. V, No. 2, Winter, 1978-79, p. 194)
    "Furthermore, R.L. Greaves has noted that 'it has even been suggested -- and not altogether without merit -- that Knox was a key link in the development of political ideology that culminated in the American Revolution.' (Theology and Revolution in the Scottish Reformation: Studies in the Thought of John Knox [Grand Rapids, MI: Christian University Press, 1980], p. 156)
    "Moreover, Mason [Roger A. Mason -- compiler], states that this APPEAL [APPELLATION FROM THE SENTENCE PRONOUNCED BY THE BISHOPS AND CLERGY: ADDRESSED TO THE NOBILITY AND ESTATES OF SCOTLAND -- compiler], 'is the most important . . . of Knox's political writings.' (in the Introduction to his compilation of Knox's political writings entitled KNOX: ON REBELLION). [see annotation for KNOX: ON REBELLION elsewhere in this bibliography -- compiler]. It shows in a conclusive manner that Knox wanted a Theonomic Establishment which was careful to 'disapprove, detest, oppose and remove all false worship and all monuments of idolatry.' (cf. Westminster Larger Catechism, #108). It also clearly demonstrates that Knox believed in and promoted the continuing binding validity of the Old Testament case laws and the penal sanctions attached to them, including the death penalty.
    "Kevin Reed, in a editor's note, introducing this piece in his newly published SELECTED WRITING OF JOHN KNOX [available on the Puritan Hard Drive -- compiler], also points out that 'the Westminster Confession provides a distinct echo of Knox, when it states that the magistrate ""hath authority, and it is his duty, to take order, that unity and peace be preserved in the church, that the truth of God be kept pure and entire, that all blasphemies and heresies be suppressed, all corruptions and abuses in worship and discipline prevented or reformed, and all the ordinances of God duly settled, administered, and observed"" (Ch. 23:3, original wording). One secular historian once described Knox as 'Calvin with a sword,' making one wonder if he had not just been reading this very book. For 'where Calvin merely permitted disobedience to an ungodly ruler or immoral law, Knox championed armed rebellion -- a type of Calvinism that made religious revolution in Scotland possible.' (Christian History, Issue 46, p. 35). This is the best of the best; don't miss it!" -- Publisher
    Knox, John, Appellation From the Sentence Pronounced by the Bishops and Clergy: Addressed to the Nobility and Estates of Scotland
    This is a character scan (OCR) of the modernized text published by Protestant Heritage Press. While text may be cut and pasted it is subject to copyright.
    http://www.swrb.com/newslett/actualNLs/appellat.htm
    Knox, John (1505-1572), The Works of John Knox (1846), vol. 4.
    http://archive.org/stream/worksjohnknox07laingoog#page/n4/mode/2up
    Reformation, Revolution and Romanism (1558), John Knox, MP3 file.
    "This has been called John Knox's most important political writing. It also deals with Romanism, God's law, and much more.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?currSection=sermonssource&sermonID=1030075041
    See also:
    Goodman, Christopher, HOW SUPERIOR POWERS OUGHT TO BE OBEYED OF THEIR SUBJECTS: AND WHEREIN THEY MAY LAWFULLY BY GOD'S WORD BE DISOBEYED AND RESISTED, 1558. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #26. Available (HOW SUPERIOR POWERS OUGHT TO BE OBEYED), on the Library of Presbyterian Heritage Publications and Protestant Heritage Press CD-ROM Library.
    "From 1555 to 1558, Christopher Goodman served as co-pastor, with John Knox, of the congregation of English exiles in Geneva. During the course of his ministry, Goodman preached upon Acts 4:19 and 5:29: 'Whether it be right in the sight of God, to obey you rather than God, judge ye. We ought rather to obey God than men'. . . . In this book, Goodman contends against both ecclesiastical and political tyranny." -- Publisher
    Goodman, Christopher, How Superior Powers Ought to be Obeyed of Their Subjects
    http://www.constitution.org/cmt/goodman/obeyed.htm
    See also annotation for:
    Knox, John (1505-1572), THE HISTORY OF THE REFORMATION OF RELIGION WITHIN THE REALM OF SCOTLAND. . . . TOGETHER WITH THE LIFE OF THE AUTHOR, AND SEVERAL CURIOUS PIECES WROTE BY HIM, . . . BY THE REVEREND MR. JOHN KNOX, . . . TO WHICH IS ADDED, I. AN ADMONITION TO ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND . . . BY ANTONI GILBY. II. THE FIRST AND SECOND BOOKS OF DISCIPLINE; . . . GLASGOW, 1761. Alternate title: THE HISTORIE OF THE REFORMATION OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND CONTAINING FIVE BOOKS: TOGETHER WITH SOME TREATISES CONDUCING TO THE HISTORY. EDITED, WITH A LIFE OF KNOX AND A PREFACE, BY DAVID BUCHANAN. INCLUDES: "THE APPELLATION OF JOHN KNOX, FROM THE . . . SENTENCE PRONOUNCED AGAINST HIM (pp. 1-33); "THE ADMONITION OF JOHN KNOX TO HIS BELOVED BRETHREN THE COMMONALTY OF SCOTLAND" (pp. 34-42); "A FAITHFULL ADMONITION MADE BY JOHN KNOX TO THE TRUE PROFESSORS OF THE GOSPEL OF CHRIST WITHIN THE KINGDOM OF ENGLAND, 1554" (pp. 43-79); "THE COPIE OF A LETTER DELIVERED TO QUEEN MARY, REGENT OF SCOTLAND" (pp. 80-97); AND "A SERMON PREACHED BY JOHN KNOX [AUGUST 19, 1565]," ISBN: 0851513581 9780851513584. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1.

    *Knox, John (1505-1572), and Kevin Reed (editor), The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment [Government] of Women, With the "Summary of the Second Blast" appended (Dallas, TX [Presbyterian Heritage Publications, P.O. Box 180922, 75218-0922]: Presbyterian Heritage Publications, 1993), trade paperback, 96 pages, marginal notes, scripture index, and subject index. This edition appears in three additional formats: SELECTED WRITINGS OF JOHN KNOX: PUBLIC EPISTLES, TREATISES, AND EXPOSITIONS TO THE YEAR 1559, pages 370-436, the LIBRARY OF PRESBYTERIAN HERITAGE PUBLICATIONS AND PROTESTANT HERITAGE PRESS CD-ROM LIBRARY, and e-text that includes the marginal notes as endnotes, but does not include the scripture index, and subject index. Citations for these three additional formats are listed below. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #25.
    "The text of this edition is based on the definitive edition of THE WORKS OF JOHN KNOX, edited by David Laing (Edinburgh, 1895).
    "In this controversial work, John Knox contends that 'to promote a woman to bear rule, superiority, dominion, or empire above any realm, nation, or city, is repugnant to nature, contumely [insult] to God, a thing most contrary to his revealed will and approved ordinance; and finally, it is the subversion of good order, of all equity and justice'." -- Publisher
    Subheading used in this edition:

    "The SUMMARY OF THE SECOND BLAST was originally appended to the APPELLATION FROM THE SENTENCE PRONOUNCED BY THE BISHOPS AND CLERGY: ADDRESSED TO THE NOBILITY AND ESTATES OF SCOTLAND (1558), published in KNOX'S WORKS, VOL. IV, pp. 539-40." (see citation below) -- Publisher
    Other publications of THE FIRST BLAST OF THE TRUMPET follow:
    Gunn Productions,The Monstrous Regiment of Women, DVD, 54 minutes.
    "Who is the monstrous regiment? Today, the feminists are our monstrous regiment!
    To promote a woman to bear rule, superiority, dominion, or empire above any realm, nation, or city, is repugnant to nature . . . A thing most contrary to His revealed will and approved ordinance. -- John Knox
    "The 16th century reformer John Knox wrote his famous tract THE FIRST BLAST OF THE TRUMPET AGAINST THE MONSTROUS REGIMENT OF WOMEN to oppose a notorious European female tyrant who sought to stamp out biblical Christianity in his beloved Scotland.
    "When we approach the issues of our day we wish to borrow his biblical perspective to apply his blast against those who rule in the wake of his monstrous queen. This group, we shall see, far surpasses the queen's iniquities in both kind and degree.
    "Feminists tell women not to submit to a husband, to avoid having children, and that they should listen to their inner voice and chase a career to find true fulfillment. This twisted and irrational teaching has led to disaster for American women, leading many into a frustrating, isolated existence. With this film, we call women back to a life filled with joy and beauty that can only be found by following God's Word.
    "Due to the subject matter this film is not suitable for children.
    "Subjects Covered: | Who was John Knox? | What did he think of women? | What is Feminism? | Feminism and Socialism | Daycare | Modesty | Women in the Military | Women in the Workplace | Margaret Sanger | Planned Parenthood | Abortion | Hillary | Birth Control | Betty Friedan | Rock For Choice | Plus 26 minutes of unique interview footage
    "Featuring: | Sharon Adams -- Historian, Edinburgh University | Jennie Chancey -- Ladies Against Feminism | Jane Doe -- Military Cadet | Carol Everett -- Former Abortion Provider | Dana Feliciano -- Homemaker | Carmon Friedrich -- Writer, Buried Treasure Books | F. Carolyn Graglia -- Author, Domestic Tranquility | Rosalind Marshall -- Knox Biographer | Stacey McDonald -- Author, Raising Maidens of Virtue | Phyllis Schlafly -- Eagle Forum | Denise Sproul -- Homemaker | Kathleen Smith -- Homemaker" -- Publisher

    Lee, Francis Nigel, Are the Mosaic laws for Today?: Calvinism and the Westminster Standards on the Relationship Between God's Moral law of Nature for all men and Ancient Israel's Other Laws.

    *Luther, Martin (1483-1546), That a Christian Assembly or Congregation has the Right and Power to Judge all Teaching and to Call, Appoint, and Dismiss Teachers, Established and Proven by Scripture. Available in Luther, Martin, Conrad John Immanuel Bergendoff, and Eric W. Gritsch, CHURCH AND MINISTRY, 3 volumes. Available in LUTHER'S WORKS, VOLUME 39, CHURCH AND MINISTRY, ISBN: 0800603397 9780800603397.
    That a Christian Assembly or Congregation has the Right and Power to Judge all Teaching and to Call, Appoint, and Dismiss Teachers, Established and Proven by Scripture, Martin Luther (accessed 2/27/2016)
    https://www.uni-due.de/collcart/es/sem/s6/txt06_1.htm

    *Miller, Samuel, The Ruling Elder: An Essay on the Warrant, Nature, and Duties of the Office (1832). Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #23. Available in HOLDING FAST THE FAITHFUL WORD: SERMONS AND ADDRESSES BY SAMUEL MILLER which is included in Library of Presbyterian Heritage Publications and Protestant Heritage Press CD-ROM Library. Available (LIBRARY OF PRESBYTERIAN HERITAGE PUBLICATIONS AND PROTESTANT HERITAGE PRESS CD-ROM LIBRARY), on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    " 'One of the classics in the field,' notes Morton Smith. G.I. Williamson writes, 'We . . . heartily welcome the reprint of this excellent survey of the biblical data and warmly recommend it to those who are -- or desire to be -- elders in the church.' The most extensive study of its kind available. For ruling elders this is must reading! Over 300 pages of sound biblical quidance." -- Publisher
    The Ruling Elder, Samuel Miller
    http://www.swrb.com/newslett/actualnls/RulElder.htm

    Owen, John (1616-1683), A Vision of Vnchangeable Free Mercy, in Sending the Means of Grace to Undeserved Sinners: Wherein God's uncontrollable eternall purpose, in sending, and continuing the gospel unto this nation, in the middest of oppositions and contingencies, is discovered: his distinguishing mercy, in this great work, exalted, asserted, against opposers, repiners: in a sermon preached before the Honourable House of Commons, April 29. being the day of publike humiliation. Whereunto is annexed, a short defensative about church-government (with a countrey essay for the practice of church-government there), toleration and petitions about these things. By Iohn Owen, minister of the gospel at Coggeshall in Essex, 1646. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.

    *Presbyterian Heritage Publications, Library of Presbyterian Heritage Publications and Protestant Heritage Press CD-ROM Library and Library of Presbyterian Heritage Publications and Protestant Heritage Press CD-ROM Library (Dallas, TX [Presbyterian Heritage Publications, P.O. Box 180922, Dallas, 75218]: Presbyterian Heritage Publications, 1999).

    Price, Greg L., Terms of Communion: The Westminster Standards, 5 MP3 files. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    "Explains and defends the second term of communion, which is 'That the whole doctrine of the Westminster Confession of Faith [1646], and the Catechisms, Larger and Shorter, are agreeable unto, and founded upon the Scriptures.' Price not only explains why we need creeds and confession (answering the question: Isn't the Scripture sufficient?), but he shows how everyone has a creed and how such statements of faith are actually inescapable -- for as soon as one says what he believes the Bible means, he has (by definition), put forth his creed ('credo' in Latin means 'to believe'). There is no neutrality! He also gives a summary of the WESTMINSTER STANDARDS and the history of this august assembly, demonstrating why these standards are agreeable to the word of God. After showing how faithful creeds and confessions (i.e. human testimony), have brought untold blessings to the church he gives a history of the Westminster Assembly (setting the context for the study of the STANDARDS themselves). The doctrines contained in the confessional standards are then summarized. Price also exposes and rebukes much false teaching and false practice (contrary to the STANDARDS), using the specific names associated with each heresy refuted. The following doctrines are covered: sola Scripture (refuting popery, neo-orthodoxy, liberalism and the charismatics), the Doctrine of God (refuting Unitarianism, Oneness theology [Modalism, Sabellianism], and tritheism), God's decrees and predestination (refuting Arminianism, fatalism [Islam]), Creation (refuting Evolutionism, Pantheism and New Age and Eastern mysticism), the covenant of works, Providence (against 'luck' and 'accidents'), the Fall of Man (refuting Arminianism and Pelagianism), the Covenant of Grace (refuting dispensationalism), Christ our mediator (refuting Arianism [JW's], Apollinarianism, Nestorianism, Eutychianism [which led to the transubstantiation and consubstantiation heresies], the free offer of the gospel, Effectual Calling (contra Arminianism), Justification by Faith alone through Christ alone (contra Rome and the Arminians), Sanctification and good works (condemning antinomianism and legalism), Assurance of Faith, Perseverance of the Saints, the Law of God, Christian liberty (against pretended liberty of conscience and the imposition of legalistic standards outside of the law of God), worship (against the anti-regulativists and promoters of will-worship), the Regulative Principle (condemning Arminianism in worship), the Sabbath (taking the high Scottish view), lawful oaths and vows (condemning covenant breaking [churches and nations included], perjury, etc.), the Civil Magistrate (against pluralism, false toleration, Erastianism, and for biblical establishments), marriage, the church (contra popery, prelacy and independency [all of which are forms of sectarianism]), and the resurrection and general judgement." -- Publisher
    Covenanter Terms of Communion 1 of 19: The Word of God 1/2
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=1210510584

    Reformed Presbytery, Auchensaugh Renovation of the National Covenant and Solemn League and Covenant; With the Acknowledgement of sins and Engagement to Duties as They Were Renewed at Auchensaugh in 1712 . . . Also the Renovation of These Public Federal Deeds Ordained at Philadelphia, Oct. 8, 1880, by the Reformed Presbytery, With Accommodation of the Original Covenants, in Both Transactions, to Their Times and Positions Respectively, 1880 edition. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #2, #25, #30. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    " 'In 1712, at Auchensaugh, the Covenants, National and Solemn League, were renewed . . . At the renewal the covenant bonds were recognized as binding the descendants of those who first entered into those bonds. The Covenanters, however, sought to display the true intent of those Covenants with marginal notes. These notes explained that the Church of Jesus Christ, in Scotland (and around the world), must not join hands with any political power in rebellion to the crown rights of King Jesus. The Covenanters pledged the Covenanted Reformed Presbyterian Church to the support of lawful magistracy (i.e. magistracy which conformed itself to the precepts of God's Word), and declared themselves and their posterity against support of any power, in Church or State, which lacked biblical authority.' (From 'About the Covenanted Reformed Presbyterian Church,' P.O. Box 131, Pottstown, PA 19464). An excellent introduction (historical and moral), regarding the reasons, motives and manner of fulfilling the duty of covenanting with God. Especially helpful concerning the Biblical view of the blessings (for covenant-keepers), and cursings (for covenant breakers), related to covenanting. As noted on page 37, 'the godly usually in times of great defection from the purity and power of religion, and corruption of the ordinances of God's worship, set about renewing their covenant, thereby to prevent covenant curses, and procure covenant blessing; as we find both in scripture record, 2 Chron. 15:12-13 [2 Chronicles 15:12-13]; 29:10 [2 Chronicles 29:10]; 34:30-31 [2 Chronicles 34:30-31]; Ezra 10:3, and in our own ecclesiastical history.' Times like ours certainly call for a revival of the Scriptural ordinance of covenanting, for 'the nations throughout Christendom, continue in league with Antichrist and give their strength to the beast. They still refuse to profess and defend the true religion in doctrine, worship, government and discipline, contrary to the example of the kingdoms of Scotland, England and Ireland in the seventeenth century'." (p. 136 in this book) -- Publisher
    The Auchensaugh Renovation
    http://www.covenanter.org/reformed/2015/8/24/renovation-of-covenants-auchensaugh-1712
    Price, Greg L., The Auchensaugh Renovation, 2 audio cassettes [audio files]. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    "This is the story of the renewal of the National and Solemn League and Covenant, which took place under the leadership of John Macmillan (cf. The Cameronian Apostle by Reid), at Auchensaugh, July 24, 1712. Events leading up to this renewal are especially pertinent, as they expose the Satanic tactics which often become most useful to the devil in attacking all revivals and those seeking to return to covenanted attainments. Price notes how Cromwell's tolerationism opened the floodgates of iniquity and helped pave the way (though not intended by the covenant breaking Cromwellians), for the tyranny of Charles II. This set the stage for the corrupted and defective revolution of 1688 and the malignant Revolution church, which left the Covenanted Reformation buried under the debris of William's Erastianism, Prelacy (in England and Ireland), and the compromised Presbyterianism of the Revolution Church in Scotland (cf. Clarkson's Plain Reasons for Presbyterians Dissenting from the Revolution Church of Scotland; this Revolution church was the root of much modern day Presbyterian defection and this book still eloquently denounces this defection). The Auchensaugh Renovation cleared away all the Reformation denying rubbish that had accumulated from 1649 to 1712, and 'being agreeable to the Word of God' became part of the terms of communion of the Reformed Presbyterian church on Nov. 3, 1712 (cf. Terms of Ministerial and Christian Communion in the Reformed Presbyterian Church, point 4 of 6). It is also interesting to note that at the Lord's Supper (on July 27, 1712), following this covenant renewal, Macmillan, in 'fencing the tables' proclaimed, 'I excommunicate and debar from this Holy Table of the Lord, all devisers, commanders, users, or approvers, of any religious worship not instituted by God in His Word, all tolerators and countenancers thereof; and by consequence I debar and excommunicate from this Holy Table of the Lord, Queen and Parliament, and all under them, who spread and propagate or tolerate a false and superstitious worship, ay, and until they repent.' Furthermore, concerning those who opposed the covenants and the work of reformation, Macmillan trumpeted these faithful words, 'I excommunicate and debar all who are opposers of our Covenants and Covenanted Reformation, and all that have taken oaths contrary to our covenants, and such particularly as are takers of the Oath of Abjuration, whether Ministers or others, until they repent.' (Reformed Presbytery, The Auchensaugh Renovation, p. 55). Beyond the fascinating and detailed story of the history and reasons for the Auchensaugh renovation of the covenants, these studies also clearly and biblically explain the continuing obligation to renew lawful covenants, makes application to our day, and demonstrates how covenanting was foundational to the Second Reformation. A fine (and unique), set of tapes defending the attainments of our Covenanted Reformation! For more information see our bound photocopy The Auchensaugh Renovation . . . by the Reformed Presbytery." -- Publisher
    The Reformed Presbytery, The Auchensaugh Renovation of the National Covenant and: Solemn League and Covenant With the Acknowledgment of Sins and Engagement to Duties, as They Were Renewed at Auchensaugh, Near Douglas, July 24, 1712. (Compared With the Editions of Paisley, 1820, and Belfast, 1835). Also, The Renovation of These Public Federal Deeds Ordained at Philadelphia, October 8, 1880, by the Reformed Presbytery, with Accommodation of the Original Covenants, in Both Transactions, to Their Times and Positions Respectively
    http://archive.org/details/theauchensaughre12381gut

    *Reid, H.M.B., A Cameronian Apostle: Being Some Account of John Macmillan of Balmaghie, 1896. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #30.
    "The author wrote this book 'considering the renewed interest taken at present in questions of Church government and establishment,' noting that 'there seemed to be some room for a detailed treatment of a career which covers so interesting a period as that embraced between 1690 and 1750.' Macmillan is an important historical link to those who still fight for Christ's Crown and Covenant. 'For many years he fought the battle of the Covenants alone, and he fought it on lines of policy and wisdom.' states Reid. Furthermore, the author continues, 'I have tried to indicate his position among the 'Suffering Remnant' by calling him 'a Cameronian Apostle;' for, during the long period of 36 years, he was the sole ordained minister among the scattered congregations of the 'Society' people. The name seems not unfitting, and it receives a certain sanction from the authority of Dr. Cunningham, who styled him the 'high-priest' of the Societies . . . Further, Macmillan's story is also the record of the development of a most interesting side of Scottish Church life. He may be said, indeed, to have made the history of what, at last, became the Reformed Presbyterian Church. This is so true, that that Church long bore the popular name of the 'Macmillanites.' And the name of Macmillan is bound up with more than one congregation still existing.' An important book for those who would trace the backsliding of modern Presbyterianism (the neopresbyterians), and also be encouraged by the remnant of those who remain faithful to the position of the original Covenanters (the paleopresbyterians). This book's 308 pages includes illustrations and a detailed appendix containing important church documents." -- Publisher

    Roberts, William Louis (1798-1864), and Larry Birger, The Form and Function of Apostolic Church Government: Excerpted From Chapter Two of THE REFORMED PRESBYTERIAN CATECHISM." Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.

    *Rutherford, Samuel (1600-1661), The Divine Right of Church Government and Excommunication: A Peaceable Dispute for the Perfection of the Holy Scripture in Point of Ceremonies and Church Government in Which the Removal of the Service Book is Justified. . . , facsimile, 1646, also contains: "Scandal and Christian Libertie." Alternate titles: JUS DIVINUM REGIMINIS ECCLESIASTICI. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #9 and #24.
    "Over 750 pages which Walker says 'contains the amplest exposition and vindication of our old ecclesiastical principles.' Rutherford here gives a classic defense of Presbyterianism, touching on both church government and 'the due and just power of the Magistrate in matters of Religion.' Regarding worship, he touches on imagery, idolatry, things indifferent, ceremonies and will worship. Sherman Isbell describes this book as follows: 'Rutherford asserts that there is delineated in the NT a form of Church government by elders and Presbyteries which is of permanent obligation; more-over, that discipline and suspension from the sacraments are vested with church officers rather than with the Christian civil magistrate. The book also expounds the Westminster Assembly's principle that the mode of acceptable worship is regulated by the will of Christ as King speaking in the Scriptures; the Church is not at liberty to alter or invent anything in worship or government which goes beyond the pattern in God's Word. Rutherford's writings during the London years provide a significant commentary on the theology of the Westminster Confession and Catechisms.' (Nigel Cameron, editor, Dictionary of Scottish Church History and Theology, pp. 735-36). An exceedingly rare gem by this celebrated Presbyterian divine and Scottish commissioner to the famous Westminster Assembly." -- Publisher
    http://www.naphtali.com/jusextrc.htm

    *Rutherford, Samuel (1600-1661), The due Right of Presbyteries or a Peaceable Plea for the Government of the Church of Scotland, 1644. Alternate title: THE DIVINE RIGHT OF CHURCH-GOVERNMENT AND EXCOMMUNICATION: OR A PEACABLE DISPUTE FOR THE PERFECTION OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURE IN POINT OF CEREMONIES AND CHURCH GOVERNMENT; IN WHICH THE REMOVAL OF THE SERVICE-BOOK IS JUSTIFI'D, THE SIX BOOKS OF THO: ERASTUS AGAINST EXCOMMUNICATION ARE BRIEFLY EXAMIN'D; WITH A VINDICATION OF THAT EMINENT DIVINE THEOD: BEZA AGAINST THE ASPERSIONS OF ERASTUS, THE ARGUMENTS OF MR. WILLIAM PRYN, RICH: HOOKER, DR. MORTON, DR. JACKSON, DR. JOHN FORBES, AND THE DOCTORS OF ABERDEEN; TOUCHING WILL-WORSHIP, CEREMONIES, IMAGERY, IDOLATRY, THINGS INDIFFERENT, AN AMBULATORY GOVERNMENT; THE DUE AND JUST POWERS OF THE MAGISTRATE IN MATTERS OF RELIGION, AND THE ARGUMENTS OF MR. PRYN, IN SO FAR AS THEY SIDE WITH ERASTUS, ARE MODESTLY DISCUSSED. TO WHICH IS ADDED, A BRIEF TRACTATE OF SCANDAL; . . . BY SAMUEL RUTHERFURD, PROFESSOR OF DIVINITY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF ST. ANDREWS IN SCOTLAND. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #9 and #24.
    "Almost 800 pages long, Rutherford here deals with church membership, separation from the visible church, the civil magistrate and religion, communion among churches, the errors of the independents (specifically in New England), and much more. This could be considered the LEX, REX of church government -- another exceedingly rare masterpiece of Presbyterianism! Characterized by Walker as sweeping 'over a wider field than most. Most essential points which Gillespie has barely touched, Rutherford carefully considers; as, for instance, the nature of the visible church as such, and its constituent elements. Even in the Erastian controversy he is a necessary supplement to his great contemporary. It is something to me altogether amazing, the mass of thinking about Church questions you have in those writings.' Bannerman, in his CHURCH OF CHRIST calls this a 'very learned and elaborate treatise.' Here is a sample of Mr. Rutherford's writing: 'A private subtraction and separation from the Ministry of a known wolf and seducer, . . . this the Law of nature will warrant . . . as Parker saith from Saravia, 'it is lawful to use that blameless and just defence, if the bad church-guide cannot be deposed.' So the son may save himself by a just defence in fleeing from his mad father, or his distracted friend coming to kill him. Now this defence is not an authoritative act, nor [a] judicial act of authority, but a natural act that is common to any private person, yea to all without the true Church as well as within to take that care in extreme necessity, for the safety of their souls, that they would do for the safety of their bodies' (1642), cited in The Original Covenanter and Contending Witness magazine." -- Publisher
    The Covenant Between God and Kings, from A DEFENSE OF LIBERTY
    http://www.constitution.org/vct/vindiciae1a.htm

    *Rutherford, Samuel (1600-1661), A Free Disputation Against Pretended Liberty of Conscience, 1649. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #9, #25, and #26.
    "Rutherford's FREE DISPUTATION, though scarce, is still one of his most important works with maybe only a few copies of the actual book left in existence. Though Rutherford is affectionately remembered in our day for his LETTERS, or for laying the foundations of constitutional government (against the divine right of kings), in his unsurpassed LEX, REX his FREE DISPUTATION should not be overlooked for it contains the same searing insights as LEX, REX. In fact, this book should probably be known as Rutherford's 'politically incorrect' companion volume to LEX, REX. A sort of sequel aimed at driving pluralists and antinomians insane. Written against 'the Belgick Arminians, Socinians, and other Authors contending for lawlesse liberty, or licentious Tolerations of Sects and Heresies,' Rutherford explains the undiluted Biblical solution to moral relativism, especially as it is expressed in ecclesiastical and civil pluralism! (Corporate pluralism being a violation of the first commandment and an affront to the holy God of Scripture). He also deals with conscience, toleration, penology (punishment), and the judicial laws, as related to both the civil and ecclesiastical realms. Excellent sections are also included which address questions related to determining the fundamentals of religion, how covenants bind us, the perpetual obligation of social covenants (with direct application to the Solemn League and Covenant and the covenant-breaking of Cromwell and his sectarian supporters), whether the punishing of seducing teachers be persecution of conscience, and much more. Walker adds these comments and context regarding Rutherford's FREE DISPUTATION, 'The principle of toleration was beginning to be broached in England, and in a modified shape to find acceptance there. Samuel Rutherford was alarmed, or rather, I should say, he was horrified, for he neither feared the face of man or argument. He rushed to the rescue of the good old view . . . It is not so easy to find a theoretical ground for toleration; and Rutherford has many plausible things to say against it. With the most perfect confidence, he argues that it is alike against Scripture and common sense that you should have two religions side by side. It is outrageous ecclesiastically, it is sinful civilly. He does not, however, take what I call the essentially persecuting ground. He does not hold that the magistrate is to punish religion as religion. Nay, he strongly maintains that the civil magistrate never aims at the conscience. The magistrate, he urges, does not send anyone, whether a heretic (who is a soul murderer -- RB), or a murderer, to the scaffold with the idea of producing conversion or other spiritual result, but to strengthen the foundations of civil order. But if he gives so much power to the king, he is no lover of despotism withal: the king himself must be under law. To vindicate this great doctrine is the object of another book, the celebrated LEX, REX; of which it has been said by one competent to judge, that it first clearly developed the constitutionalism which all men now accept.' (Theology and Theologians . . . pp. 11-12). In our day Francis Schaeffer, and numerous others, have critiqued many of the problems found in modern society, but most have spent little time developing explicitly Biblical solutions especially regarding the theoretical foundations that Rutherford addresses here. Rutherford's FREE DISPUTATION provides a detailed blueprint for laying the foundations that must be laid before any lasting, God-honoring solutions will be found. Furthermore, Rutherford and his writings were the enemies of all governments not covenanted with Christ. This book will give you a very clear picture as to why 'the beast' (civil and ecclesiastical), has reserved his special hatred for such teaching. As Samuel Wylie noted 'the dispute, then, will not turn upon the point whether religion should be civilly established . . . but it is concerning what religion ought to be civilly established and protected, -- whether the religion of Jesus alone should be countenanced by civil authority, or every blasphemous, heretical, and idolatrous abomination which the subtle malignity of the old serpent and a heart deceitful above all things and desperately wicked, can frame and devise, should be put on an equal footing therewith." -- The Two Sons of Oil; or, the Faithful Witness for Magistracy and Ministry Upon a Scriptural Basis. Can our generation swallow Rutherford's hard, anti-pluralistic, Covenanter medicine, poured forth from the bottle of the first commandment, without choking on their carnal dreams of a free and righteous society divorced from God (and His absolute claims upon everyone and everything)? Not without the enabling power of the Holy Spirit -- that is for sure! In summary, this book answers all the hardest questions theonomists (and their wisest and best opponents), have been asking for the last 20-30 years (and these answers are much more in depth than any we have seen in the last couple of millennia [less about a century to account for the apostles]). As the reader will discover, Rutherford was a wealthy man when it came to wisdom (and much advanced theologically), and those who take the time to gaze into the King's treasure house, as exhibited in this book, will find that they are greatly rewarded. Furthermore, because of its uncompromising stand upon the Word of God, this book is sure to be unpopular among a wicked and adulterous generation. However, on the other hand, it is sure to be popular among the covenanted servants of King Jesus! This is one of the best books (in the top five anyway), for advanced study of the Christian faith. We have now obtained an easy-to-read, amazingly clear copy of this very rare, old treasure. Great price too, considering that a copy of the 1649 edition, containing this quality of print, would likely cost upwards of $1000 on the rare book market -- though it is unlikely you would ever see a copy for sale!" -- Publisher
    The Covenant Between God and Kings, from A DEFENSE OF LIBERTY
    http://www.constitution.org/vct/vindiciae1a.htm

    *Rutherford, Samuel (1600-1661), George Gillespie, and many others (compiled by Martin A. Foulner), Theonomy and the Westminster Confession: An Annotated Sourcebook (1997). Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    "A compilation of rare citations taken from Puritans, Covenanters, Reformers and others bearing on questions related to God's law, its application to society and the question of negative civil sanctions. Illustrates, on one hand, where the modern Theonomists agree with the older Reformed writers, but on the other hand, clearly shows where the Reconstructionists have fallen short of the historic testimony given by the best Reformed Divines. A great deal of research has gone into this title and quotations are taken from a number of very rare and hard to find books. Sections from the works of Rutherford and Gillespie alone cover pages 11-26. Durham, Dickson, Ferguson, Brown, the London Covenanters (of the Westminster Assembly), Burroughs, Shields, Jenkyn, Usher, Knox, Luther, Calvin, Bullinger, Bucer, Perkins, Shepard, Ridgeley, Dabney, Thornwell, and a host of others all appear in the useful reference manual." -- Publisher

    Stillingfleet, Edward (1635-1699), Irenicum. A VVeapon-salve for the Churches Wounds. Or the Divine Right of Particular Forms of Church-government; Discussed and examined according to the principles of the law of nature, the positive laws of God, the practice of the Apostles and the primitive Church, and the judgement of reformed divines. Whereby a foundation is laid for the Churches peace, and the accommodation of our present differences. Humbly tendered to consideration. By Edward Stillingfleete, rector of Sutton in Bedfordshire, 1660.

    *Sundry Ministers of London, The Divine Right of Church Government (Jus Divinum Regiminis Ecclesiastici), c. 1646 Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #23.
    "This is one of the all time classic defenses of the divine right of Presbyterianism. David Hall, the editor, states, the book 'was not written as a polemical tract, as if to prop up some moribund tradition; rather it is an exemplar of gentle and reasoned discourse.' Published anonymously, during the sitting of the Westminster Assembly -- because of the Erastian leaning Parliament's 'gag rule' -- this work is considered by some as 'an even truer record of the Westminster divines' views of government than the final (politically suppressed), standards,' notes the editor. Moreover, Hall goes so far as to state that 'perhaps no single work is as illuminating for original intent [of the Westminster Standards], as this rare work printed contemporaneously with the meeting of the Assembly.' It is the third title in a uniform collection of books by 17th century Presbyterians to be published by Naphtali Press. It contains an historical introduction, subject and bibliographic indices, and is retypeset and edited to reflect contemporary spelling, punctuation and usage. David Hall's 'The Original Intent of Westminster,' added to this printing, is also very useful. A helpful chart comparing Independency with Presbyterianism is also included. (Hardcover, a limited edition of which only 200 copies have been printed.)" -- Publisher
    http://www.naphtali.com/jusextrc.htm

    Warfield, B.B. (1851-1921), Presbyterian Deaconesses.

    *Westminster Assembly (1643-1652), The Form of Presbyterial Church Government. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #18. Available in THE WESTMINSTER CONFESSION OF FAITH (1646).
    Westminster Assembly (1643-1652), Form of Presbyterian Church Government
    http://www.covenanter.org/reformed/documents/the-form-of-presbyterial-church-government

    Westminster Conference Report, The Office and Work of the Minister.
    "Papers included: Office in the Church From the Separatist to the Westminster Assembly; The Call to the Ministry in Puritan Teaching; Ministerial Training From Harvard to Princeton; The Pastor as Preacher in 17th Century England; The Puritan Pastor as Counselor; Richard Sibbes, 'The Heavenly Doctor'." -- GCB Includes bibliography.

    Willison, John, A Letter From a Parochial Bishop to a Prelatical Gentleman in Scotland: Concerning the government of the church; Wherein the controversie anent bishops, and Presbyterian ordination, is set in a true light, and distinctly handled . . . Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #23.

    See also: The sovereignty of god, The doctrine of man (human nature, total depravity), Covetousness, greed, selfishness, Pride, The inspiration and infallibility of scripture (the doctrine of revelation, the doctrine of plenary inspiration, the doctrine of divine inspiration, the doctrine of verbal inspiration, The ten commandments, the moral law, The local church, Trusting god, The covenant faithfulness of god, The all-sufficiency of christ, Lordship of jesus christ, Christ's kingdom, Church and state, Covenant theology and the ordinance of covenanting, Toleration, liberty of conscience, pluralism, and neutrality, The covenanted reformation, Background and history of the covenanted reformation of scotland, Covenanted reformation short title listing, Selection of covenant heads for positions of leadership, The one and the many, Corporate faithfulness and sanctification, Individual responsibility for corporate faithfulness and sanctification, Unfaithful reformed ministries, Reform of the church, Churches that abuse, Pseudo-christian movements: a selection of works, Politics, Secret societies, ungodly alliances, voluntary associations, Conspiracy and corruption, Casuistry, cases of conscience, Acts of faithful assemblies, Bible magistracy, Sexual relationship, Spiritual adultery (spiritual whoredom/harlotry), Idolatry, syncretism, Sexual wholeness, Theft, Rebellion and lawlessness: wickedness, demonic possession, substance abuse, abnormal behavior, insanity, mental illness, mental retardation, Repentance, the key to salvation and change, Justice, the theology of judgment, god's final judgment, the great white throne judgment, the day of the lord, The sovereign grace of god: his everlasting mercy and lovingkindness, Justifying faith, Justification, Forgiveness, Sanctification, and so forth, and so on.
    TCRB5: 728, 735, 749-752

    Related WebLinks

    Jure Divino Church Government
    http://www.covenanter.org/ChurchGovt/churchgovt.htm

    Church Government
    A listing of documents with e-text.
    http://www.truecovenanter.com/kirkgovt/index.htm

    The Regulative Principle Applied to Church Government, James Henley Thornwell
    http://www.westminsterconfession.org/the-church/the-regulative-principle-applied-to-church-government.php

    Presbyterian Church Government

    What the Bible Has to Say About the Nature of Government
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, 48 min.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12160372131

    #03: The Departure From the Puritan Heritage
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Puritan Heritage, 52 min.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=92903104657

    Presbyterian Church Government #01: Introduction to Biblical Church Government
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Presbyterian Church Government
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=1270518133

    Presbyterian Church Government #02: Different Forms of Church Government
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Presbyterian Church Government
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12705181353

    Presbyterian Church Government #03: The Visible Church Offices #1
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Presbyterian Church Government
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12705181435

    Presbyterian Church Government #04: The Visible Church Offices #2
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Presbyterian Church Government
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12705181925

    Presbyterian Church Government #05: The Visible Church Offices #3
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Presbyterian Church Government
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12705181547

    Presbyterian Church Government #06: The Visible Church Offices #4
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Presbyterian Church Government
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12705181925

    Presbyterian Church Government #07: Presbytery
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Presbyterian Church Government
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12705182013

    Presbyterian Church Government #08: General Assembly
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Presbyterian Church Government
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12705182052

    Presbyterian Church Government #09: Commission and Committee
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Presbyterian Church Government
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12705182214

    Presbyterian Church Government #10: Ordination and Candidates
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Presbyterian Church Government
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12705182250

    Presbyterian Church Government #11: Licensure and Worship
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Presbyterian Church Government
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12705182348

    Presbyterian Church Government #12: Worship
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Presbyterian Church Government
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12705182423



    Arminianism

    See: "Arminianism" in Appendix D: Pseudo-Christian Movements: A Selection of Works
    http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrrappd.html#arminianism



    Antinomianism

    See: Appendix D: Pseudo-Christian Movements: A Selection of Works
    http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrrappd.html#antinomianism



    Civil Government

    Blessed is the nation whose God is the LORD; and the people whom he hath chosen for his own inheritance. (Psalm 33:12)

    At Sinai the Lord gave his people a religious and national constitution that would provide permanent guidelines for the moral, physical, and spiritual well-being of his people. The directives given pointed to the uniqueness and transparency of their divine Author. -- John Reid, commenting on Psalm 111

    Then all the elders of Israel gathered themselves together, and came to Samuel unto Ramah, And said unto him, Behold, thou art old, and thy sons walk not in thy ways: now make us a king to judge us like all the nations. But the thing displeased Samuel, when they said, Give us a king to judge us. And Samuel prayed unto the LORD. And the LORD said unto Samuel, Hearken unto the voice of the people in all that they say unto thee: for they have not rejected thee, but they have rejected me, that I should not reign over them. According to all the works which they have done since the day that I brought them up out of Egypt even unto this day, wherewith they have forsaken me, and served other gods, so do they also unto thee. Now therefore hearken unto their voice: howbeit yet protest solemnly unto them, and shew them the manner of the king that shall reign over them. And Samuel told all the words of the LORD unto the people that asked of him a king. And he said, This will be the manner of the king that shall reign over you: He will take your sons, and appoint them for himself, for his chariots, and to be his horsemen; and some shall run before his chariots. And he will appoint him captains over thousands, and captains over fifties; and will set them to ear his ground, and to reap his harvest, and to make his instruments of war, and instruments of his chariots. And he will take your daughters to be confectionaries, and to be cooks, and to be bakers. And he will take your fields, and your vineyards, and your oliveyards, even the best of them, and give them to his servants. And he will take the tenth of your seed, and of your vineyards, and give to his officers, and to his servants. And he will take your menservants, and your maidservants, and your goodliest young men, and your asses, and put them to his work. He will take the tenth of your sheep: and ye shall be his servants. And ye shall cry out in that day because of your king which ye shall have chosen you; and the LORD will not hear you in that day. Nevertheless the people refused to obey the voice of Samuel; and they said, Nay; but we will have a king over us; That we also may be like all the nations; and that our king may judge us, and go out before us, and fight our battles. And Samuel heard all the words of the people, and he rehearsed them in the ears of the LORD. And the LORD said to Samuel, Hearken unto their voice, and make them a king. And Samuel said unto the men of Israel, Go ye every man unto his city. (1 Samuel 8:4-22)

    The Treasury of David, Psalm 72, C.H. Spurgeon
    Give the king thy judgments, O God, and thy righteousness unto the king's son.
    He shall judge thy people with righteousness, and thy poor with judgment.
    Yea, all kings shall fall down before him: all nations shall serve him.
    (Psalm 72:1,2,11)
    http://www.spurgeon.org/treasury/ps072.htm

    See the Theological Notes, "Christians and Civil Government," at Romans 13:1 in The Reformation Study Bible.

    The whole of the prophecies of Isaiah are precious, and should be read by us constantly in private. -- C.H. Spurgeon, Spurgeon's Devotional Bible

    Growth of government is the greatest tragedy of the 20th Century. -- Gordon H. Clark in A Christian View of Men and Things

    The term "judge," in the Hebrew Scriptures, is often used as equivalent to, "to rule," or "to govern;" and such a use of the term is quite natural (In the early age there was little division of labour. The judicial, legislative, and executive functions were not separated.), for not only does just judgment, in the strict sense of the word, form an important part of good government, but all proper government is the exercise, not of arbitrary will, but of sound judgment. During a considerable period of the Israelitish history, their supreme magistrates, under Jehovah their King, were termed judges. The use I refer to of the word may be understood by one as well as a hundred instances. Speaking of the Divine government, the psalmist, in the sixty-seventh psalm, says, "Thou shalt "judge" the people righteously, and "govern" the nations upon earth. -- John Brown (of Edinburgh, 1784-1858), commenting on John 12:31 in Discourses and Sayings of Our Lord Jesus Christ, II:244,245

    The medieval structure of ecclesiastical authority could not withstand the Protestant idea of sola scriptura -- the Bible alone. One Christian man with a Bible was superior to any pope or council or tradition without it. Luther translated the Bible from Greek and Hebrew into German so the people could read it in their own language and not be subject to an ecclesiastical ruling class. By translating the Bible into the common language, Luther freed the German people from ecclesiastical totalitarianism: The Bible was the written constitution of the church, which the people could now read for themselves. His second major contribution to Western political thought was the idea of a written constitution -- the Bible -- limiting the power and authority of the church (and later political), leaders. There is a direct connection between the Reformation cry of sola scriptura and the American idea of the Constitution -- not any man or body of men -- as the supreme law of the land. -- John W. Robbins, in a tract, Civilization and the Protestant Reformation

    Government seems to me a part of religion itself. -- William Penn

    If thou wouldst rule well, thou must rule for God, and to do that, thou must be ruled by him. . . . Those who will not be governed by God will be ruled by tyrants. -- William Penn

    Whereas the glory of Almighty God and the good of mankind is the reason and the end of government . . . therefore government itself is a venerable ordinance of God . . . (April 25, 1689) -- The Great Law of Pennsylvania

    A simple democracy is the devil's own government. -- Benjamin Rush

    If the people be governors, who shall be governed? -- John Cotton (1584-1652)

    Bad men cannot make good citizens. It is impossible that a nation of infidels or idolators should be a nation of freemen. It is when a people forget God that tyrants forge their chains. A vitiated [defective] state of morals, a corrupted public conscience, are incompatible with freedom. -- Patrick Henry

    Let men be good, and the government cannot be bad; if it be ill, they will cure it. But, if men be bad, let the government be never so good, they will endeavor to warp and spoil it to their turn. I know some say, let us have good laws, and no matter for the men that execute them: but let them consider, that though good laws do well, good men do better; for good laws may want good men, and be abolished or evaded by ill men; but good men will never want good laws, nor suffer ill ones. -- William Penn

    If we compare the US Federal Budget to entire economic growth, that is, if we compare Federal Spending as a percentage of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) we find that in 1900 it was 02.8 percent of GDP, but by 1993 it had grown to 27 percent of (GNP). The US economy grew, of course, during this period, but Federal spending grew ten (10) times as fast as the GDP.
    Federal spending growing at ten (10) times the economy partially explains growth in the Cost of Health Care.
    Health Care Spending in real terms (adjusted for inflation), increased from negligible in real terms in 1900, to 1 billion in 1930, to 210 billion in 1994. That is an increase of over 2,000 times.
    This explains, in part, the skyrocketing cost of Health Care. Increased demands of Federal Spending on Health Care drives up the costs for everyone. -- John W. Robbins, in a lecture, "The Growth of Government in the United States"

    Anonymous (attributed to George Gillespie), The Mystery of Magistracy Unveiled: or, God's Ordinance of Magistracy Asserted, Cleared, and Vindicated, 1708. Alternate title: UNWORTHY SERVANT AND SUBJECT OF JESUS CHRIST. THE MYSTERY OF MAGISTRACY UNVAILED: OR, GOD'S ORDINANCE OF MAGISTRACY ASSERTED, . . . BY AN UNWORTHY SERVANT AND SUBJECT OF JESUS CHRIST . . . EDINBURGH, 1708, 28 pages. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #25.
    "Though the author is unknown, this work has been thought by some to have been written by George Gillespie. It is a fine introduction to Second Reformation thought on civil government. Some sample headings extracted from its pages include: 'Of the qualifications required in the Judge or Ruler;' 'Of the promised blessing that is to attend the latter days in a righteous rule and ruler;' 'Of the judgement and curse attending no rule, or an evil ruler;' 'Of the people's duty under wicked rulers, both towards God and them." 28 pages." -- Publisher
    Gillespie, George (1613-1648), The Mystery of magistracy unvailed: or, God's ordinance of magistracy asserted, cleared, and vindicated from heathenish dominion, tyrannous and anti-Christian usurpation, despisers of dignities and contemners or authorities, by an unworthy servant and subject of Jesus Christ, the King of saints and nations (1708)
    http://archive.org/details/magistr00edin
    Gillespie, George, The Mystery of Magistracy Unveiled
    http://www.covenanter.org/CivilGovt/Mystery/themysteryofmagistracyunvailed.htm

    *Augustine, Saint (Aurelius Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, 354-430 AD, author), Philip Schaff (editor), Marcus Dods (translator), St. Augustine's City of God and Christian Doctrine [A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church -- Volume 2], new edition, 624 pages, English. Available (2 volumes, 1872 edition), on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    Augustine is said to be the greatest Christian thinker next to the Apostle Paul. Luther set the BIBLE and the CONFESSIONS OF SAINT AUGUSTINE above all other books.
    "One of the classic texts of Western civilization [it explains the fall of Roman in terms of Scripture -- compiler]. . . . DE CIVITATE DEI is an important contribution of interest to students of theology, philosophy, ecclesiastical history, the history of political thought, and late antiquity." -- Publisher (from the Cambridge University Press edition)
    "Calvin paraphrased Augustine about 400 times in THE INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION.
    "St. Augustine's final sentence of THE CITY OF GOD is 'All things must be referred to the Glory of God.'
    "When you see that, then you will see the key to the story, and you will see the key to history. . . .
    "The classic exposition of history in terms of Scripture." -- C. Gregg Singer
    "Augustine began writing THE CITY OF GOD at age 59 [shortly after the city of Rome had been sacked by the Goths in 410 A.D., much to the surprise, it is said, of both the Romans and the Goths -- compiler], and worked on it, off and on, for much of the next 14 years. The impetus for the beginning of this vast work (and its recurring focus), was the charge of Pagans (polytheists) that Christianity was responsible for the decay and demise of the Roman Empire. The charge put forward the claim that the prosperity and social stability of the state was dependent upon polytheistic worship. In response, Augustine arrays several lines of argument, rebutting the assumed 'goodness' of the Pagan state, as such, and detailing the ethical/moral and logical failings of Paganism. Augustine displays tremendous scholarship, employing the writings of Paganism's greatest historians and philosophers in his case against their religious claims. The result is a giant literary, philosophical, historical, theological and exegetical work. . . .
    "Against the 'city', i.e., society, of many gods, there is but one alternate society, this Augustine calls The City of God, adopting the expression found in several of King David's psalms. Not only is the society of many gods the society of polytheists, it is also the 'city' of pantheists, atheistic materialists and philosophical Cynics. In the case of the Cynics and atheists, these false gods are the myriad gods of self, indeed, at least as many gods (selves) as there are believers in them. Thus there are two 'cities,' two loves, two ways to understand the big questions of existence, two destinations. Says Augustine:

    "The one City began with the love of God; the other had its beginnings in the love of self." XIV:13.
    "The city of man seeks the praise of men, whereas the height of glory for the other is to hear God in the witness of conscience. The one lifts up its head in its own boasting; the other says to God: 'Thou art my glory, thou liftest up my head.' (Psalm 3.4 [Psalm 3:4]). In the city of the world both the rulers themselves and the people they dominate are dominated by the lust for domination; whereas in the City of God all citizens serve one another in charity . . ." XIV:28 -- Wesley L. Janssen, Reader's Comment
    "Augustine reflects deeply here on human nature and the meaning of eternal life and eternal punishment, within an explication of the 'meaning' of history. He writes of all human history as a single narrative. This also a work of Biblical exegesis, as Augustine treats Scripture as a historical document. For Augustine, creation is good, creation exists in time and has a history. Indeed, since God enters into history to show man His love, history itself is sanctified, through the City of God.
    "The book contains the parallel histories of what Augustine terms the City of God and the City of Man, both descended from Adam. The City of Man is founded on murder (specifically fratricide, the murder of a brother, viz. Cain and Abel, Romulus and Remus). The City of Man has been deceived and debased, fallen under the sway of pagan gods, which appear to be either demons or, at best indifferent or benign spirits that are mistakenly worshipped. The City of God, on the other hand, is a pilgrim on this earth, toiling here in the joyous expectation of final salvation in God's Kingdom." -- Penn Jacobs, Reader's Comment
    "His 'grand unifying theory' of Western civilization, uniting the organization of Rome with the thought of Greece and the revelation of the Bible, has been accepted as the de facto definition of what it means to be Western until only the very last few decades of our time. . . .
    "This seamless blend of literary prowess from Rome's greatest scholar and highest ranking professor generates for the reader a powerful education in philosophy, history and theology, tied together with awesome rhetoric, that is uniquely powerful, erudite, insightful and useful all at once.
    "As it is written for the leaders of society and not for the average citizen, be ready to be intrigued, challenged to thought, and impressed with every line.
    "By no means must the reader have any kind of religious belief to benefit from this book, nor must the reader agree with all that Augustine postulates, nor can the reader, due to the great distance of time separating him from us and improvements in scientific knowledge since his time. The importance, greatness and power of the writing itself commend it to us." -- Chris Miller, Reader's Comment
    "One who has been introduced to Augustine through his auto-biographical CONFESSIONS may find it easier to follow his logic as he discusses the numerous topics of THE CITY OF GOD." -- Reader's Comment
    "It would do the modern Church well to read this book since Augustine places THE CITY OF GOD (i.e., Christ and His Church), within the context of the pagan world in which we live, and its message is as applicable today as it was 1,500 years ago when he first wrote it." -- Reader's Comment
    "History and theology in one rich volume." -- Reader's Comment
    City of God, Saint Augustine, Philip Schaff (editor), Rev. Marcus Dods, D.D. (translator)
    http://www.ccel.org/fathers/NPNF1-02/
    The Confessions of Saint Augustine
    "The story of his sinful pursuits before conversion, and of his conversion, then of his confession to God, and his discoveries of the greatness of God after his conversion." -- Publisher
    http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/confessions.html
    The Works of Saint Augustine
    http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/book/lookupname?key=Augustine%2C%20Saint%2C%20Bishop%20of%20Hippo
    Calvin's Commentaries (online)
    http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/calcom
    The Classical View of History (Augustine)
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, "The Christian View of History," lecture series.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=7150273140
    The Augustinian Approach to History
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, 47 min.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=9150393751
    Church History #09: Augustine #1
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, "Church History" lecture series.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=41504163949
    Church History #10: Augustine #2
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, "Church History" lecture series.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=41504164048
    Church History #11: Augustine #3
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, "Church History" lecture series.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=41504164152

    Barrow, Reg, John Knox, Oliver Cromwell, God's Law and the Reformation of Civil Government Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1, #25.
    "Many consider Knox one of the greatest Reformers ever and God used him to win the nation of Scotland to Christ. Knox laid the foundations for the Covenanters that followed, and they in turn gave us the clearest foretaste of the millennium glory to come in the magnificent Solemn League and Covenant. Speaking of these Reformation attainments McFeeters notes, 'The fathers are worthy of all praise for this unprecedented effort to build the national government upon the true foundation of God's will, and administer it by men in Covenant with Jesus Christ, the King of kings. This was the first attempt to erect a Christian government, in which the fear of God should pervade every department and characterize every official.' (Sketches of the Covenanters, pp. 155-156). This book deals with some of Knox's most controversial political writings, demonstrating that he was what Barrow calls a 'historic' theonomist (like Rutherford and Gillespie after him). It also offers some fine tuning for 'modern' theonomists, which aims at leading them into the 'footsteps of the flock' and closer to the classic or historic Presbyterian/Covenanter view of law (and away from some of the anabaptist/libertarian tendencies that sometimes arise among modern theonomists). Numerous resources, recently published, dealing with civil disobedience and opposition to tyranny are also listed. The first appendix in this book contains Barrow's letter to Christian Renewal expressing his strong disagreement with an unfavorable and inaccurate review of Michael Wagner's Presbyterian Political Manifesto. In it he shows how the Reformers and their confessions of faith supported the civil establishment of the one true Christian religion, while at the same time publicly excluding Papist's, pagans and other heretics from places of civil rule (in countries blessed with the light of the gospel). The second appendix contains a series of letters dedicated to proving why Barrow calls Cromwell the 'Judas of the Covenant.' It demonstrates Cromwell's reckless abandon in violating his sacred vows to the Lord in the Solemn League and Covenant, while also showing why Cromwell's wicked, anti-Christian views concerning toleration and liberty of conscience led people away from Scriptural standards and helped open the floodgates to modern atheistic pluralism. In short, Cromwell was the prototype of our contemporary pragmatic politician, adept at equivocation and setting his own glory and government above all other concerns, including the glory and government of God. In this vein Barrow contends that Cromwell, unaffectionately dubbed the 'late usurper' by the covenanted Presbyterians of the mid seventeenth-century, was used of the devil to accomplish things in the civil and ecclesiastical realm that he (i.e. Satan), could never have accomplished with the more obviously anti-Christian religions of that day (which were not pluralistic theologically, such Romanism, Episcopalianism, etc.). For Cromwell laid his axe of ungodly toleration and pretended liberty of conscience to the root of the tree of covenanted Reformation in a much more subtle manner than the previous 'midwives to antichrist,' and thus his sectarianism better served the devious designs of the devil during those days. This section also exposes Cromwell as a Erastian tyrant, a liar, and a dictator, who (with the help of his sectarian army), executed the covenanted Presbyterian minister Christopher Love (Cromwell's soldiers even threatened to shoot Thomas Manton for preaching at Love's funeral), sent many other Presbyterian ministers to jail (including Thomas Watson), disbanded the Scottish general assembly (at gunpoint), and eventually began negotiations with Papists (with the intent of granting them a measure of 'liberty' to more freely practice their superstitions and soul murder). This is not the view of Cromwell that you will hear from modern historians and theologians who have abandoned the context of covenanted Reformation (how could it be?), for as Rushdoony has correctly pointed out, 'Men cannot give a meaning to history that they themselves lack, nor can they honor a past which indicts them for their present failures.' (A Biblical Philosophy of History, p. 135)." -- Publisher
    John Knox, Oliver Cromwell, God's Law and the Reformation of Civil Government
    http://www.swrb.com/newslett/actualnls/Crom.htm

    Courtois, Stéphane, Nicolas Werth, Jean-Louis Panné, Andrzej Paczkowski, Karel Bartosek, Jean-Louis Margolin, Mark Kramer (editor), Jonathan Murphy (translator), The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression (Harvard University Press, October 15, 1999), 912 pages, ISBN: 0674076087 9780674076082.
    "Already famous throughout Europe, this international bestseller plumbs recently opened archives in the former Soviet bloc to reveal the actual, practical accomplishments of Communism around the world: terror, torture, famine, mass deportations, and massacres. Astonishing in the sheer detail it amasses, the book is the first comprehensive attempt to catalogue and analyze the crimes of Communism over seventy years.
    " 'Revolutions, like trees, must be judged by their fruit,' Ignazio Silone wrote, and this is the standard the authors apply to the Communist experience." -- Publisher

    *Davies, Samuel (1723-1761), The Divine Government the Joy of the World. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    "Expands upon the reign and rule of King Jesus and the great blessings that this entails." -- Publisher
    The Divine Government the Joy of the World, Samuel Davies
    http://books.google.com/books?id=q2msGwAACAAJ&ie=ISO-8859-1&output=html

    *Hall, David W., Savior or Servant? Putting Government in its Place, ISBN: 0965036715 9780965036719.
    "Savior or Servant? is the single best volume of Christian thinking on the issue of the increasingly intrusive state . . . Theology at its very best: orthodox, relevant, and provocative." -- George Grant
    "SAVIOR OR SERVANT? PUTTING GOVERNMENT IN ITS PLACE is an attempt to define the role of the state: Shall it be a minister or a Messiah? Using ancient but timeless information, David W. Hall has surveyed the Bible and arrived at a coherent theology of the state. This study succeeds in identifying the responsibilities that the civil state is mandated to do, permitted to do, and prohibited from doing. Along the way, it is discovered that all political schemes and issues are fraught with theological value. Moreover, the most enduring grid to keep government in its rightful place is found in the Bible. Drawing upon thousands of verses and hundreds of thinkers, this volume is comprehensive yet readable. Theologians from Augustine to Calvin and from Aquinas to Barth are studied and presented in a non-technical manner. The Christian who is interested in politics should absorb these summaries before launching out into unstudied political activism. Rather than adopting a politics-as-usual posture, Hall challenges partisans from the right and from the left. He summons Christians to the old paths, which God's Word has occupied for centuries. Discussed in these chapters are perennial matters of practical importance, such as: taxation; resistance to evil governments; methods of influence; the escalation of rights; limited government; moral qualities for leaders; separation of powers. This book will provide excellent fodder for discussion and guidance. It returns spiritual principles to their place, while seeking to put government in its proper place.
    SAVIOR OR SERVANT? is a revival of a classic approach to limited government. In a time when nations are finally beginning to shrink bloated governments, a surprising source commends itself as an able assistant in reform. The scriptural view of the state, removed from the varied fads of political science, provides an enduring perspective by which to measure all states. This study begins with a survey of biblical teaching on pressing matters of state today. Following the contours of the Old and New Testaments, SAVIOR OR SERVANT? calls all levels of government to a servant posture, rather than allowing officials to dominate. A historical tracing of the best and most pertinent that theology has to offer on the subject is contained in these pages." -- Publisher
    From Reformation to Revolution: 1500-1650, Chapter 10: Savior or Servant? Putting Government in Its Place
    http://capo.org/premise/96/mar/p960304.html

    *Kelly, Douglas F., The Emergence of Liberty in the Modern World: The Influence of Calvin on Five Governments From the 16th Through 18th Centuries, ISBN: 0875522971.
    "Examines Calvin's influence on the civil governments of Geneva, Huguenot France, Knox's Scotland, Puritan England, and Colonial America. Shows how Calvin's legacy continues to bear upon the issues that guide and agitate Western nations today." -- Publisher

    *Knox, John (1505-1572), Against Romish Rites and Political and Ecclesiastical Tyranny, 1554. Alternate title: ECCLESIASTICAL TYRANNY and A FAITHFUL ADMONITION TO THE PROFESSORS OF GOD'S TRUTH IN ENGLAND. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #15, #26. In SELECTED WRITINGS OF JOHN KNOX."
    "Formerly titled A FAITHFUL ADMONITION TO THE PROFESSORS OF GOD'S TRUTH IN ENGLAND, this letter is said to be 'undoubtedly the most important' of Knox's writings (up to that time), by W. Stanford Reid in TRUMPETER OF GOD (p. 114). Furthermore Reid notes that Knox's 'views on the magistrate expressed in the FAITHFUL ADMONITION, were to have an important influence upon much of his future conduct, and upon the development of the Reformation in both England and Scotland.' The editor of KNOX'S WORKS states, 'the object of the ADMONITION was twofold. The one was to animate those who had made a good profession to perseverance, and to avoid the sin of apologetical, or appearing to conform to the 'abominable idolatry' re-established in England; the other, to point out the dangers to be apprehended in when the kingdom became subjected to the dominion of strangers.' Knox uses very strong language here, in the hopes of getting through to those who came to be termed Nicodemites (i.e. those who thought that they could 'keep faith secretly in the heart, and yet do as idolaters do,' in Knox's own words). Written at a time when the true church had been driven underground by Roman Catholic persecution, it was said concerning this letter that 'many other godly men besides have been exposed to the risk of their property, and even life itself, upon the sole ground of either having had this book in their possession, or having read it.' Kevin Reed gives an excellent summary of this letter in SELECTED WRITINGS OF JOHN KNOX. when, in part, he writes, 'while acknowledging the risk of persecution to the faithful, the reformer perceives a greater danger in compromising with idolatry. Government persecution may bring disfavour of men, loss of personal goods and, in some cases, physical death; but idolatry brings down the wrath of God, resulting in grievous punishments, now and through eternity. Idolatry also invites a curse upon the posterity of the nation. In an intense pastoral appeal, Knox strongly admonishes his readers to avoid conforming to the Romish rites of worship.' (p. 220). For those who would rather read many of these Knox items with contemporary spelling, punctuation, and grammar we highly recommend the SELECTED WRITINGS OF JOHN KNOX." -- Publisher
    John Knox: Faithful Admonition (1554)
    http://www.swrb.com/newslett/actualnls/FaithAdm.htm

    *Knox, John (1505-1572), Appellation From the Sentence Pronounced by the Bishops and Clergy: Addressed to the Nobility and Estates of Scotland. Alternate titles: THE APPELLATION OF JOHN KNOX FROM THE CRUELL . . . SENTENCE PRONOUNCED AGAINST HIM BY THE FALSE BISHOPPES AND CLERGEY OF SCOTLAND, WITH HIS SUPPLICATION AND EXHORTATION TO THE NOBILITIE, ESTATES, AND COMMUNALTIE OF THE SAME REALME, and THE APPELLATION . . . TO THE SCOTTISH NOBILITY, and REFORMATION, REVOLUTION AND ROMANISM: AN APPEAL TO THE SCOTTISH NOBILITY, and THE APPELLATION FROM THE SENTENCE PRONOUNCED BY THE BISHOPS AND CLERGY: ADDRESSED TO THE NOBILITY AND ESTATES OF SCOTLAND, and THE APPELLATION. Cover title: REFORMATION, REVOLUTION AND ROMANISM: APPEAL TO THE SCOTTISH NOBILITY (1558). Available (singly as REFORMATION, REVOLUTION AND ROMANISM, in which key text have been underlined by a previous reader), on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available (REFORMATION, REVOLUTION AND ROMANISM), on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1 (MP3), #26. Available (APPELLATION FROM THE SENTENCE PRONOUNCED BY THE BISHOPS AND CLERGY: ADDRESSED TO THE NOBILITY AND ESTATES OF SCOTLAND), on the Library of Presbyterian Heritage Publications and Protestant Heritage Press CD-ROM Library. Available (APPELLATION FROM THE SENTENCE PRONOUNCED BY THE BISHOPS AND CLERGY: ADDRESSED TO THE NOBILITY AND ESTATES OF SCOTLAND), in THE WORKS OF JOHN KNOX, vol. 4. [John Knox; David Laing ((collector and editor)), THE WORKS OF JOHN KNOX, vol. 4, reprint of the 1855 edition printed for Bannatyne Club, Edinburgh (New York: AMS Press, 1966)].
    "David Chilton notes, 'Of all the sixteenth-century Reformers, John Knox remains the most ardently loved and fiercely hated. No other leader of his day saw so clearly the political issues in the light of Scripture. Nor has any of his contemporaries had so much direct influence upon the subsequent history of the world. He transformed a land of barbarians into one of the most hardheadly Calvinistic cultures ever to exist, and his doctrines lie at the core of all Protestant revolutionary activity. While he is often considered merely one of Calvin's lieutenants, he was actually a Reformer in his own right. In some respects he was the greatest of them all.' ("John Knox," in The Journal of Christian Reconstruction: Symposium on Puritanism and Law [Vallecito, CA: Chalcedon], Vol. V, No. 2, Winter, 1978-79, p. 194)
    "Furthermore, R.L. Greaves has noted that 'it has even been suggested -- and not altogether without merit -- that Knox was a key link in the development of political ideology that culminated in the American Revolution.' (Theology and Revolution in the Scottish Reformation: Studies in the Thought of John Knox [Grand Rapids, MI: Christian University Press, 1980], p. 156)
    "Moreover, Mason [Roger A. Mason -- compiler], states that this APPEAL [APPELLATION FROM THE SENTENCE PRONOUNCED BY THE BISHOPS AND CLERGY: ADDRESSED TO THE NOBILITY AND ESTATES OF SCOTLAND -- compiler], 'is the most important . . . of Knox's political writings' (in the Introduction to his compilation of Knox's political writings entitled KNOX: ON REBELLION). [see annotation for KNOX: ON REBELLION elsewhere in this bibliography -- compiler]. It shows in a conclusive manner that Knox wanted a Theonomic Establishment which was careful to 'disapprove, detest, oppose and remove all false worship and all monuments of idolatry' (cf. Westminster Larger Catechism, #108). It also clearly demonstrates that Knox believed in and promoted the continuing binding validity of the Old Testament case laws and the penal sanctions attached to them, including the death penalty.
    "Kevin Reed, in a editor's note, introducing this piece in his newly published SELECTED WRITING OF JOHN KNOX [available on the Puritan Hard Drive -- compiler], also points out that 'the Westminster Confession provides a distinct echo of Knox, when it states that the magistrate ""hath authority, and it is his duty, to take order, that unity and peace be preserved in the church, that the truth of God be kept pure and entire, that all blasphemies and heresies be suppressed, all corruptions and abuses in worship and discipline prevented or reformed, and all the ordinances of God duly settled, administered, and observed"" (Ch. 23:3, original wording). One secular historian once described Knox as 'Calvin with a sword,' making one wonder if he had not just been reading this very book. For 'where Calvin merely permitted disobedience to an ungodly ruler or immoral law, Knox championed armed rebellion -- a type of Calvinism that made religious revolution in Scotland possible.' (Christian History, Issue 46, p. 35). This is the best of the best; don't miss it!" -- Publisher
    Knox, John, Appellation From the Sentence Pronounced by the Bishops and Clergy: Addressed to the Nobility and Estates of Scotland
    This is a character scan (OCR) of the modernized text published by Protestant Heritage Press. While text may be cut and pasted it is subject to copyright.
    http://www.swrb.com/newslett/actualNLs/appellat.htm
    Knox, John (1505-1572), The Works of John Knox (1846), vol. 4.
    http://archive.org/stream/worksjohnknox07laingoog#page/n4/mode/2up
    Reformation, Revolution and Romanism (1558), John Knox, MP3 file.
    "This has been called John Knox's most important political writing. It also deals with Romanism, God's law, and much more.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?currSection=sermonssource&sermonID=1030075041
    See also:
    Goodman, Christopher, HOW SUPERIOR POWERS OUGHT TO BE OBEYED OF THEIR SUBJECTS: AND WHEREIN THEY MAY LAWFULLY BY GOD'S WORD BE DISOBEYED AND RESISTED, 1558. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #26. Available (HOW SUPERIOR POWERS OUGHT TO BE OBEYED), on the Library of Presbyterian Heritage Publications and Protestant Heritage Press CD-ROM Library.
    "From 1555 to 1558, Christopher Goodman served as co-pastor, with John Knox, of the congregation of English exiles in Geneva. During the course of his ministry, Goodman preached upon Acts 4:19 and 5:29: 'Whether it be right in the sight of God, to obey you rather than God, judge ye. We ought rather to obey God than men'. . . . In this book, Goodman contends against both ecclesiastical and political tyranny." -- Publisher
    Goodman, Christopher, How Superior Powers Ought to be Obeyed of Their Subjects
    http://www.constitution.org/cmt/goodman/obeyed.htm
    See also annotation for:
    Knox, John (1505-1572), THE HISTORY OF THE REFORMATION OF RELIGION WITHIN THE REALM OF SCOTLAND. . . . TOGETHER WITH THE LIFE OF THE AUTHOR, AND SEVERAL CURIOUS PIECES WROTE BY HIM, . . . BY THE REVEREND MR. JOHN KNOX, . . . TO WHICH IS ADDED, I. AN ADMONITION TO ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND . . . BY ANTONI GILBY. II. THE FIRST AND SECOND BOOKS OF DISCIPLINE; . . . GLASGOW, 1761. Alternate title: THE HISTORIE OF THE REFORMATION OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND CONTAINING FIVE BOOKS: TOGETHER WITH SOME TREATISES CONDUCING TO THE HISTORY. EDITED, WITH A LIFE OF KNOX AND A PREFACE, BY DAVID BUCHANAN. INCLUDES: "THE APPELLATION OF JOHN KNOX, FROM THE . . . SENTENCE PRONOUNCED AGAINST HIM (pp. 1-33); "THE ADMONITION OF JOHN KNOX TO HIS BELOVED BRETHREN THE COMMONALTY OF SCOTLAND" (pp. 34-42); "A FAITHFULL ADMONITION MADE BY JOHN KNOX TO THE TRUE PROFESSORS OF THE GOSPEL OF CHRIST WITHIN THE KINGDOM OF ENGLAND, 1554" (pp. 43-79); "THE COPIE OF A LETTER DELIVERED TO QUEEN MARY, REGENT OF SCOTLAND" (pp. 80-97); AND "A SERMON PREACHED BY JOHN KNOX [AUGUST 19, 1565]," ISBN: 0851513581 9780851513584. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1.

    *Knox, John (1505-1572), The History of the Reformation of Religion Within the Realm of Scotland. . . . Together with the life of the author, and several curious pieces wrote by him, . . . By the Reverend Mr. John Knox, . . . To which is added, I. An admonition to England and Scotland . . . by Antoni Gilby. II. The first and second books of discipline; . . . Glasgow, 1761. Alternate title: THE HISTORIE OF THE REFORMATION OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND CONTAINING FIVE BOOKS: TOGETHER WITH SOME TREATISES CONDUCING TO THE HISTORY. EDITED, WITH A LIFE OF KNOX AND A PREFACE, BY DAVID BUCHANAN. INCLUDES: "THE APPELLATION OF JOHN KNOX, FROM THE . . . SENTENCE PRONOUNCED AGAINST HIM (pp. 1-33); "THE ADMONITION OF JOHN KNOX TO HIS BELOVED BRETHREN THE COMMONALTY OF SCOTLAND" (pp. 34-42); "A FAITHFULL ADMONITION MADE BY JOHN KNOX TO THE TRUE PROFESSORS OF THE GOSPEL OF CHRIST WITHIN THE KINGDOM OF ENGLAND, 1554" (pp. 43-79); "THE COPIE OF A LETTER DELIVERED TO QUEEN MARY, REGENT OF SCOTLAND" (pp. 80-97); AND "A SERMON PREACHED BY JOHN KNOX [AUGUST 19, 1565]," ISBN: 0851513581 9780851513584. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1.

    Knox, John (1505-1572), John Knox Debates Theonomy, Idolatry and Civil Resistance in the General Assembly of 1564. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. "Excerpted from Knox's THE HISTORY OF THE REFORMATION IN SCOTLAND, BOOK IV. From THE WORKS OF JOHN KNOX, VOLUME 2, pages 425-461, collected and edited by David Laing, 1854."
    " 'Perhaps the most thoroughgoing Calvinist,' writes W. Stanford Reid in (Christian History, Vol. 5, No. 4), 'who took the teacher's (Calvin -- RB), ideas to their logical conclusions, was the Scot, John Knox.' This debate is a perfect example of Knox's consistent Calvinism. In fact one wonders about a person's claim to consistent Calvinism at all if he denies the sovereignty of God in the civil arena (i.e. by denying the applicability of the first table of the law, especially the first two commandments, to the realm of the civil magistrate -- along with their penal sanctions as displayed in the Judicial laws of the Old Testament). Knox certainly did not shrink back from the binding nature of the law on these points. He even openly proclaimed, in this debate, that the death penalty should be carried out against idolaters -- and this was in the context of debating the Queen's Mass and her favoring the idolatry of Romanism. With boldness like this, it is easy to see why it was said over Knox's open grave, 'here lies a man who neither flattered nor feared any flesh.' This debate shows conclusively that Knox was a theonomist, in the sense that he believed in the continuing binding validity of OT penal sanctions. Moreover it demonstrates that it is the duty of all ministers to preach that the civil magistrate is bound to uphold the law of God and promote and protect only the one true Reformed religion. Furthermore Knox argued, from the OT, that to tolerate public idolatry is to disobey God and bring a curse upon the land. Though Knox's REFORMATION, REVOLUTION AND ROMANISM is his most important political writing, this debate displays the very same principles, as Knox applied them in 'the heat of battle,' against the queen's secretary, William Maitland of Lethington. This particular debate, as well as many other large sections, are edited out of THE HISTORY OF THE REFORMATION IN SCOTLAND as presently reprinted by The Banner of Truth Trust. However, this debate can also be found in the bound photocopy edition of volume 2 of KNOX'S WORKS or, with contemporary spelling and punctuation, in ON REBELLION (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994, see page XX in this catalogue). Reid in TRUMPETER OF GOD, pp. 234-235), notes that 'the implications of this debate were far reaching' and that 'as far as Knox personally was concerned, this debate also marked a turning point in his career.' Also of great importance was the situation that occurred 'when Maitland quoted Luther, Musculus, Calvin, and others to support the requirement of absolute obedience, Knox replied that they either spoke in a situation in which they had no power to resist the ruler or they were refuting arguments of Anabaptists who rejected all civil government. Unfaithful rulers could therefore be removed by the people if they had the power to do so. In this position he was supported by John Craig, his colleague in St. Giles, and by most, although not all, of the other ministers.' (Reid, Trumpeter of God, p. 234). As present civil governments continue to promote defiance of the laws of 'the Prince of the kings of the Earth,' our great King the Lord Jesus Christ, these arguments will become more and more useful, among those who seek to obey the Lord in all matters." -- Publisher
    Reformation, Revolution and Romanism (1558), John Knox
    "This has been called John Knox's most important political writing. It also deals with Romanism, God's law and much more. The full printed version of this text is free or for sale in Knox's 6 volume WORKS . . ."
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?currSection=sermonssource&sermonID=1030075041

    *Knox, John (1505-1572), National Repentance and Reformation. Alternate title: A BRIEF EXHORTATION TO ENGLAND FOR THE SPEEDY EMBRACING OF THE GOSPEL, 1559. Available in THE WORKS OF JOHN KNOX. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #25.
    "Formerly titled A BRIEF EXHORTATION TO ENGLAND FOR THE SPEEDY EMBRACING OF THE GOSPEL, 1559. Mitchell in THE SCOTTISH REFORMATION (p. 80), cites Dr. Merle D'Aubigné on Knox: 'The blood of warriors ran in the veins of the man who was to become one of the most intrepid champions of Christ's army . . . He was active, bold, thoroughly upright and perfectly honest, diligent in his duties, and full of heartiness for his comrades.' The warrior in Knox was certainly roused for battle in this production. Kevin Reed in SELECTED WRITINGS OF JOHN KNOX, p. 580, comments, 'Some historians have reflected negatively on the vehemence of Knox's remarks. Perhaps they should peruse the long list of the martyrs named in the appendix to this work. Critics may then find a clue for understanding the reformer's zeal. Knox is discussing serious matters of life and death -- spiritual issues which affect us deeply in this life, and for eternity.' Magistrates everywhere today need to hear this message again; God has not changed -- there are still corporate curses for disobedience at a national level and corporate blessings for those nations 'that kiss the Son' (cf. Psalm 2)." -- Publisher

    *Knox, John (1505-1572), David Laing (editor), The Works of John Knox, 6 volumes. A Christian classic. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1.
    Knox, John (1505-1572), The Works of John Knox (1846), vol. 1 of 6.
    http://archive.org/details/worksofjohnkn01knox
    "Vol. 1 -- Unedited History of the Reformation in Scotland (Book 1 and 2), and 18 appendices. | Vol. 2 -- Unedited History of the Reformation in Scotland (Book 3, 4 and 5), and six appendices, index, etc. | Vol. 3 -- EPISTLES, ADMONITIONS, etc. Includes That the Sacrifice of the Mass is Idolatry, also, writings on justification by faith, prayer, the Lord's Supper, obedience to magistrates, an exposition of the sixth Psalm, letters of warning, comfort and more. | Vol. 4 -- Includes The Appellation . . . to the Scottish Nobility, The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women, Answers Concerning Baptism, Form of Prayers/Sacraments in Geneva 1556, Letter to the Queen, Summary of the Proposed Second Blast of the Trumpet, and much more. | Vol. 5 -- Includes On Predestination, in Answer to the Cavillations by an Anabaptist (462 pp.), which Boettner, in his Reformed Doctrine of Predestination, calls Knox's chief theological work. Also, A Letter to John Foxe, Names of Martyrs, etc. | Vol. 6 -- Includes the Life of Knox, Letters relating to Reformation in Scotland, The Book of Common Order, a debate concerning the Mass, Fasting, The Order of Excommunication and Public Repentance, indices of names, places and the general index, etc.," -- Contents
    "Here is a chance to touch the flame that ignited whole nations for covenanted Reformation. John Knox is considered by many to have been the most biblically consistent and thoroughgoing of all the great Reformers of the sixteenth century. 'John Knox was in fact the embodiment of the Scottish Reformation as its preacher, theologian, liturgist, historian, and catalyst for reform.' (Hall and Hall [editors], Paradigms in Polity: Classic Readings in Reformed and Presbyterian Church Government [Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1994], p. 219). 'With this concern for purity of worship,' notes Kevin Reed regarding Knox, 'it is no wonder that the Scottish Reformation was the most thorough among any of the Protestant nations.' (from the introduction to John Knox, True and False Worship: A Vindication of the Doctrine that the Sacrifice of the Mass is Idolatry [Dallas, TX: Presbyterian Heritage Publications, 1550 reprinted 1994], p. 14). 'I know not,' states George Smeaton, 'if ever so much piety and genius were lodged in such a frail and weak body. Certain I am, that it will be difficult to find one in whom the gifts of the Holy Spirit shone so bright to the comfort of the church.' (cited in Thomas M'Crie, The Life of John Knox [1831], p. 272). THE WORKS OF JOHN KNOX listed here is the complete six volume set collected by David Laing, 1895. Concerning this 6 volume collection, Kyle, in THE MIND OF JOHN KNOX (p. 14), notes, 'The only real basis for a study of Knox's thought must be the writings of the reformer himself. From 1846 to 1864, David Laing collected and edited nearly all of Knox's extant writings. This remarkable collection, which scholars regard highly, is indispensable for any serious study of John Knox.' Contains much that is related to worship questions and the blessings that God pours out upon Churches that keep the second commandment -- as well as the curses that follow those who reject the regulative principle of worship." -- Publisher

  • Knox, John, Unedited History of the Reformation in Scotland Vol. 1 of 6.
    "Reid, in his TRUMPETER OF GOD, notes that Knox 'wrote history as a prophet' and that, wherever he could, he used original sources, many of which he reproduced. Furthermore, he proclaims that this 'is still a work that no one interested in this area can afford to neglect.' As W.C. Dickinson has commented, 'it is his monument, for in it he puts flesh and blood on the whole Reformation movement.' Innes (JOHN KNOX, p. 45), says of this work, 'the author who has enabled us to see his own confused and changing age under 'the broad clear light of that wonderful book' the History of the Reformation in Scotland, and who outside that book was the utterer of many an armed and winged word which pursues and smites us to this day, must have been born with nothing less than genius -- genius to observe, to narrate, and to judge. Even had he written as a mere recluse and critic, looking out upon his world from a monk's cell or from the corner of a housetop, the vividness, the tenderness, the sarcasm and the humour would still have been there.' Moreover, Burton writes, 'there certainly is in the English language no other parallel to it in clearness, vigour, and picturesqueness with which it renders the history of a stirring period.' (cited in Innes, John Knox, p. 45). This photocopy edition far surpasses the edited down version that is available in paperback. Over 600 pages of stirring Reformation history." -- Publisher
  • Knox, John, Unedited History of the Reformation in Scotland Vol. 2 of 6.
    "Knox portrayed the origins and development of a movement and not a mere chronology of events . . . Knox based his arguments on original sources and he often cited the documents in full. When Knox's History is compared to the contemporary vernacular narratives of Bishop Leslie and Sir James Melville, the superiority of Knox's work becomes evident. For the most part, these writers were preoccupied with petty details and had no conception of the momentous issues that hung on the events they recorded . . . Knox used history to demonstrate his single-track philosophy. And his philosophy said: 'The hearts of men, their thoughts, and their actions are but in the hands of God.' Lee said Knox's History was a sermon without an audience, a preaching book, one long inflammatory speech in behalf of God's truth as the reformer saw it.' (Kyle, The Mind of John Knox, p. 13). Our editions of volumes one and two of Knox's Works contain the only full, unedited version of Knox's massive History of the Reformation in Scotland available today." -- Publisher
  • Knox, John, Epistles, Admonitions, etc., Vol. 3 of 6
    "Includes 'That the Sacrifice of the Mass is Idolatry.' Also, writings on justification by faith, prayer, the Lord's supper, obedience to magistrates, an exposition of the sixth Psalm, letters of warning, comfort and more." -- Publisher
  • Knox, John, The Works of John Knox, Vol. 4 of 6
    "Includes 'The Appellation . . . to the Scottish Nobility,' 'The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women,' Answers Concerning Baptism, Form of Prayers/Sacraments in Geneva 1556, 'Letter to the Queen,' 'Summary of the Proposed Second Blast of the Trumpet,' and much more." -- Publisher
  • Knox, John, The Works of John Knox, Vol. 5 of 6
    "Includes 'On Predestination, in Answer to the Cavillations by an Anabaptist' (462 pp.), which Boettner, in his REFORMED DOCTRINE OF PREDESTINATION, calls Knox's 'chief theological work.' Also, A Letter to John Foxe, Names of Martyrs, etc. . . .
    "Includes the Life of Knox, Letters relating to Reformation in Scotland, The Book of Common Order, a debate concerning the Mass, Fasting, 'The Order of Excommunication and Public Repentance,' indices of names, places and the general index, etc. 755 pages." -- Publisher
  • Knox, John, The Works of John Knox, Vol. 6 of 6
    "Includes 'The Life of Knox,' 'John Knox Debates God's Law, Idolatry and Civil Resistance in the General Assembly of 1564,' 'The Scottish Confession of Faith (1560),' 'John Knox's Only Written Sermon - A Sermon on Isaiah 23:13-21, Preached in St. Giles's Church, Edinburgh, 19th August 1565,' 'A Letter of Wholesome Counsel Addressed to His Brethren in Scotland Or "What yo do When There is no Faithful Church to Attend in Your Local Area" originally published in 1556,' 'Select Practical Writings of John Knox,' 'Against Romish Rites and Political and Ecclesiastical Tyranny, A Faithful Admonition to the Professors of God's Truth in England (1554),' 'An Admonition to Flee Idolatry, Romanism and all False Worship (1554),' 'An Answer to a Jesuit: The Marks of a True Church and Ministry: An Answer to a Letter Written by James Tyrie, A Scottish Jesuit, 1572,' 'Against an Anabaptist: In Defense of Predestination,' 'Against Apostasy and Indifference (An Epistle to the Inhabitants of New Castle and Berwick, 1558),' 'On Justification by Faith Alone,' 'National Repentance and Reformation (A Brief Exhortation to England for the Speedy Embracing of the Gospel, 1559),' 'Reformation, Revolution and Romanism: An Appeal to the Scottish Nobility (1558),' 'The Pulpit of the Reformation: "The Last Judgment," by John Welch,' "The Parable of the Householders," and "The Parable of the Tares," by Hugh Latimer.' 'John Knox to the King,' 'The Execution of Servetus for Blasphemy, Heresy, Obstinate Anabaptism,' 'Defended (excerpted from his Treatise on Predestination),' 'A Debate Between John Knox and Secretary Lethington on the Duty of Christian Subjects to Execute Judgement Upon Criminal Magistrates,' 'The Execution of Servetus for Blasphemy, Heresy, Obstinate Anabaptism, Defended (excerpted from John Knox's Treatise on Predestination),' 'It Is I Be Not Afraid,' 'The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women (1558),' and 'Sermon on Isaiah 26.'(sic, all of volume 6)
  • *Owen, John (1616-1683), God's Presence With a People the Spring of Their Prosperity; With Their Special Interest in Abiding in Him. Alternate title: "GOD'S PRESENCE WITH A PEOPLE, THE SPRING OF THEIR PROSPERITY; WITH THEIR SPECIALL INTEREST IN ABIDING WITH HIM. A SERMON, PREACHED TO THE PARLIAMENT OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, AND IRELAND, AT WESTMINSTER, OCTOB. 30. 1656. A DAY OF SOLEMN HUMILIATION. BY JOHN OWEN, D.D. A SERVANT OF JESUS CHRIST, IN THE WORK OF THE GOSPEL. PRINTED BY ORDER OF PARLIAMENT, 1656. A Christian classic. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #25. Available in various editions of THE COMPLETE WORKS OF JOHN OWEN. Available in THE COMPLETE WORKS OF JOHN OWEN, VOL. 8, SERMONS TO THE NATION, sermon 11.
    http://johnowenquotes.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/johnowenvol-8.pdf
    Owen preaches at length, 21 pages, on God's presence with a people, both individually and corporately, in a sermon on the text And he went out to meet Asa, and said unto him, Hear ye me, Asa, and all Judah and Benjamin; The Lord is with you, while ye be with him; and if ye seek him, he will be found of you; but if ye forsake him, he will forsake you. (2 Chronicles 15:2), delivered to Parliament October 30, 1656.
    "The great concernment of any people or nation is, to know that all their prosperity is from the presence of God amongst them, and to attend to that which will give continuance thereunto. . . .
    "There is a presence of God in respect of providential dispensations. . . . -- attended with peculiar love, favor, good-will, special care towards them with whom he is so present. So Abimelech observed that he was with Abraham, Genesis 21:22, God is with thee in all that thou doest, -- with thee to guide thee, bless thee, preserve thee, as we shall see afterward. So he promised to be with Joshua, I will be with thee, Joshua 1:5; and so he was with Gideon, The Lord is with thee, Judges 6:12, -- to bless him in his great undertaking; and so with Jeremiah, I am with thee, Jeremiah 15:20. This is fully expressed, Isaiah 43:1,2, "I have redeemed thee, I have called thee by thy name; thou art mine. When thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee; and through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee. And this is the presence of God here intimated, -- his presence with the people as to special providential dispensations, as is manifest from the whole discourse of the prophet; and wherein this consists, shall be afterward at large declared. . . .
    "There is an abiding with God in national administrations; -- this is a fruit of the other, in those who are called to them. And that this is principally here intended is evident from that use that Asa made of this information and exhortation of the prophet. He did not only look to his personal walking thereupon, but also immediately set upon the work of ordering the whole affairs of the kingdom so as God might be glorified thereby. How this may be effected, shall at large afterward be declared. What hath already been spoken may suffice for a foundation of that proposition which I shall this day insist upon; and it is this, --
    "The presence of God with a people, in special providential dispensations for their good, depends on their obediential presence with him in national administrations to his glory: The Lord is with you, while ye be with him. . . .
    "What is the rule and measure of God's continuance with his people in the covenant of grace? Plainly this, -- that he will never forsake them; and, on that account, will take care that they shall never forsake him, but abide with him forever. It is not whilst they do so and so, he will abide with them; and when they cease so to do, he will forsake them, as to his federal and covenant presence; -- there is not such a sandy foundation left us of our abiding with God in Christ. See the tenor of the covenant, Jeremiah 31:33, 32:38-40. The sum is, that God will be with them, and take care that they always abide with him; and therefore hath he provided for all interveniences imaginable, that nothing shall violate this union. God lays his unchangeableness as the foundation of the covenant, Malachi 3:6, and he therein makes us unchangeable; -- not absolutely so, for we change every moment; but with respect to the terms and bounds of the covenant, he hath undertaken that we shall never leave him. The law of God's presence in respect of providential dispensations, and all special privileges attending it, is quite of another importance: it is purely conditional, as you may see in my text. The tenor of it is expressed to the height, 1 Samuel 2:30, I said indeed that thy house, and the house of thy father, should walk before me forever: but now the Lord saith, Be it far from me; for them that honor me I will honor, and they that despise me shall be lightly esteemed. Here is no alteration of counsel or purpose in God; but merely an explanation of the rule, law, and tenor of providential dispensations; -- no interpretation of the covenant of grace (Eli held not the priesthood by that covenant); but an explication of the tenor of a privilege given in special providence, Psalm 89:32,33. Hence is that variety of God's dealings with men mentioned in the Scripture; which yet are always righteous, according to one or other of these rules and laws. . . .
    "I suppose I need not go for proof beyond the observation of the constant tenor of God's proceedings with his people of old. When did he not deal thus with them? What instance can be given of transgressing this rule? Is the whole story of the nation of the Jews any thing but the illustration of this proposition? Some ruled well, and sought the Lord; and the Lord was with them, and prospered them in all their ways; -- some fell from him, and walked according to their own imaginations; and the Lord cut them short on that account; -- yea, sometimes the same man, as Solomon, Asa, Uzziah, experienced both these states and conditions. Hath not the state of all nations, since they came into the power of men professing the knowledge of him, been the same? Look on the Roman empire; did it not flourish under the hand of men who ruled with God, and were faithful with the saints? Is not the present distraction of it, under the fury and cruelty of Turk and Pope, the issue of the violence, unrighteousness, idolatry, luxury, and persecution of ill governors? Doth not the demonstration of all God's people in the world -- the consideration whereof, in particular, might be insisted on as the ground and reason of the truth insisted on -- require that it should be thus Leviticus 26:1, and almost the whole book of Deuteronomy, are sermons on this text; and every verse, almost, in them would afford a new confirmation of the truth in hand. . . .
    "The second use of this pillar was, to give them protection and defense in their ways; so Exodus 14:19,20,24. This protected them from the Egyptians; -- and from thence God troubled their enemies out of the pillar; that is, from his especial presence. This use of it is insisted on, Isaiah 4:5,6. The cloud, that was as smoke by day, and as fire by night, was also a shadow, a place of refuge, and a covert; in one word, a protection or a defense. And this is a second thing which is in God's special presence, -- he will protect or defend them with whom he is so present. He is their dwellingplace, Psalm 90:1, then, when in this world they have none; their refuge in the time of trouble: so Isaiah 25:4; 26:1; 31:4. Promises and instances to make this good abound; -- they are known to all; the time would fail me to insist upon them. I might go over all the causes, means, and ways of the fears, dangers, ruin of such a people, and show you how a defense is provided against them all. Are their fears from themselves, because of their folly, weakness, and division? or from pretended friends, because of their envy and desertion? or from open enemies, because of their power, cruelty, malice, and revenge? A defense is provided on every account. Heat, rain, tempests, storms, adversity, prosperity, -- all are provided against, where God is present, Isaiah 32:1,2.
    "And if any people in the world have experience of this truth, we have it this day. Had not the Lord been with us, who had not destroyed us? Enemies, friends, abroad, at home, our own follies, -- all, any of them, had done the work, had not the Lord himself been with us. . . .
    "That we may abide with God, this is indispensably required, -- that we may have peace with him in Jesus Christ. If we are never with him, we cannot abide with him; no man can abide where he never cornea The acceptance of our persons lies at the bottom of the acceptance of our duties. As the special presence of God with any, is in and by Christ, and no otherwise, so is our abiding with God in and through him. God with us is the name of Christ: our being with God is in him who is our peace. Two cannot walk together, unless they be agreed, Amos 3:3.
    "Now, because this is not to be expected from all the individuals of a nation, yet this thing is to be endeavored, -- that the rulers of it be such as have this interest. I do not divest of a share in government, those who have no share in Christ, if lawfully called thereunto; but I say, when God gives governors whom he intends to make a blessing unto a people, they shall be such as are blessed of him in Christ. And if ever the government of this nation, in this present constitution, -- suppose it the most exactly framed and balanced, in the several parts of it, for the furtherance of public good, -- be devolved into the hands of men not interested in God by Christ, though the constitution may be absolutely good, yet the government will not be blessed, and the nation will be ruined; for God and his glory will depart, Micah 5:5,6. It is Christ that is our peace, even in outward troubles. . . .
    "This, then, I say, is pre-required, as a qualification of any person to the performance of this duty of abiding with God. It is the psalmist's advice, Psalm 2:11,12. Let this principle be always owned amongst you; by it honor Christ in the world. Give him the pre-eminence; it is the Father's will he should have it in all things. Expect not the presence of God, but upon this account. Bear testimony herein against the world of profane men, who despise these things. Seeing, then, it cannot be expected to have this qualification diffused universally, as yet, through the body of the people, let the rulers take care that they be not the cause of God's departure from us. . . ." -- John Owen
    Owen, John (1616-1683), God's Presence With a People the Spring of Their Prosperity
    http://www.reformedsermonarchives.com/owen11.htm

    *Pendlebury, William, National Repentance and Reformation the way to Obtain National Blessings. A sermon preach'd at Rotherham in Yorkshire, on the eleventh of April, 1744, . . . by William Pendlebury, M.A.

    *Presbyterian Heritage Publications, Library of Presbyterian Heritage Publications and Protestant Heritage Press CD-ROM Library and Library of Presbyterian Heritage Publications and Protestant Heritage Press CD-ROM Library (Dallas, TX [Presbyterian Heritage Publications, P.O. Box 180922, Dallas, 75218]: Presbyterian Heritage Publications, 1999).

    *Price, Greg L., The Extent of God's Law, Antichrist, Beastly Civil Governments, the Family, Christian Education, Contentment and the Eight Commandment, MP3. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    "An amazing unfolding of the eighth commandment, as well as the rest of the decalogue, which includes numerous specific applications to various areas of thought and life (most relevant to the contemporary Christian). Price explains how to avoid the extremes of legalism and antinomianism, while expounding the classic Reformed view of the law as it applies to the individual, family, church and state." -- Publisher

    *Renwick, James (1662-1688), The Right of Dissent From an Immoral Civil Government. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #18, #26.
    "Maintains the hard-core covenanter position, the great principle of dissent and separation from immoral civil governments. Argues that mere existence does not qualify a civil government as the ordinance of God. (Romans 13:2). Answers common objections to this position, including how Joseph, Nehemiah and Daniel could hold office under immoral civil governments. Renwick was a hunted Covenanter minister, who was martyred (at 26 years of age), for his uncompromising defense of the work of covenanted reformation. Willson's book, CIVIL GOVERNMENT and Samuel B. Wylie's softcover book TWO SONS OF OIL: OR, THE FAITHFUL WITNESS FOR MAGISTRACY AND MINISTRY UPON A SCRIPTURAL BASIS, both give much lengthier defenses of this position." -- Publisher

    *Rushdoony, Rousas J. (1916-2001), Institutes of Biblical Law, 3 volumes, ISBN: 1879998130. Available through Exodus Books.
    Volume 1, INSTITUTES OF BIBLICAL LAW, 890 pages, ISBN: 0875524109.
    "A monumental volume . . . Deeply explores the meaning and application of the Ten Commandments for today in civil government, social ethics, and personal conduct." -- GCB
    "Many consider this to be the author's most important work. With indices. -- Publisher
    Volume 2, LAW AND SOCIETY, 752 pages, ISBN: 1879998238.
    "The relationship of Biblical Law to communion and community, the sociology of the Sabbath, the family and inheritance, and much more are covered in the second volume. Contains an appendix by Herbert Titus. With indices." -- Publisher
    Volume 3, THE INTENT OF THE LAW, 252 pages, ISBN: 1879998130.
    " 'God's law is much more than a legal code; it is a covenantal law. It establishes a personal relationship between God and man.' The first section summarizes the case laws. The author tenderly illustrates how the law is for our good, and makes clear the difference between the sacrificial laws and those that apply today. The second section vividly shows the practical implications of the law. The examples catch the reader's attention; the author clearly has had much experience discussing God's law. The third section shows that would-be challengers to God's law produce only poison and death. Only God's law can claim to express God's 'covenant grace in helping us'. With indices." -- Publisher
    Theft: Commentary and Cases of Conscience. A Listing Excerpted From THE INSTITUTES OF BIBLICAL LAW by Rousas John Rushdoony, 1973 edition
    http://www.lettermen2.com/theft.html

    *Wylie, James A. (1808-1890), History of The Scottish Nation, in 3 volumes. Available (PROTESTANTISM IN SCOTLAND), on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available (PROTESTANTISM IN SCOTLAND), on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1.
    History of The Scottish Nation
    http://www.reformation.org/history1.html

    Wylie, James A. (1808-1890), Protestantism in Scotland (1878), Book 24 (illustrated), from Wylie's THE HISTORY OF PROTESTANTISM. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1.
    "For the period covered by this book, Scotland went from a nation of uncivilized barbarians to national covenants with Christ, and then through many ups and downs as various factions tried to destroy true Christianity. From darkness to Hamilton, Wishart, Knox, and Melville, through to the Covenanters, the Westminster Assembly and the tragic deception used by Charles II, Wylie's racy style makes it hard to put this book down. Few other nations and periods of history provide such edifying reading. Highlights include Knox's call to the ministry, his interview with Queen Mary, his trial for treason, Melville's work, the National and Solemn League and Covenant, the civil war, the Westminster Assembly, and more." -- Publisher

    Wylie, James A. (1808-1890), The Scottish Reformation. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #17.

    *Wylie, James A. (1808-1890), Story of the Covenant and the Service of the Covenanters to the Reformation in Christendom and the Liberties of Great Britain, 1880. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    "A fine historical introduction to the battle for Godly government and liberty against the forces of anti-Christian bondage (to national sin and Satanic deception). The Covenanters are responsible, more than any other group historically, for maintaining 'the crown rights of King Jesus' -- even at peril of severe torture and the loss of their earthly lives. Their covenanting principles are still the purest and most faithful form of Christianity known to man, and the revival of these eminently Biblical views are a sure hope for the future! For a more extensive 'Camerionian' treatment of this subject: Howie's SCOTS WORTHIES." -- Publisher

    *Wylie, Samuel B. (1773-1852), The Two Sons of Oil; or, The Faithful Witness for Magistracy and Ministry Upon a Scriptural Basis (1850 edition, reprinted 1995). Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #13, #26.
    "A Covenanter classic opening Revelation 11:3-4 and Zechariah 4:14. It has been hailed as the 'best presentation of the position of the Covenanter Church that has been written.' Noting that the 'time has been, when the whole body of Presbyterians, in Scotland, England, and Ireland, unanimously subscribed' to these principles, 'for civil and ecclesiastical reformation' and that thousands bled and died for the glorious covenanted cause of civil and ecclesiastical reformation; Wylie sets out to explain and defend 'that cause. Not because it is an ancient cause; not because many have sealed it with their blood; but, because,' as he says, 'I thought it the doctrine of the Bible, and the cause of Christ.' This book explains how to tell if a government (especially a civil government), is faithful to Christ and thus to be obeyed for conscience's sake. It also gives direction regarding when and how to resist (and disassociate), yourself from governments which get their power from 'the beast.' Moreover, this book gives clear testimony as to what the Bible requires of civil magistrates, noting 'that civil rulers should exercise their power in protecting and defending the religion of Jesus.' It also gives plain reasons why dissent from the government of the United States (and other covenant breaking nations), is the legitimate Scriptural pattern." -- Publisher
    The Two Sons of Oil; or, the Faithful Witness for Magistracy and Ministry Upon a Scriptural Basis, Samuel B. Wylie
    http://www.swrb.com/newslett/actualNLs/two-sons-of-oil.htm
    The two Sons of oil, or, The faithful Witness for Magistracy and Ministry Upon a Scriptural Basis (1850),
    Samuel Brown Wylie and James McLeod Willson
    http://archive.org/details/twosonsofoilorfa00wylirich

    See also: The sovereignty of god, The doctrine of man (human nature, total depravity), Soteriology, atonement, Covetousness, greed, selfishness, The inspiration and infallibility of scripture (the doctrine of revelation, the doctrine of plenary inspiration, the doctrine of divine inspiration, the doctrine of verbal inspiration, The ten commandments, the moral law, Trusting god, Toleration, liberty of conscience, pluralism, and neutrality, Theft, Sexual relationship, Spiritual adultery (spiritual whoredom/harlotry), Idolatry, syncretism, Sexual wholeness, Rebellion and lawlessness: wickedness, demonic possession, substance abuse, abnormal behavior, insanity, mental illness, mental retardation, Repentance, the key to salvation and change, Justice, the theology of judgment, god's final judgment, the great white throne judgment, the day of the lord, The sovereign grace of god: his everlasting mercy and lovingkindness, The application of scripture to the corporate bodies of church and state, Church and state, Leniency, Selection of covenant heads for positions of leadership, Politics and government, Corporate faithfulness and sanctification, Covenant theology and the ordinance of covenanting, The Scottish Reformation, Covenanting in America, Reformation eschatology, and so forth, and so on.

    Related WebLinks

    Religious Test Clauses in Colonial and State Constitutions and Other Documents and Statements Supporting the Original Consensus That There Should Be a Religious Test For Positions of Authority and Trust (broken link)
    http://members.aol.com/vtpa/agc001.html

    The Biblical Test of Character for Candidates for Public Office, all Civil Servants, Magistrates, Judges, and all Lawyers (broken link)
    http://members.aol.com/vtpa/pvtpa002.html

    Noah Webster on Republican Principles
    http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/7947/NoahWeb.html

    Basic Principles of Christian Civil Government, extracts from CHRISTIAN CIVIL GOVERNMENT by David McAllister

    Christians and Civil Government
    http://www.covenanter.org/CivilGovt/civilgovernment.htm

    Great Moments in Presbyterian History #8: What the Bible Has to Say About the Nature of Government
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Great Movements in Presbyterian History
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?ID=12160372131

    National Reform Association
    http://www.natreformassn.org/index.html

    Hitech Polygraphy as a Means of Broadscale Reform (Preliminary DRAFT), (broken link)
    http://members.aol.com/vtpa/pvtpa010.html



    The Ideology of the American Revolution

    Ideas have consequences. The following works dispel denominational Christianity's "Founder's chick" and "Mount Rushmore Christianity," so prevalent during the last 30 years. The Articles of Confederation provided for Christian government of the Colonies. The intellectually honest acknowledge that the U.S. Constitution did not provide Christian government for the States. . .

    If the people be governors, who shall be governed? -- John Cotton (1584-1652)

    Bailyn, Bernard, To Begin the World Anew: The Genius and Ambiguities of the American Founders, ISBN: 0375413774 9780375413773./

    Bailyn, Bernard, The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution, ISBN: 0674443020 9780674443020.
    "This is the critically acclaimed book by Bernard Bailyn that stands in contradistinction to Charles Baird's ECONOMIC INTERPRETATION. With unusual courage, Bailyn attempts to understand the founders as they understood themselves. In the preface, Bailyn recalls the 'intense excitement' and 'sense of discovery' he felt at Harvard University when he studied the ideological themes of revolutionary America. This excitement and sense of discovery is passed along to the reader.
    "This is a very scholarly work. The extensive footnotes are fabulous.
    "I especially enjoyed the chapter called 'Power and Liberty.' Bailyn develops the pre-revolutionary idea that the ultimate explanation of every political controversy is the disposition of power. Power is defined as 'dominion' or the human control of human life. With dozens of fascinating examples, Bailyn illustrates why power is essential to the maintenance of liberty, but dangerous and in need of restraint, lest it extend itself beyond legitimate boundaries.
    "I found it refreshing to read a book about America's founding that didn't condescend or politicize. It wasn't until I read this book that I fully appreciated how impoverished my public school education was on the topic. You wont be disappointed." -- Tom Bouthillet
    "The leaders of the American Revolution, writes the distinguished historian Bernard Bailyn, were radicals. But their concern was not to correct inequalities of class or income, not to remake the social order, but to 'purify a corrupt constitution and fight off the apparent growth of prerogative power.' They wished, in other words, to mend a broken system and improve upon it. In doing so they drew on many traditions of political and social thought, ranging from English conservative philosophers to exponents of the continental Enlightenment, from backward-looking interpretations of ancient Roman civilization to forward-looking views of a new American people. Bailyn carefully examines these sources of sometimes conflicting ideas and considers how the framers of the Constitution resolved them in their inventive doctrine of federalism." -- Amazon.com
    When it comes to American history, arguably the most important . . . event is the American Revolution. The dates run from about 1764, with the passage of the Sugar Act, to 1783, when the Peace of Paris was decided, or even as late as 1787, when Delaware became the first state in the Union. . . . This is the most thorough and most balanced fusion of primary documents and secondary analysis. . . . It receives my highest recommendation. -- Reader's Comment
    "Interestingly, the country's revolutionary thinking originated from the very country we were fighting against -- ENGLAND! In arguing the continuous debates over the tension between liberty and power, the pamphlet writers of the day turned to 17th and 18th century thinkers to make their case. The best parts of the book are the last two chapters. In the second to last . . . Bailyn discusses concepts like democracy, representation, and slavery. In the final chapter, 'Fulfillment,' apparently written much later, Bailyn focuses on the Constitutional Convention and the arguments between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists, particularly, what they felt about virtue residing among the country's people, and how best to form a government. One final note: Bailyn's sources from other scholarly journals will lead the read to many interesting gems -- especially a few of the articles from William and Mary Quarterly, a must-have journal for anyone interested in the time-period." -- Jack Lechelt
    "His work was based on an extensive survey and analysis of the large number of political pamphlets published in the years leading up to the revolution. His work benefited as well greatly from a number of other significant works of scholarship, such as Caroline Robbins' book on the Commonwealth tradition in 18th century thought. More than anything else, Bailyn succeeded in determining what key terms like 'power', 'liberty', and 'republicanism' meant to the Revolutionary generations. In doing so, he was able to strip away anachronistic accretions from these terms and ideas and to recover the actual thinking of the Revolutionaries and their opponents.
    "Bailyn's achievement is manifold. He was able to show that dominant intellectual influence on the Revolutionaries was a compound of classical models, Common Law legal tradition, Enlightenment ideology, Covenant theology and the ordinance of covenanting, and a strong tradition of British intellectual and political dissent that had its roots in the Commonwealth period of the 17th century. The latter tradition was especially important and acted as the binding matrix for other traditions and interpretative lens through which other received ideas were focused. Bailyn shows how these ideas were articulated in the specifically American context and how they led inevitably to confrontation with the expanding imperial authority of Britain. This conflict led to new expansions of the basic ideology, some of which would represent completely novel ideas. The traditional ideas of representation and consent, constitutional basis of society, and sovereignty were overthrown and replaced to a very large extent by the concepts we still uphold.
    "The development of these new ideas and the necessity to give them practical scope would lead to what Bailyn artfully termed 'The Contagion of Liberty,' the expansion of concepts of rights and freedom well beyond the original categories of thought received by the Revolutionary generations. These would include attacks on slavery, the questioning of establishment of religion, speculation about democracy as a legitimate and potentially stable form of government, and an increasing emphasis on social equality generated from the realization of political equality. As Bailyn remarks, the thinking and writing on these topics provides the bridge between the world of the 18th century intellectuals and what would become the world of Madison and de Toqueville.
    "Bailyn's analysis and scholarship are superb. The organization and quality of writing in this book are outstanding. Just as important, Bailyn is very good at supporting his analysis with well chosen excerpts from contemporary political pamphlets. His judicious choice of quotations not only serves to support his conclusions, but gives a fine idea of the words and thoughts of the Revolutionaries and their opponents.
    "This is a fundamental book for understanding the American past." -- Roger Albin
    "Bailyn discusses in detail how the colonists took English political thought and applied it to the nature of representative government, constitutional thought, and the nature of divided sovereignty. He then explains how the manner in which the colonists transformed thinking about the nature of government had ramifications in the colonists' view of slavery, the disestablishment of religion, a classless society, and the nature of democracy. The intellectual transformation required for an independent United States thus occurred well before the Declaration of Independence and the Federalist Papers.
    "Bailyn's book is a work of detailed scholarship and not easy to read. It is a major achievement of intellectual history and will more than repay the effort. John Adams is among the major heroes of this book. Readers that want to follow-up McCollough's popular biography and learn about the ideas of the time might well explore this book. Bailyn's study affirms the power of thought and of the American experiment. In our troubled times, it may help take us back to the origins of our country to learn where we have been so that we may intelligently decide where we are going." -- Robin Friedman
    "Of course, the other large conclusion one takes from the book is just how much the thoughts behind the revolution were affected by Enlightenment thought: Montesqui, Locke, the ancient Romans, and how little Christianity influenced it in any substantive way." -- Patrick Luck
    "There is an unfortunate, somewhat politically correct, movement today attempting to 'prove' that the Founding Fathers, the Declaration of Independence, and the Constitution, were motivated by, and the documents based on, the Bible and Christianity. This forlorn hope relies on tenuous ties to Biblical scripture to illustrate sections of both documents, and the alleged religious piety of the Founders. . . .
    "This excellent volume, written before all the present quasi religious whoop-de-do, dispels all of these misbegotten theories and presents in clear, concise, and documented prose what motivated the Founders to start a Revolution against the mother country and set out on 'the noble experiment. . . .'
    "What they wrought was not a state founded on religion or religious principles, but on English Common Law, which had as its antecedents Roman Law, Saxon Law, and the Danelaw, none of which were based either on the Bible or on Christianity in any of its forms. What Bailyn has given us is a clear and concise history of the Founders that needs to be read and studied by present and future citizens to understand our beginnings as a nation." -- Kevin F. Kiley
    "Bernard Bailyn did his undergraduate work at Williams College and his graduate work at Harvard, where he is currently Adams University Professor Emeritus and director of the International Seminar on the Atlantic World. His previous books include THE NEW ENGLAND MERCHANTS IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY; EDUCATION IN THE FORMING OF AMERICAN SOCIETY; PAMPHLETS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, 1750-1776; THE IDEOLOGICAL ORIGINS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, which received the Pulitzer and Bancroft Prizes in 1968; THE ORDEAL OF THOMAS HUTCHINSON, which won the 1975 National Book Award for History; VOYAGERS TO THE WEST, which won the Pulitzer Prize in 1987; and FACES OF REVOLUTION: PERSONALITIES AND THEMES IN THE STRUGGLE FOR AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE. -- Publisher

    Beard, Charles Austin, Forrest McDonald (introduction), An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States, ISBN: 0029024803.
    "In this classic and controversial interpretation of the economic conditions of the United States between 1783-1787, Beard proposes the thesis that the Framers were motivated by economic concerns. In his landmark work THE GROWTH OF AMERICAN LAW Hurst describes AN ECONOMIC INTERPRETATION . . . as 'one of ''the basic works'' on the Federal Convention of 1787.' Hurst, The Growth of American Law: 458. Beard [1874-1948], was a founder of The New School for Social Research." -- Publisher

    Davies, Samuel (1723-1761), Religion and Patriotism the Constituents of a Good Soldier. A sermon preached . . . in . . . Virginia, August 17, 1755. By Samuel Davies, . . .

    Ferling, John E., A Leap in the Dark: The Struggle to Create the American Republic, ISBN: 0195159241 9780195159240.
    "It was an age of fascinating leaders and difficult choices, of grand ideas eloquently expressed and of epic conflicts bitterly fought. Now comes a brilliant portrait of the American Revolution, one that is compelling in its prose, fascinating in its details, and provocative in its fresh interpretations. In A LEAP IN THE DARK, John Ferling offers a magisterial new history that surges from the first rumblings of colonial protest to the volcanic election of 1800. Ferling's swift-moving narrative teems with fascinating details. We see Benjamin Franklin trying to decide if his loyalty was to Great Britain or to America, and we meet George Washington when he was a shrewd planter-businessman who discovered personal economic advantages to American independence. We encounter those who supported the war against Great Britain in 1776, but opposed independence because it was a 'leap in the dark.' Following the war, we hear talk in the North of secession from the United States. The author offers a gripping account of the most dramatic events of our history, showing just how closely fought were the struggle for independence, the adoption of the Constitution, and the later battle between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans. Yet, without slowing the flow of events, he has also produced a landmark study of leadership and ideas. Here is all the erratic brilliance of Hamilton and Jefferson battling to shape the new nation, and here too is the passion and political shrewdness of revolutionaries, such as Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry, and their Loyalist counterparts, Joseph Galloway and Thomas Hutchinson. Here as well are activists who are not so well known today, men like Abraham Yates, who battled for democratic change, and Theodore Sedgwick, who fought to preserve the political and social system of the colonial past. Ferling shows that throughout this period the epic political battles often resembled today's politics and the politicians -- the founders -- played a political hardball attendant with enmities, selfish motivations, and bitterness. The political stakes, this book demonstrates, were extraordinary: first to secure independence, then to determine the meaning of the American Revolution. John Ferling has shown himself to be an insightful historian of our Revolution, and an unusually skillful writer. A Leap in the Dark is his masterpiece, work that provokes, enlightens, and entertains in full measure." -- Jack Rakove, author of Original Meanings

    Maier, Pauline, American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence, ISBN: 0679779086 9780679779087.
    "This is a well-written, well-researched, entertaining account of the creation of the United States' Declaration of Independence as well as an analysis of how the declaration has been enshrined as something of a sacred document (a place it did not always hold). Pauline Maier, a history professor at MIT, will no doubt surprise many readers with detective work demonstrating that Jefferson's Declaration of Independence was actually preceded by many local declarations, which have been generally overlooked by historians but which were published throughout the colonies and were well known in their day. American Scripture holds many surprises as it details Jefferson's drafting of the document, the editing process, and the varying regard with which the Declaration of Independence has been held in the past two centuries." -- Publisher

    McDonald, Forrest, Novus Ordo Seclorum: The Intellectual Origins of the Constitution, ISBN: 0700603115 9780700603114.
    "McDonald does a great job here unwinding the ideas and institutions developed by the founding generation to produce our system of dual sovereignty. He retains a reverence for what our founders accomplished, and constrains himself to an explanation of what happened to bring into operation our 'New Order' which now looks quite old.
    "McDonald is critical of the Charles Beard brand of economic reductionism, and has no patience for the relentless deconstruction of the constitutionalist era by modern historians who insist on showing us that they, rather than these founders, are actually superior moral beings with better insights, as well as more slavish devotion to the current strains of academic obsessions.
    "This should be on the list of the 10 best books to understand the American system of government." -- Reader's Comment
    "Forrest McDonald, widely considered one of the foremost historians of the Constitution and of the early national period, reconstructs the intellectual world of the Founding Fathers -- including their understanding of law, history political philosophy, and political economy, and their firsthand experience in public affairs -- and then analyzes their behavior in the Constitutional Convention of 1787 in light of that world. No one has attempted to do so on such a scale before. McDonald's principal conclusion is that, though the Framers brought a variety of ideological and philosophical positions to bear upon their task of building a 'new order of the ages,' they were guided primarily by their own experience, their wisdom, and their common sense." -- Publisher

    McDonald, Forrest, and Russell Kirk, We the People: The Economic Origins of the Constitution, ISBN: 1560005742 9781560005742.
    "Few vices are easier to arouse than envy. Politicians and ideologues have had great success exploiting the resentment that arises when pitting rich against the poor.
    "From the time of its publication in 1913 until the 1960s, Charles Beard's thesis dominated discussion of the founders' motives. In the mode of the Marxist interpretation of history as class struggle, Beard argued that economic self-interest, rather than concern for the general good, determined the writing and outcome of the Constitution.
    "Interestingly, Beard asserted his system of alignment without actually proving it, admitting that his work was fragmentary because it failed to fill in the blanks. The real legwork of research wasn't done until over fifty years later, when historian Forrest McDonald put Beard's thesis to the test. McDonald dug through numerous public records to write economic biographies of the delegates (the 55 who attended the Constitutional Convention and the 1,750 members at the state conventions), analyzing their occupations, income, and assets. By comparing these to how the delegates voted, he found that Beard's thesis was incompatible with the facts.
    "In We the People McDonald analyzed the geographical and political factions represented by delegates, their property holdings and occupations, their voting patterns, if any, and whether they benefited directly from the proposed Constitution. For the state conventions he divided chapters into states favorable, divided, and opposed to the Constitution. At the end he re-evaluated Beard's thesis and discussed whether any economic interpretation could be applied to our founding given the complexity and variety of occupations and opinions that existed.
    "The result was a remarkable, though at times necessarily tedious, bit of historical detective work. Very likely it came as a great relief to many Americans to learn that the founders had something other than their own economic gain at heart. Probably few were surprised that the founders were a much more diverse group than Beard had realized.
    "We may find that independence difficult to believe today, when the forces of selfishness, materialism, and special interest seem so dominant, not merely among political and business leaders but among the general populace. Today propagandists still want to align people into absolutes, much like trial lawyers who portray their clients as angels and their opponents as devils. Our shallow political debates revolve around false dichotomies such as the Party of Business and the Party of the Common Man. But I imagine this adversarial, intellectually dishonest approach will continue to be used as an effective tool as long as there is envy to be harvested in the heart of man. -- Reader's Comment

    North, Gary, Blasphemy and Civil Rights
    http://entrewave.com/freebooks/docs/html/gnbd/Chapter23.htm

    *North, Gary, Conspiracy in Philadelphia: The Origins of the U.S. Constitution, an e-book.
    "In addition to primary sources, North relies on the work of the most well respected members of the historical community -- Bailyn, Wood, Mcdonald, Gaustad, Boller, Koch, Adair, and Rakove to name a few.
    "The thesis of the book is that the key US Founders -- the ones who pushed through the ideas upon which America declared independence and then constructed the Constitution -- were secret theological unitarians, whose heterodox religious creed inspired them to found American government upon the notion of religious neutrality, and consequently break the tradition of covenanting with the Triune Christian God. His book focuses on Article VI Clause 3 of the US Constitution (no religious tests) as the device for achieving secular government.
    "From what I have researched, North is correct in his essential claim. Other scholars have noted something similar. For instance, in this post I noted Thomas Pangle and Cushing Stout, whose work North cites, concluding that there is a connection between the US Constitution's benign approach to religion and the key Founders' enlightened and benign personal religious creed. Indeed, one could argue, as does Dr. Gregg Frazer, that the Founders' unitarianism or theistic rationalism was the political theology of the American Founding.
    "Ideas have consequences and it was these heterodox unitarian ideas, not orthodox Christianity, that drove the US Founding's approach to religion and government. However, such heterodoxy or heresy wasn't a popular creed, but rather was disproportionately believed in by the elite Whigs. Whatever the religion of a majority of the US population (either nominal Protestant Christianity, which itself can tend towards Deism, or orthodox Protestant Christianity), orthodox Churches held a great deal of institutional power. With such power, they had to essentially consent to the elite Whig's new plan on government. And they did. But not all of them, for instance, the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America (Covenanters) to whom North dedicates his book. From the very beginning they smelled a rat in Philadelphia. "So the notion that there was a secret coup, a bait and switch as Michael Zuckert put it, to sell a Christian audience non-authentically Christian ideas is not new. James Renwick Willson was one of those covenanters who in 1832 made arguments very similar to North's. And he was burned in effigy for this sermon which called all of the Presidents from Washington to Jackson infidels and not more than unitarians. I think Willson got at the truth, but did so by shattering a sacred cow -- a social myth. The kernel of truth that David Barton et al. have is that many folks in the 19th Century did believe in the Christian America social myth as a cultural prejudice. And many of their bogus, unconfirmed quotations source back to 19th Century places that pushed this social myth.
    "Now the non-respectable has become the respectable and secular scholars more or less agree with the claims of James Renwick Willson and Gary North that America didn't have an authentically orthodox Christian Founding. . . ." -- Jonathan Rowe, June 8, 2008.
    Download a copy at:
    Conspiracy in Philadelphia: The Origins of the U.S. Constitution
    http://www.demischools.org/philadelphia.pdf
    Conspiracy in Philadelphia, an article by Gary North
    http://www.lewrockwell.com/north/north291.html

    *North, Gary, Political Polytheism: The Myth of Pluralism, ISBN: 093046432X 9780930464325.
    "Political pluralism is not simply a political philosophy; it is a theology. This theology teaches that there must never be a nation that identifies itself with any religion." -- Publisher
    "This book presents a new vision of politics and a new vision of America, a vision self-consciously tied to the Bible. . . . Dr. North, a trained historian, seeks to lead us from this downward spiral to full recovery." -- GCB
    Institute for Christian Economics Freebooks.com
    http://www.freebooks.com/

    North, Gary, The Sinai Strategy: Economics and the Ten Commandments, ISBN: 0930464079 9780930464073.
    "A detailed exploration of the Ten Commandments and their social, political and especially, economic implications for all of mankind. Nations in which the Bible is freely preached tend to adopt a free market economy. The capitalism vs. socialism controversy is really God vs. Satan." -- GCB
    Institute for Christian Economics Freebooks.com
    http://www.freebooks.com/

    North, Gary, Victim's Rights: The Biblical View of Civil Justice, ISBN: 0930464176 9780930464172. Alternate title: THE BIBLICAL VIEW OF VICTIM'S RIGHTS.
    "A study of what the Bible says our judicial systems should be like. North contends that Scripture clearly shows that (in ancient days), they were 'harsh on criminals' in order to be 'soft on victims' -- the reverse of the modern approach in our culture." -- GCB
    Institute for Christian Economics Freebooks.com
    http://www.garynorth.com/freebooks/sidefrm4.htm

    Peters, Madison Clinton, The Masons as Makers of America: The True Story of The American Revolution, 80 pages.
    It is said that George Washington became a Freemason at an early age, that his lieutenants during the American Revolution were Masons, and that Benjamin Franklin was able to solicit war support during a trip to France because of his Masonic connections among government officials there. It is claimed that a delegation of Masons, headed by President Washington, who was dressed in formal Masonic attire, including apron, laid the cornerstone for the US Capitol and dedicated it as a "Temple of the People" were there would be government by the people and for the people.
    Masonry attracted men who rejected the authority of the Church in favor of freedom of conscience and the rule of reason. Of course, both the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution excluded the authority of the Triune God in favor of government by men who ignore the highest ethical standard known to mankind.
    Conspiracy in Philadelphia: The Origins of the U.S. Constitution
    http://www.demischools.org/philadelphia.pdf
    Conspiracy in Philadelphia, an article by Gary North
    http://www.lewrockwell.com/north/north291.html

    Robbins, Caroline, Eighteenth-Century Commonwealthman: Studies in the Transmission, Development, and Circumstance of English Liberal Thought From the Restoration of Charles II Until the War With the . . . , ISBN: 0865974276 9780865974272.

    Robbins, John W. (1949-2008), Slavery Christianity: Paul's Letter to Philemon, an article (Unicoi, TN: The Trinity Foundation, November, 2005), ISBN: 1891777173 9781891777172.
    "Slavery. Racism. Rebellion. Civil disobedience. The problems are as pressing today as they were 1900 years ago when the Apostle Paul wrote a letter to a slave-owner, Philemon, about his runaway slave -- and the runaway slave carried Paul's letter back to his legal owner.
    "What did the letter say? Did Paul -- does Christianity -- approve of slavery? Does Christianity condone slavery? Or does the Gospel abolish slavery and establish freedom wherever it is believed? Jesus said, If you abide in my Word, you are my disciples indeed; and you shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.
    "Paul's letter to Philemon is a masterpiece of divinely inspired political philosophy. It provides the basis for the non-violent abolition of slavery wherever the Gospel of Jesus Christ is preached and believed.
    "Dr. John W. Robbins holds the Ph.D. in Political Philosophy from The Johns Hopkins University. His most recent book is FREEDOM AND CAPITALISM: ESSAYS ON CHRISTIAN POLITICS AND ECONOMICS." -- Publisher

    Sidney, Algernon (1622-1683), Discourses on Government: To Which is Added, an Account of the Author's Life, 3 volumes, ISBN: 1584772093 9781584772095.
    "This important work appeared fifteen years after Sidney's execution for treason in 1683. A reply to Filmer's PATRIARCHA, the DISCOURSES is one of the earliest modern statements of republican ideals. He proposes a doctrine of natural justice and governmental order from which all institutions vary at their peril. More important, Sidney asserts that a king's authority is granted by parliament, which has the additional power to depose him, indeed a controversial idea during the Restoration period. Thomas Jefferson, one of several individuals influenced by this text, described it as '. . . probably the best elementary book of the principles of government, as founded in natural right which has ever been published in any language; and it is much to be desired in such a government as ours that it should be put into the hands of our youth as soon as their minds are sufficiently matured for that branch of study.' (Sowerby). Sidney [1622-1683], was beheaded by Charles II in part for his involvement in the Rye House plot. One of the other charges against him was that he had committed treasonable libel in this work, which was still in manuscript at that time. Sowerby, Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, III: 12. Marke, A Catalogue of the Law Collection at New York University (1953) 953. Catalogue of the Library of the Harvard Law School (1909) II: 588. Sweet and Maxwell, A Legal Bibliography of the British Commonwealth of Nations I: 107. Wing, Short Title Catalogue of English Books 1641-1700 S3761." -- Publisher

    Sidney, Algernon (author), and Hans W. Blom (editor), Eco Haitsma-Mulier (editor), Ronald Janse (editor), Raymond Geuss (editor), Quentin Skinner (editor), Sidney: Court Maxims, ISBN: 0521467365 9780521467360.
    "This remarkable expression of republican thought has never before been published. Algernon Sidney was among the most unrelenting republican partisans of the seventeenth century, and was executed for his opposition to Charles II. Written during Sidney's continental exile, the vivid COURT MAXIMS was only recently rediscovered. The work presents a lively discussion about the principles of government and the practice of politics, articulating a vital tradition of republicanism in an absolutist age." -- Publisher
    "Until quite recently, this wonderful book was lost to the world. Sidney was one of the most eloquent advocates for republicanism and liberty in his or any period of history. This work offers a clear and direct exposition of his political philosophy. Although it is no substitute for his great DISCOURSES CONCERNING GOVERNMENT it is certainly a worthy compliment." -- Will Murphy

    Trenchard, John, Thomas Gordon, Ronald Hamowy (editor), Cato's Letters or Essays on Liberty, Civil and Religious, and Other Important Subjects: Four Volumes in Two, ISBN: 0865971307 9780865971301 0865971323 9780865971325.
    "Cato's Letters are a must have for any lover of liberty. They are filled with enough passion, wisdom, and wit to make them shining gems on any bookshelf. The philosophy expounded in these letters is that of radical liberty according to the laws of nature. It is made clear throughout that governments are the servants of people, not there masters. The only just role of government is to protect the life, liberty, and property of the governed, any other role being usurped and explicitly tyrannical. It was this radical philosophy that made CATO'S LETTERS such a huge influence in America throughout the 18th century. . . . Above all, these letters are classics of reason and resistance. In my opinion, they are the best exposition of libertarian principles ever written." -- Will Murphy

    *Weaver, Richard M., Ideas Have Consequences, ISBN: 0226876802 9780226876801.
    "Weaver was a professor of rhetoric at the University of Chicago. IDEAS HAVE CONSEQUENCES, like Weaver's other books, is small but deep. It brilliantly diagnoses what ails modern man, tracing the illness to its root, the flight from faith.
    "According to Weaver's friend Russell Kirk, the publisher imposed the title, which Weaver hated, on this book.
    "My one problem with the book is that its title is used as an incantation by some conservative intellectuals who insist that being right, in the sense of being correct, is sufficient to win. To support their position, they utter the words: "Ideas have consequences," thinking that by so doing they have enlisted Richard Weaver on their side and thereby absolved themselves of any obligation to take effective actions.
    "Once you have read the book, you will know that Weaver didn't believe that ideas in and of themselves have consequences. He believed that skillful actions, when based on good ideas, have good consequences." -- Reader's Comment

    Yates, Robert, John Lansing, and Luther Martin Secret Proceedings and Debates of the Constitutional Convention, 1787. Alternate title: SECRET PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE CONVENTION ASSEMBLED AT PHILADELPHIA, IN THE YEAR 1787, FOR THE PURPOSE OF FORMING THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, ISBN: 1410203638 9781410203632.
    "One of the most important collections of documents pertaining to the formation of the Constitution of the United States. Notes on the convention taken by Robert Yates, Chief Justice of New York, and copied by John Lansing, Jun. Esquire, late chancellor of that state, members of that convention. Including 'The Genuine Information,' laid before the Legislature of Maryland, by Luther Martin, Esquire, then attorney-general of that state, and member of the same convention. James Madison thought that Yates and Martin 'appear to have reported in angry terms what they observed with jaundiced eyes.' It must be added that in many particulars Yates' notes were fuller than Madison's own. Luther Martin's GENUINE INFORMATION is a general summary of the course of the Debates, with a running criticism on the provisions of the Constitution. Also contains an appendix with documents by Edmund Randolf, and others." -- Publisher
    "The delegates, of the free states (in the national convention), in their extreme anxiety to conciliate the ascendency of the Southern slaveholders, did listen to a compromise between right and wrong -- between FREEDOM and SLAVERY, of the ultimate fruits of which they had no conception, but which already, even now, is urging the Union to its inevitable ruin and depopulation, by a civil, servile, foreign, and Indian war, all combined in one; a war, the essential issue of which will be between freedom and slavery, and in which the unhallowed standard of slavery will be the desecrated banner of the North American Union -- that banner first unfurled to the breeze inscribed with the self-evident truths of the Declaration of Independence." -- John Quincy Adams, commenting on proceeding in the Constitutional Convention and prophetic of the War Between the States
    Secret Proceedings and Debates of the Constitutional Convention, Conspiracy in Philadelphia: The Origins of the U.S. Constitution
    http://garynorth.com/phildelphia.pdf

    See also: The sovereignty of god, The doctrine of man (human nature, total depravity), Soteriology, atonement, Covetousness, greed, selfishness, The inspiration and infallibility of scripture (the doctrine of revelation, the doctrine of plenary inspiration, the doctrine of divine inspiration, the doctrine of verbal inspiration, The ten commandments, the moral law, Trusting god, Bible magistracy turns back the wrath of god, The utter failure of the u.s. constitution as a social deed of covenant, Corporate faithfulness and sanctification, Constitutionalism, True Republicanism, Selection of covenant heads for positions of leadership, The Destruction of American Liberty, God's deliverance of nations, The biblical solution to terrorism, Idolatry, Theft, Sexual relationship, Spiritual adultery (spiritual whoredom/harlotry), Idolatry, syncretism, Sexual wholeness, Rebellion and lawlessness: wickedness, demonic possession, substance abuse, abnormal behavior, insanity, mental illness, mental retardation, Repentance, the key to salvation and change, Justice, the theology of judgment, god's final judgment, the great white throne judgment, the day of the lord, The sovereign grace of god: his everlasting mercy and lovingkindness, The decline of american society, and so forth, and so on.

    Related WebLinks

    A Study Guide for the Westminster Confession of Faith (1646), (The Westminster Standards), and Related Works
    http://www.lettermen2.com/suggest.html

    The Scottish Covenanting Struggle, Alexander Craighead, and the Mecklenburg Declaration
    http://www.lettermen2.com/craig.html

    The Articles of Confederation of the United Colonies of New England, May 19, 1643
    http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/art1613.htm

    The Articles of Confederation: The Avalon Project at Yale Law School
    http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/artconf.htm

    Rethinking the Articles of Confederation, H.A. Scott Trask
    http://www.mises.org/fullstory.asp?control=1296

    Statements Supporting the Original Consensus That Christianity is the Highest Ethical Standard Known to Mankind and, Therefore, Should be the Basis of Law and Government (broken link)
    http://members.aol.com/vtpa/agc002.html

    Religious Test Clauses in Colonial and State Constitutions and Other Documents and Statements Supporting the Original Consensus That There Should Be a Religious Test For Positions of Authority and Trust (broken link)
    http://members.aol.com/vtpa/agc001.html

    The Biblical Test of Character for Candidates for Public Office, all Civil Servants, Magistrates, Judges, and all Lawyers (broken link)
    http://members.aol.com/vtpa/pvtpa002.html

    Conspiracy in Philadelphia, Gary North
    http://www.lewrockwell.com/north/north291.html

    Selling the Birthright: The Ratification of the U.S. Constitution, Appendix H, Tools of Dominion: The Case Laws of Exodus, by Gary North, pages 1190-1216.
    http://www.freebooks.com/

    Trinitarianism Verses Polytheism: Unresolved Questions of Article VI, Section 3 of the U.S. Constitution (broken link)
    http://members.aol.com/vtpa/pvtpa001.html

    National Establishments of Religion
    "Hence it ought to be observed that something remarkable is here demanded from princes, besides an ordinary profession of faith; for the Lord has bestowed on them authority and power to defend the Church and to promote the glory of God. This is indeed the duty of all; but kings, in proportion as their power is greater, ought to devote themselves to it more earnestly, and to labor in it more diligently." -- John Calvin, Commentary on Isaiah (1550).
    http://www.covenanter.org/reformed/2015/6/29/national-establishments-of-religion



    Individual Responsibility for Corporate Faithfulness and Sanctification

    So then every one of us shall give account of himself to God. (Romans 14:12)
    http://www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/gills-exposition-of-the-bible/romans-14-12.html
    http://www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/matthew-henry-complete/romans/14.html

    See the Theological Notes, "Sanctification: The Spirit and the Flesh," at 1 Corinthians 6:11 in The Reformation Study Bible.

    See the Theological Notes, "Christians in the World," at Colossians 2:20 in The Reformation Study Bible.

    And these words, which I command thee this day, shall be in thine heart: And thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up. (Deuteronomy 6:6-7)

    See Isaiah 40:1 -- 55:13 and annotation in The Reformation Study Bible.

    Your iniquities have turned away these things, and your sins have withholden good things from you.
    For among my people are found wicked men: they lay wait, as he that setteth snares; they set a trap, they catch men.
    As a cage is full of birds, so are their houses full of deceit: therefore they are become great, and waxen rich.
    They are waxen fat, they shine: yea, they overpass the deeds of the wicked: they judge not the cause, the cause of the fatherless, yet they prosper; and the right of the needy do they not judge.
    Shall I not visit for these things? saith the LORD: shall not my soul be avenged on such a nation as this?
    A wonderful and horrible thing is committed in the land;
    The prophets prophesy falsely, and the priests bear rule by their means; and my people love to have it so: and what will ye do in the end thereof?
    (Jeremiah 5:25-31). See the annotation in 1599 Geneva Bible.

    Furthermore, individuals, not corporate bodies, will be finally judged for their actions in this life.

    For it is written,
    As I live, saith the Lord,
    every knee shall bow to me,
    and every tongue shall confess to God.
    So then every one of us shall give account of himself to God.
    (Romans 14:11,12).

    "Of the Last Judgment," The Westminster Confession of Faith (1646), Chapter XXXIII)
    I. God has appointed a day, wherein He will judge the world, in righteousness, by Jesus Christ,[1] to whom all power and judgment is given of the Father.[2] In which day, not only the apostate angels shall be judged,[3] but likewise all persons that have lived upon earth shall appear before the tribunal of Christ, to give an account of their thoughts, words, and deeds; and to receive according to what they have done in the body, whether good or evil.[4]
    [1] ACT 17:31 Because he hath appointed a day, in the which he will judge the world in righteousness by that man whom he hath ordained; whereof he hath given assurance unto all men, in that he hath raised him from the dead.
    [2] JOH 5:27 And hath given him authority to execute judgment also, because he is the Son of man.
    [3] 1CO 6:3 Know ye not that we shall judge angels? how much more things that pertain to this life? JUD 6 And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day. 2PE 2:4 For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment.
    [4] 2CO 5:10 For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad. ECC 12:14 For God shall bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be good, or whether it be evil. ROM 2:16 In the day when God shall judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ according to my gospel. 14:10 But why dost thou judge thy brother? or why dost thou set at nought thy brother? for we shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ. 12 So then every one of us shall give account of himself to God. MAT 12:36 But I say unto you, That every idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the day of judgment. 37 For by thy words thou shalt be justified, and by thy words thou shalt be condemned.
    http://www.reformed.org/documents/wcf_with_proofs/indexf.html

    Great and marvellous are thy works,
    Lord God Almighty;
    just and true are thy ways,
    thou King of saints.
    Who shall not fear thee, O Lord, and glorify thy name?
    for though only art holy:
    for all the nations shall come and worship before thee;
    for thy judgments are made manifest.
    (Revelation 15:3b,4)

    For the Lord is our Judge, the Lord is our Lawgiver, the Lord is our King; He will save us. (Isaiah 33:22)
    Isaiah's Prophesy after the Angel of the Lord smote Sennacherib's army for good King Hezekiah.

    The God of my rock; in him will I trust: he is my shield, and the horn of my salvation, my high tower, and my refuge, my saviour; thou savest me from violence. (2 Samuel 22:3)

    The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me, He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God. (2 Samuel 23:3)

    The State, considered in its corporate character, is A MORAL PERSON, with a moral standing and responsibility. It is not the creation of the so-called social compact or of the popular will, but a divine institution based on natural religion. It coheres by a moral and religious bond; and its rulers are the lieutenants of God. If the State is a moral person, capable of performing duty, of committing sin, and suffering punishment, which every one must own who traces the fate of nations according to the divine word, it follows that a nation, acting by its rulers, can accept Christianity and make a public profession of it as the national rule and guide. It had been held together previous to the recognition of Christianity by some form of religion however impure, without which it could not have existed. And the first duty of the civil ruler when brought in contact with Christianity and persuaded of its divine origin is to RECEIVE THE BIBLE AS A REVELATION in a national way. The immediate effect of this is that it constitutes the State a Christian State, and pledges it to purge out its previous religion in the same way as Pagan and Mahommedan nations constituted themselves, according to their false religions, or as the atheistic state was constituted, or rather attempted to be constituted, by the French Convention. A nation must have a religion, and the only question is, which it will adopt. And when Christianity comes to the nation, or to the family, it does not frown on either of these institutions, which also are divine in origin, but enters into them with an elevating purifying power, and sweetly coalesces with all that is purely human in both. These ordinances of God now became vessels by which Christianity is diffused. The national recognition of the Bible as a revelation subjecting the nation to its authority, though a great step gained, does not exhaust the nation's duty, as widely diverging views prevail upon the right interpretation of the Bible. The State must by the necessity of the case ADOPT A CREED which will commonly be prepared by the Church. The same duty that devolves upon an individual Christian confronts a Christian State, and it naturally appends the civil sanction to the Church's creed. It must distinguish between scripture truth and its perversion. The State, by the adoption of a creed, gives utterance to the self-consciousness of a Christian community. It confesses the Christianity it has adopted. . . . The nation, acting by its rulers, must needs adopt a creed, and so distinguish between truth and error in the confession which it makes. It must be Trinitarian or Unitarian, Protestant or Popish, Calvinistic or Arminian, by the necessity of the position. These diverging lines of profession cannot be ignored. More than that; the responsible rulers must proclaim a Christian constitution and adopt a legislation all through the nation's history upon the principles of revelation. A Christian State is competent to make the same confession of its faith that an individual makes. -- George Smeaton, The Scottish Theory of Ecclesiastical Establishments, pp. 4-6

    If my people, which are called by my name, shall humble themselves, and pray, and seek my face, and turn from their wicked ways; then will I hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin, and will heal their land. (2 Chronicles 7:14)

    Q. What kind of submission may be rendered to immoral and tyrannical governments, the ordinance of Satan, such as now exist?
    A. Christians, in the exercise of their Christian liberty, and in the performance of the duty of proving all things, and holding fast what is good, can submit to such governments for wrath's sake, ONLY, which kind of submission has no respect to the power as legitimate authority, but simply, from dread of the cruelty of the tyrant, who pours forth his fury upon all who oppose his misrule. To God's moral ordinance as described, is allegiance due for conscience sake. Submission to this, is submission to God.
    Q. When Christians reside under an immoral government, is not conformity to the general order of society a duty, provided this can be done without violating the divine law?
    A. If the constituted authorities of a nation are not in voluntary subserviency to the Mediator, but opposed to his authority, law, and religion, for the sake of peace and order, and for the sake of contributing as much as possible to the ease and happiness of society, and from a spirit of resignation to the Divine providence, and in order to make legitimate provision for themselves and relatives, so much conformity to the prevailing system as is consistent with their oath of allegiance to Messiah, is a duty conscientiously to be practiced, although very distinct from that obedience for conscience sake which they would render to the government of their choice, to the authority which has the sanction of the Divine approbation. Jer. xxix. 4-7 [Jeremiah 29:4-7], Seek the peace of the city whither I have caused you to be carried away captives, and pray unto the Lord for it: for in the peace thereof shall ye have peace.
    Q. Whilst it is the duty of Christians thus to live a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty, in conformity to the laws of Christ, which are everywhere, and at all times, obligatory upon them -- is it not their duty publicly to declare their dissent from an immoral constitution of civil government, within the reach of whose power they may reside?
    A. This is, indeed, their duty. Because, 1. They are bound to defend God's moral ordinance of civil government, in the purity of which, God's own honor as the Governor of the nations, is deeply involved. Rev. ii. 25,26 [Revelation 2:25,26], That which you have already hold fast till I come; and he that overcometh -- and keepeth my works unto the end -- to him will I give power in the nations, &c. Isa. viii. 16 [Isaiah 8:16], Bind up the testimony, seal the law among my disciples. 2. The purity of this holy ordinance cannot be preserved, if it is confounded with the existing immoral systems, and by an indiscriminate exercise of allegiance. 3. Christians are witnesses for God among men; and having in their possession the testimony of God, in the Holy Scriptures, respecting the true character of civil government, and the duty of national subjection to Christ and his law, and respect for his holy religion, it is their duty to apply the doctrines of inspiration upon this subject, in stating and defending the truth, and condemning the existing immoral systems, and in bearing public testimony against all who uphold them. Isa. xliii. 10 [Isaiah 43:10], Ye are my witnesses, saith the Lord. Rev. xi. 3 [Revelation 11:3], I will give power to my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and three score days, clothed in sackcloth; xii. 17 [Revelation 12:17], And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the remnant of her seed, which keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ. See also Rev. xvii. 14 [Revelation 17:14], Acts v. 32 [Acts 5:32], xxvi. 16 [Acts 26:16], Micah iv. 8-18 [Micha 4:8-18], Mark vi. 11 [Mark 6:11]. 4. The witnesses in Revelation are raised up not only to testify against the ecclesiastical apostasy, The scarlet woman, or Roman church -- and the image of the beast, -- the Papacy -- but also against the seven-headed and ten-horned beast -- or the civil powers -- upon which the woman rides. The nations which sustain Antichrist, and are equally, with the man of sin, Antichristian, and are at war with the Lamb. See passages last quoted, together with Rev. xiii. 1, 2 [Revelation 13:1,2], xvii. 3-14 [Revelation 17:3-14], and xii. 11 [Revelation 12:11], And they overcame him (the devil embodied in the Roman church papacy, and civil powers), by the blood of the Lamb and by the word of their testimony; xvii. 14 [Revelation 17:14], These, (the civil powers), shall make war with the Lamb-and the Lamb shall overcome them: for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings: and they that are with him are called, and chosen, and faithful.
    Q. Are not virtuous persons, who, in their private capacity, are endeavoring to further the true end of civil government -- the maintenance of peace and quietness in all godliness and honesty, although they dissent from the constitution of civil government of the nation in which they reside, entitled to protection?
    A. They certainly are entitled to protection in their lives, liberties, and property; "but they are not to act inconsistently with their declared dissent, and it would be tyranny to constrain them to such measures." Exod. xxii. 21 [Exodus 22:21], Thou shalt neither vex a stranger nor oppress him. See also Rom. xiii. 3 [Romans 13:3], 1 Tim. ii. 2 [1 Timothy 2:2], Jer. xxi. 12 [Jeremiah 21:12], Esther iii. 8, 9 [Esther 3:8,9].
    Q. Should not "Christians, testifying against national evils, and striving, in the use of moral means, to effect a reformation, relinquish temporal privileges, rather than do any thing which may appear to contradict their testimony, or lay a stumbling-block before their weaker brethren?"
    A. This is unquestionably their duty. Because they cannot convince men of their own sincerity, and of the immorality of a principle or practice, whilst they themselves are found actually maintaining the immoral principle or practice (by oath of allegiance, voting, and holding offices, &c.), and enjoying the emoluments of iniquity decreed by law. Heb. xi. 24, 26, 36 [Hebrews 11:24,26,36], By faith, Moses, when he was come to years, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter. Esteeming the reproach of Christ to be greater riches than the treasures in Egypt. And others had trials of cruel mockings and scourgings, yea, moreover, of bonds and imprisonments. Numb. xxiii. 9 [Numbers 23:9], Lo, the people shall dwell alone, and shall not be reckoned among the nations. Rom. xiv. 21 [Romans 14:21], It is good neither to eat flesh, nor drink wine, nor anything whereby thy brother stumbleth, or is offended.
    Q. Will not such a public dissent from immoral governments, and faithful testimony against them, ultimately prevail to their overthrow?
    A. Yes. By these means the witnesses will prevail, however much they may suffer in the meantime, and will be the honored instruments of establishing the millennial kingdom of the Lamb. Rev. xii. 11 [Revelation 12:11], And they overcame him, by the blood of the Lamb and by the word of their testimony; and they loved not their lives unto the death. Dan. vii. 22 [Daniel 7:22], The Ancient of days came, and judgment was given to the saints of the Most High; and the time came that the saints possessed the kingdom. Rev. xx. 4 [Revelation 20:4], And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them; and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the beast (the civil powers), neither his image (the Papacy), neither had received his mark (yielded allegiance), upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years." -- William L. Roberts, The Reformed Presbyterian Catechism, pp. 130-133

    But many that are first shall be last; and the last shall be first. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Matthew 19:30)

    Our Triune God has ordained that the preeminent leader of the Church is the Lord Jesus Christ, the God Man, Our Righteousness. (John 1:1-18; Matthew 19:30; Matthew 28:18-20; Isaiah 49:7; Colossians 1:16-19; Colossians 2:9,10; Hebrews 12:1,2; Revelation 5:1-14; Revelation 19:11-15; Revelation 20:11-15; Revelation 22:12, and so forth, and so on). Human leadership is also divinely ordained and tends to devolve to those who are most perfectly at one with Christ, and to those who also know the most Truth (the Apostle Paul, Saint Augustine, Martin Luther, John Calvin, Puritan leaders, The Scots Worthies, and so forth, and so on.)
    And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Matthew 19:28). See: (Matthew 19:28, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    Then his master said unto him, It is well done good servant and faithful, Thou hast been faithful in little, I will make thee ruler over much: enter into thy master's joy. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Matthew 25:21 1599 Geneva Bible)
    Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Matthew 25:34). See: (Matthew 25:34, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    And he said unto him, Well, good servant: because thou hast been faithful in a very little thing, take thou authority over ten cities. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Luke 19:17, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    Therefore I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Luke 22:29, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together. (Romans 8:17). See: (Romans 8:17, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    Know ye not that we shall judge angels? how much more things that pertain to this life? (1 Corinthians 6:3). See: (1 Corinthians 6:3, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    And hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus. (Ephesians 2:6). See: (Ephesians 2:6, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    To execute vengeance upon the heathen, and corrections among the people:
    To bind their kings in chains, and their nobles with fetters of iron,
    That they may execute upon them the judgment that is written: this honor shall be to all his Saints. Praise ye the Lord.
    (Psalm 149:7-9, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence. (1 Timothy 2:12), (1 Timothy 2:12, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    And he that overcometh, and keepeth my works unto the end, to him will I give power over the nations. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Revelation 2:26). See: (Revelation 2:26, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    To serve God is to reign. -- Seneca

    Armerding, Hudson T., The Heart of Godly Leadership, ISBN: 0891076751 9780891076759.
    "A former Wheaton College president brings a seasoned scriptural perspective to the subject of godly leadership, giving Biblical examples relating to delegating authority, handling success, and passing leadership on to the next generation. Tackles family, church, and society." -- GCB

    *Bugliosi, Vincent, The Prosecution of George W. Bush for Murder, ISBN: 9780792756064 0792756061, 352 pages.
    We receive what we deserve as citizens. Bugliosi's book offers hope in these ominous times, when practically all of our institutions, including the three branches of government, seem to be broken beyond repair. THE PROSECUTION OF GEORGE W. BUSH FOR MURDER demonstrates that one person can bring an unfaithful leader to trial in the courtroom of American public opinion, can call for justice, outside the reach of the politicized monopoly that our Court System has become, and without astronomical legal costs and delays -- by publishing a lawsuit.
    We hope upright, law-abiding citizens will follow Bugliosi's example and will publish lawsuits calling for justice against unfaithful leaders in the courtroom of American public opinion.
    Notice this book is actually a lawsuit. Vince Bugliosi explained in a broadcast interview that his intention is to present all the facts and arguments necessary to win a lawsuit against George W. Bush. He said it is his intention to make it possible for any County or State District Attorney, where a son or daughter has died in the Iraq war, to file a suite against George W. Bush. Furthermore, he is offering to act as a consultant or associate Prosecuting Attorney with any local District Attorney. There is no statute of limitations on murder.
    "Famed Charles Manson prosecutor and three time #1 New York Times bestselling author Vincent Bugliosi has written the most powerful, explosive, and thought-provoking book of his storied career.
    "In THE PROSECUTION OF GEORGE W. BUSH FOR MURDER, Bugliosi presents a tight, meticulously researched legal case that puts George W. Bush on trial in an American courtroom for the murder of nearly 4,000 American soldiers fighting the war in Iraq. Bugliosi sets forth the legal architecture and incontrovertible evidence that President Bush took this nation to war in Iraq under false pretenses -- a war that has not only caused the deaths of American soldiers but also over 100,000 innocent Iraqi men, women, and children; cost the United States over one trillion dollars thus far with no end in sight; and alienated many American allies in the Western world.
    "As a prosecutor who is dedicated to seeking justice, Bugliosi, in his inimitable style, delivers a non-partisan argument, free from party lines and instead based upon hard facts and pure objectivity.
    "A searing indictment of the President and his administration, THE PROSECUTION OF GEORGE W. BUSH FOR MURDER also outlines a legally credible pathway to holding our highest government officials accountable for their actions, thereby creating a framework for future occupants of the oval office.
    "Vincent Bugliosi calls for the United States of America to return to the great nation it once was and can be again. He believes the first step to achieving this goal is to bring those responsible for the war in Iraq to justice.
    "Vincent Bugliosi received his law degree in 1964. In his career at the L.A. County District Attorney's office, he successfully prosecuted 105 out of 106 felony jury trials, including 21 murder convictions without a single loss. His most famous trial, the Charles Manson case, became the basis of his classic, HELTER SKELTER, the biggest selling true-crime book in publishing history. Two of Bugliosi's other books -- AND THE SEA WILL TELL and OUTRAGE -- also reached #1 on the New York Times hardcover bestseller list. No other American true-crime writer has ever had more than one book that achieved this ranking. His latest book, RECLAIMING HISTORY: THE ASSASSINATION OF PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY, has been heralded as 'epic' and 'a book for the ages.'
    "Bugliosi has uncommonly attained success in two separate and distinct fields, as an author and a lawyer. His excellence as a trial lawyer is best captured in the judgment of his peers. 'Bugliosi is as good a prosecutor as there ever was,' Alan Dershowitz says. F. Lee Bailey calls Bugliosi 'the quintessential prosecutor.' 'There is only one Vince Bugliosi. He's the best,' says Robert Tanenbaum, for years the top homicide prosecutor in the Manhattan D.A.'s office. Most telling is the comment by Gerry Spence, who squared off against Bugliosi in a twenty-one-hour televised, scriptless 'docu-trial' of Lee Harvey Oswald, in which the original key witnesses to the Kennedy assassination testified and were cross-examined. After the Dallas jury returned a guilty verdict in Bugliosi's favor, Spence said, 'No other lawyer in America could have done what Vince did in this case.'
    Bugliosi lives with his wife, Gail, in Los Angeles." -- Publisher

    *Gillespie, Patrick (1617-1675), The Ark of the Covenant Opened; or, A Treatise of the Covenant of Redemption Between God and Christ, as the Foundation of the Covenant of Grace, 1677. A Christian classic. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #27.
    "John Owen, in his preface to this treatise writes, 'I do freely declare my judgement that for order, method, perspicuity in treating, and solidity of argument, the ensuing discourse exceedeth whatsoever single treatise I have seen written with the same design.' (cited in Johnston, Treasury of the Scottish Covenant, p. 337). David Lachman tells us that 'in addition to arranging his brother's papers (published as Miscellany Questions [now found in George Gillespie's two volume Works, -- RB]), Gillespie used his materials also for the beginning of the first of a five-volume work on the covenant. Only two were published: THE ARK OF THE TESTAMENT OPENED . . . (1661), and THE ARK OF THE COVENANT OPENED . . . (1677), respectively treating the nature and kinds of covenants and the Mediator of the covenant. The third, on the condition of the covenant and the instrumentality of faith in justification, was extant in 1707, when the remaining two, respectively on the privileges and duties of the covenant, were believed lost (Analecta, I, 168-9) . . . Gillespie (was a -- RB), Covenanter, Principal of Glasgow University, and leading Protester.' (Nigel Cameron, editor, Dictionary of Scottish Church History and Theology, p. 382). In this volume Gillespie proves:
    1. That there is such a Covenant (of Redemption).
    2. The necessity of it.
    3. The nature, properties, and parties thereof.
    4. The tenor, articles, subject matter of Redemption.
    5. The commands, conditions, and promises annexed.
    6. The harmony of the Covenant of suretiship made with Christ, and the Covenant of reconciliation made with sinners: wherein they agree, wherein they differ.
    7. Grounds of comfort from the Covenant of suretiship; and, of course, much, much more!
    "Owen, in his preface (who also notes his long friendship with Gillespie), further underscores the importance of this work when he writes, 'For the Doctrine hereof, or the truth herein, is the very Center wherein all the lines concerning the Grace of God and our own duty, do meet; wherein the whole of Religion doth consist. Hence unto the understanding, Notions, and Conception, that men have of these Covenants with God, and according as the Doctrines of them is stated in their minds, their Conceptions of all other sacred Truths, or Doctrines, are conformed'." -- Publisher
    Ark of the Covenant Opened: Chapter 3
    http://www.truecovenanter.com/supralapsarian/pgilles_aoc_cap03.html

    *Gillespie, Patrick (1617-1675), Rulers Sins: The Causes of National Judgments, or a Sermon Preached at the Fast, Upon the 26th Day of December, Prov. XIV. 34 [Proverbs 14:34]; 2 Kings XVII. 22,23 [2 Kings 17:22,23]; Ezek. XIX. 14 [Ezekiel 19:14], or a Sermon Preached at the Fast, Upon the 26th Day of December 1650. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    Notwithstanding the Lord turned not from the fierceness of his great wrath wherewith his anger was kindled against Judah, because of the provocations that Manasseh had provoked him withal. (2 Kings 23:26).
    "For these in public places of trust and power, that should bear down sin, are they not rather ringleaders in sin?" -- Patrick Guillespie
    Rulers Sins: The Causes of National Judgments
    http://www.truecovenanter.com/gillespie/gillespie_patrick_rulers_sins_causes_of_judgment.html

    *Mason, Archibald (d. 1831), Observations on the Public Covenants Betwixt God and the Church: A Discourse (1799). Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #27.
    Contents: Observations on the public covenants betwixt God and the church / Archibald Mason -- Paleopresbyterianism vs. neopresbyterianism / Michael Wagner -- Permanence of covenant obligation -- The preface and bibliography to the rare bound photocopy: obligation of social covenanting -- The binding nature of national covenants with God -- The Solemn League and Covenant -- Guide for studying the Westminster Confession, in suggested order of reading -- Terms of ministerial and Christian communion in the Reformed Presbyterian Church -- Corporate sanctification: holding fast the attainments of Reformation / John Brown -- What is a moral person? How God views the church and the nations / David Scott, John Cunningham, and George Smeaton -- A hind let loose / Alexander Shields -- Of separation from corrupt churches -- Old landmarks -- confession and testimony.
    Includes: What is a Moral Person? How God Views the Church and the Nations, David Scott, John Cunningham, and George Smeaton
    http://www.swrb.com/newslett/actualnls/moral.htm

    Palmer, B.M., National Responsibility Before God: A Discourse, Delivered on the day of Fasting, Humiliation and Prayer, Apponted by the President of the Confederate States of America, June 13, 1861.

    Powell, James, The Triumph of Liberty: A 2,000 Year History Told Through the Lives of Freedom's Greatest Champions, ISBN: 068485967X 9780684859675, 574 pages.
    "This volume contains the stories of men and women who have overcome great obstacles to give freedom to the world. Through the lives of 65 people, these stories cover the struggle to abolish slavery, stop wars, and overthrow tyrants, as well as the fight for human rights, religious toleration, individualism, the liberation of women and other such freedoms. The entries are based on biographies, diaries and interviews with scholars to provide an instructive narrative." -- Publisher

    *Robbins, John, Freedom and Capitalism: Essays on Christian Politics and Economics, ISBN: 1891777157 9781891777158.
    See, in particularly, the Foreword.
    "The relationship between Christianity, freedom, and capitalism has been a subject of scholarly study for centuries. In this volume, John Robbins argues that political and economic freedom are the results of Biblical Christianity. Political freedom and capitalism arose in Northwestern Europe and North America after the Christian Reformation of the 16th Century, and they are unique in world history. The nations and peoples that heard and accepted the Gospel of Jesus Christ as proclaimed by the Reformers quickly became free and prosperous on a scale previously unimaginable. Some historians and economists have denied any causal connection between Christianity, freedom, and capitalism, but they are able to deny this connection only by ignoring clear philosophical, economic, legal, sociological, and historical evidence demonstrating that Christianity is the source of capitalism.
    "Dr. John W. Robbins attended Grove City College (A.B. 1969), and The Johns Hopkins University (M.A. 1970, Ph.D. 1973). He has served as chief of staff for a Member of Congress, editor of The Freeman magazine, Economist for The Heritage Foundation, and Professor of Political Philosophy in The Freedom School." -- Publisher
    Table of Contents: Foreword | Politics | The Founder of Western Civilization | The Sine Qua Non of Enduring Freedom | Some Problems with Natural Law | The Political Philosophy of the Founding Fathers | The Bible and the Draft | The Messianic Character of American Foreign Policy | Truth and Foreign Policy | Compassionate Fascism | Conservatism: An Autopsy | Rightwing Radical Chic | The Reconstructionist Assault on Freedom | Roman Catholic Totalitarianism | The Relation of Church and State (Charles Hodge) | Abortion, the Christian, and the State | The Ethics and Economics of Health Care | The Chickens' Homecoming (John Whitehead) | The Coming Caesars (John Whitehead) | Rebuilding American Freedom in the Twenty-First Century | The Religious Wars of the Twenty-First Century
    Economics: The Failure of Secular Economics | The Promise of Christian Economics | Teaching Economics from the Bible | The Neo-Evangelical Assault on Capitalism | The Reformed Assault on Capitalism | The Roman Catholic Assault on Capitalism | How Romanism Ruined America | Not Yours to Give (Edward Ellis) | Money, Freedom, and the Bible | The Case Against Indexation | Is Christianity Tied to Any Political or Economic System? | Ecology: The Abolition of Man | Scripture Index | Index | The Crisis of Our Time | Intellectual Ammunition

    *Rutherford, Samuel (1600-1661), George Gillespie (1613-1648), John Brown (of Wamphray, 1610?-1679), Price, Greg L., The Session of the Puritan Reformed Church of Edmonton/Prince George, et al., The Duty and Perpetual Obligation of Social Covenanting. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #2.
    "The material found in this bound photocopy addresses a forgotten and neglected ordinance of God: social covenanting. God's people in times of repentance and thanksgiving, trial and blessing have been a covenanting people. In the most pure times of ecclesiastical and civil reformation throughout history, both church and state under the mediatorial rule of Christ have by the grace of God bound themselves together by covenant to promote and defend the true Christian religion. The first document adopted by the Westminster Assembly was in fact, the Solemn League and Covenant (1644). It united the kingdoms of Scotland, England, and Ireland in a covenanted reformation of both church and state in order to preserve, promote and defend the true Christian religion (as summarized in the Westminster Confession of Faith [1646], Larger and Shorter Catechisms, Directory For Public Worship, and Form of Church Government), and in order to expose and uproot all false teaching contrary to the Scripture and these standards. Furthermore, it was not only the desire of the Westminster Assembly to unite in covenant the three British kingdoms, but rather to include in this covenanted reformation all of the Reformed Churches throughout Europe. Consider the goal of the Assembly as summarized by Hetherington: 'There was one great, and even sublime idea, brought somewhat indefinitely before the Westminster Assembly, which has not yet been realized, the idea of a Protestant union throughout Christendom, not merely for the purpose of counterbalancing Popery, but in order to purify, strengthen, and unite all true Christian churches, so that with combined energy and zeal they might go forth, in glad compliance with the Redeemer's commands, teaching all nations, and preaching the everlasting gospel to every creature under heaven. This truly magnificent, and also truly Christian idea, seems to have originated in the mind of that distinguished man, Alexander Henderson. It was suggested by him to the Scottish commissioners, and by them partially brought before the English Parliament, requesting them to direct the Assembly to write letters to the Protestant Churches in France, Holland, Switzerland, and other Reformed Churches. . . . and along with these letters were sent copies of the Solemn League and Covenant, a document which might itself form the basis of such a Protestant union. The deep thinking divines of the Netherlands apprehended the idea, and in their answer, not only expressed their approbation of the Covenant, but also desired to join in it with the British kingdoms. Nor did they content themselves with the mere expression of approval and willingness to join. A letter was soon afterwards sent to the Assembly from the Hague, written by Duraeus (the celebrated John Dury), offering to come to the Assembly, and containing a copy of a vow which he had prepared and tendered to the distinguished Oxenstiern, chancellor of Sweden, wherein he bound himself 'to prosecute a reconciliation between Protestants in point of religion'. . . . On one occasion Henderson procured a passport to go to Holland, most probably for the purpose of prosecuting this grand idea. But the intrigues of politicians, the delays caused by the conduct of the Independents, and the narrow-minded Erastianism of the English Parliament, all conspired to prevent the Assembly from entering farther into that truly glorious Christian enterprise. Days of trouble and darkness came; persecution wore out the great men of that remarkable period; pure and vital Christianity was stricken to the earth and trampled under foot. . .' (William Hetherington The History of the Westminster Assembly of Divines, pp. 337-339). The material presented herein is commended to the reader with the sincere prayer and confidence that God will again restore the Church of Jesus Christ to a glorious covenanted reformation -- one that will even surpass that one to which she had attained at the time of the Westminster Assembly. However, when the Lord brings that future covenanted reformation it will not be limited to only three kingdoms of the earth, but by the grace and power of Christ our King, it will be a covenanted reformation that will encompass all of the nations of the earth (Psalm 2:6-12; Isaiah 2:1-4; Matthew 28:1-20), and will bring to the church a visible unity and uniformity that (unlike pleas for unity today), is firmly grounded upon the truth." (Greg Price, Preface). The material contained in this compilation was gathered together by the session of the Puritan Reformed Church of Edmonton/Prince George. Its 210 pages contain the following items, as listed in this bibliography for social covenanting.
    1. Samuel Rutherford, Due Right of Presbyteries, pp. 130-139
    2. George Gillespie, The Works of George Gillespie, Vol. 2, pp. 71-88.
    3. John Brown of Wamphray, An Apologetic Relation, pp. 167-175, 181-207.
    4. David Scott, Distinctive Principles of the Reformed Presbyterian Church, pp. 14-90.
    5. William Roberts, The Reformed Presbyterian Catechism, pp. 134-152.
    6. The Reformed Presbytery, An Explanation and Defence of the Terms of Communion, pp. 181-187.
    7. The Reformed Presbytery, Act, Declaration and Testimony, pp. 11-23.
    8. The Reformed Presbytery, The Auchensaugh Renovation, pp. 115-140.
    9. The Church of Scotland (1639), The National Covenant of Scotland, pp. 345-354 in the Westminster Confession of Faith [1646] published by Free Presbyterian Publications.
    10. The Westminster Assembly (1644), The Solemn League and Covenant, pp. 355-360 in the Westminster Confession of Faith [1646] published by Free Presbyterian Publications.
    11. The Church of Scotland (1648), A Solemn Acknowledgement of Publick Sins and Breaches of the Covenant, pp. 361-368 in the Westminster Confession of Faith [1646] published by Free Presbyterian Publications." -- Publisher

    *Schwertley, Brian M., and Westminster Presbyterian Church in the United States. Publications Committee, National Covenanting and Christ's Victory Over the Nations. Available at Reformed Online.
    "This is an outstanding accomplishment. It weaves all the strands of social/national covenanting into one comprehensive, up-to-date statement in 530 pages. It includes extensive documentation, Scripture proofs, footnotes, appendixes, author index, and Scripture index.
    "NATIONAL COVENANTING AND CHRIST'S VICTORY OVER THE NATIONS could serve as an advanced study guide for individuals who, by the Grace of God, have been guided to social/national covenanting, yet have not found time for additional self-education.
    "Notice also that best books are frequently relevant to a broad range of other topics. This is such a book.
    "It is a scholarly presentation of the biblical model for real reformation of society. So, do not buy a copy, and then let it sit on the shelf for years unread.
    "It was preceded by 'Social Covenanting,' a series of 31 sermons in MP3 format, given by the author starting in the summer of 2012." -- Steven C. Kettler
    Social Covenanting series of 31 sermons by Brian Schwertley
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/search.asp?seriesOnly=true&currSection=sermonstopic&sourceid=ccc&keyword=National+Covenanting&keyworddesc=National+Covenanting

    *Scott, David, John Cunningham, and George Smeaton, What is a Moral Person? How God Views the Church and the Nations. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available in OBSERVATIONS ON THE PUBLIC COVENANTS BETWIXT GOD AND THE CHURCH: A DISCOURSE.
    "A clear and concise summary of the biblical doctrine of the moral person (i.e. that God regards churches and nations as moral entities separate from the individual members of which they are comprised). No Christian can afford not to understand this vital teaching! In many ways this is a crux of the Covenanter position, underlying as it does the issues of separation from backslidden or anti-Christian civil and church governments, the binding nature of lawful Covenants on posterity, eschatology, etc." -- Publisher
    What is a Moral Person? How God Views the Church and the Nations, David Scott, John Cunningham, and George Smeaton
    http://www.swrb.com/newslett/actualnls/moral.htm

    Seibert, Donald V., and William Proctor, The Ethical Executive: A Top C.E.O.'s Program for Success With Integrity in the Corporate World, ISBN: 0346124506 9780346124509.

    *Steele, David (1803-1887), The Two Witnesses: Their Cause, Number, Character, Furniture and Special Work, 1859. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #14.
    "This is a great companion volume to Steele's NOTES ON THE APOCALYPSE. Here Steele zeros in on and works primarily from the text of Revelation 11:13, I will give power unto my two witnesses, and they shall prophecy. Steele deals with Testimony-bearing, Antichrist, Popery, The beasts of revelation, The mark of the beast, 666, The image of the beast, Civil and ecclesiastical apostasy, Reformation, Covenanting, Heresy, Schism, Terms of communion, Slavery, Sectarianism, Mormonism, Independency, Freemasonry, History, Worship, Idolatry, Britain, The united states, Canada, Mystical babylon, The last days, The ultimate victory of the church, and a host of other subjects!
    "As is usually the case with Steele, he makes the doctrines of Scripture eminently practical. For example, note how the faithful witnesses are continually called to testify against open opposition to the Lord's Covenanted Zion and the attainments of biblical Reformation (in the faith which was once delivered unto the saints); and against whom this testimony is directed:

    'These witnesses are called and commissioned to testify especially against Antichrist -- a false christ, and therefore an opposing christ. But Christ is to be considered either personally or mystically; either abstractly in his personal rights and prerogatives, or in the concrete, in the rights and immunities of his church. There is this prejudice, too prevalent, against Christians testifying against Christians! This we are often told, is contrary to the law of charity. We have not so learned Christ. They are not all Israel which are of Israel. Much of the business of these two prophets is to oppose prophets -- to prophesy against the shepherds, Ezekiel 34:2. Moses with his miracles must confront the magicians with their enchantments, Exodus 8:19. Elijah must confront the prophets of Baal, 1 Kings 18:25. Paul must counteract false apostles, 2 Corinthians 11:13. In short, the direct object of these witnesses' testimony is apostate christendom -- those who depart from the faith, 1 Timothy 4:1 -- who have gone out from fellowship and renounced the doctrines of the apostolic church, 1 John 2:19. Their special work is to testify against error and its propagators and abettors, together with ungodliness, the natural fruit of error, rather than against pagans.' -- The Two Witnesses, p. 14
    'These two witnesses have always testified -- not formally against pagans or infidels as such; but -- against apostate Christians, as comprising an organized and complex system of opposition to the Lord and his Anointed. And just here, the witnesses have detected the secret of Antichrist's successful enterprise among the human family . . .' Many false prophets are gone out into the world. . . this is a deceiver and an Antichrist, (2 John 7). The combination is ostensibly on the side and in the interest of Christ, and the elements of which Antichrist is composed were obviously professing Christians, They went out from us, but they were not of us, for if they had been of us, they would no doubt have continued with us: but they went out, that they might be made manifest that they were not all of us. (1 John 2:19). Here is the apostasy, and so the witnesses are fully borne out in asserting that Antichrist is a great Christian apostasy! To trace the origin and development, in the organization and modifications of this enemy of all righteousness, is the special work of Christ's witnesses.' -- (The Two Witnesses, pp. 17-18)
    "Moreover, having taken his own place 'in the wilderness' (i.e. having separated himself from, and having been ostracized by the 'civilization' of the obstinately defecting RPCNA and other unfaithful denominations of his day [2 Thessalonians 3:6,14-15; Revelation 12:6, Revelation 17:3]), it was given to Steele to see and expound those grand old principles of our covenanted forefathers (who sat at Westminster and in the best Reformed churches during both the first and second Reformations -- the Scottish Presbyterians being granted the greatest measure of light as a settled body from 1638-1649).
    "Thus, if you are interested in Reformation eschatology, with some of the strongest possible application, individually and corporately (in keeping with the body of Reformed truth), it is unlikely that you will find a better introduction to these topics than this!
    "As an additional bonus we have added Steele's 19-page debate with James McLeod Willson (a prominent RPCNA minister), to this book (along with a number of other pertinent documents). Since Steele references this theological clash in his preface to the TWO WITNESSES this makes a fitting appendix to add to this work.
    "We hope that you obtain and study this fine work -- and that you will find it edifying, as well as a useful weapon in your battle with the beasts of Revelation." -- Publisher
    The Two Witnesses: Their Cause, Number, Character, Furniture, and Special Work, 1859, by Steele, David (1803-1887)
    http://www.covenanter.org/reformed/2015/8/17/david-steeles-pamphlet-on-the-two-witnesses-their-cause-number-character-furniture-and-special-work
    Steele, David (1803-1887), The two Witnesses, Their Cause, Number, Character, Furniture and Special Work
    http://www.truecovenanter.com/steele/steele_two_witnesses.html

    Vieira, Edwin, Constitutional Homeland Security: A Call for Americans to Revitalize the Militia of the Several States. Volume I, The Nation in Arms, unabridged, ISBN: 0967175925 9780967175928.
    "Presently, our republic is seething with citizen discontent on a range of important issues: the burgeoning police state under a proto-fascist 'homeland security' banner . . . the cultural and economic threat of unchecked Mexican immigration . . . the increasing strictures on our God-given right (reiterated by the Second Amendment) . . . the hokey 'War on Terror.'
    "How in the world can the citizens of these 50 sovereign States, return to the liberty and self-government that we supposedly assured ourselves when 'We the People' assented to the U.S. Constitution as our means of limiting the Leviathan State?
    "In this trenchant little guidebook for American citizens, constitutional scholar Dr. Edwin Vieira, Jr. leads us back to the rule of law, step by constitutional step! What an erudite, plain-speaking, and eminently 'do-able' plan the author presents!
    "This is no guidebook for rifle-toting 'Montana Freemen' nut-cases; it is a measured, historically documented plan of action for truly reclaiming our liberty and our 'homeland security,' one neighborhood at a time, in concert with local 'first responders' (police, fire dept, EMS, et al.), but entirely on a volunteer basis: orderly, law-abiding, serious-minded citizenship, just as our colonial-era forefathers -- and the framers of the Constitution -- intended!
    "After you read this book (believe me, you'll be full of hope and ready to say, 'Let's Roll!'), just imagine the 4th of July, 2010 . . . in 535 American towns and cities, holding an 'AMERICA AGAIN!' rally, to institute the 'Citizens' Homeland Security Associations' that Dr. Vieira introduces in this masterful book! I tell you, never in my life have I had such hope in the future of this republic -- if only people will read such books as this one, and actually take them to heart.
    "Are you sick of the repetitive news cycles and foreign wars? Tired of being told that America is inexorably becoming a police state, or will soon be overrun by illegal immigrants?
    "Get this book TODAY; you'll finish the last page with more hope than you've had for years." -- Reader's Comment

    Welwood, John, Heartwork, Assurance and National Judgment, an MP3 file. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Also found in SERMONS DELIVERED IN TIMES OF PERSECUTION IN SCOTLAND.
    "Although Welwood focuses on personal sanctification, searching out the differences between hypocrites and true believers, he does not leave national issues untouched. He shows how God's anger builds in the life of backsliding individuals, churches and nations and how sometimes faithful individuals are swept away in the deluge that ensues as God's wrath is poured out upon the earth. The situation in Scotland at the time of this sermon (c. 1678), provides a perfect example illustrating this point. The forces of Antichrist (Royalist and Prelatical), were hounding the faithful Covenanters and many were suffering (even unto death), on account of their faithfulness to second Reformation attainments and covenant engagements (in the battle for the crown rights of King Jesus). At this point Welwood seeks to comfort and strengthen those saints suffering under the hand of these wicked, persecuting, 'incarnate devils' -- as Welwood calls them. Occasional hearing, unlawful authorities in church and state and neutrality in the cause of Christ are all sternly rebuked. There is great edification here as this sermon encourages the Christian in his unrelenting battle against sin and defection (individually and in his duties relative to the church and state). This sermon is read (by Ruling Elder Lyndon Dohms), from the book SERMONS IN TIMES OF PERSECUTION IN SCOTLAND, BY SUFFERS FOR THE ROYAL PREROGATIVES OF JESUS CHRIST. Regarding the preacher, this arresting account of one of Welwood's last sermons is recounted in Sermons in Times of Persecution." -- Publisher

    Wolterstorff, Nicholas P., Educating for Responsible Action, ISBN: 0802818579 9780802818577.
    "Helpful theories and strategies for moral education." -- Mark Branson

    See also: The sovereignty of god, The doctrine of man (human nature, total depravity), Justice, the theology of judgment, god's final judgment, the great white throne judgment, the day of the lord, The one and the many, The sovereign grace of god: his everlasting mercy and lovingkindness, God's deliverance of nations, Covenant theology and the ordinance of covenanting, The covenant of redemption, The covenant faithfulness of god, Individual responsibility, Scapegoating and blame-shifting, Toleration, liberty of conscience, pluralism, and neutrality, Sexual relationship, Spiritual adultery (spiritual whoredom/harlotry), Idolatry, syncretism, Sexual wholeness, Oaths, ensnaring (vows, promises, covenants), and bonds with the ungodly, Background and history of the covenanted reformation of scotland, Ethics, Medical ethics, The national covenant, The solemn league and covenant, The covenanted reformation of scotland short title listing, Biography of covenanters, Acts of faithful assemblies, Covenanting in america, The scottish covenanting struggle, alexander craighead, and the mecklenburg declaration, Confession of national sin and covenant renewal, Corporate faithfulness and sanctification, Selection of covenant heads for positions of leadership, and so forth, and so on.
    TCRB5: 565, 1228-1239, 2094, 2527, 3078, 3140, 3141, 3142, 3453, 3454

    Related WebLinks

    Truth: A Sermon, on Steadfast Adherence to the Distinctive Doctrines of the Church: Preached on Monday, Dec. 3, 1832, After the Dispensation of the Lord's Supper, in Westerlo Street Church, Albany, 1833 Rev. Samuel M. Willson
    Whereto we have already attained, let us walk by the same rule, let us mind the same thing. (Philippians 3:16).
    http://www.truecovenanter.com/reformedpresbyterian/willson_samuel_truth_a_sermon_on_3_john_4.html

    Appendix C: Psychology and Psychiatry
    http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrrappc.html



    Justice, Judgment, God's Final Judgment, The Great White Throne Judgment, The Day of the Lord, Day of Judgment

    See: Justice, Judgment, God's Final Judgment, The Great White Throne Judgment, The Day of the Lord, Day of Judgment
    http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr2chb.html#judge



    Servant Leadership

    See: Servant Leadership
    http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr9chc.html#servantl



    True Republicanism

    If the people be governors, who shall be governed? -- John Cotton (1584-1652)

    A simple democracy is the devil's own government. -- Benjamin Rush

    'Democratic' should be understood as democratic republic, and this not the 'pagan republican systems of ancient Greece and Rome,' but rather the 'biblical republicanism of Old Testament Israel' found in Deuteronomy 1:13-17, and exemplified in a Presbyterian form of government. The US Constitution guarantees a 'republican form of government' (US Constitution, Article IV, Section 4).

    The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me, He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God. (2 Samuel 23:3)

    The God of my rock; in him will I trust: he is my shield, and the horn of my salvation, my high tower, and my refuge, my saviour; thou savest me from violence. (2 Samuel 22:3)

    Pettit, Philip, Republicanism: A Theory of Freedom and Government, ISBN: 0198296428 9780198296423.
    "A full-length presentation of a republican alternative to the liberal and communitarian theories that have dominated political philosophy in recent years. The author opens with an examination of the traditional republican conception of freedom as non-domination, contrasting this with established negative and positive views of liberalism. The book examines what the implementation of the ideal would imply for substantive policy-making, constitutional and democratic design, regulatory control and the relation between state and civil society. Professor Pettit's work offers not only a unified, theoretical overview of the many strands of republican ideas, it also provides a sophisticated perspective on studies in related fields including the history of ideas, jurisprudence, and criminology. The author has included a postscript to this edition, which offers a sketch of the crucial republican ideas, and to reinforce the argument that the republican tradition deserves more attention than it has generally received among contemporary political theorists." -- Editorial Review

    Pierce, Franklin, Federal Usurpation (Crown Rights Book Company, 2002, 1908).
    "This book is a plea for the sacredness of the Constitution of the United States.
    "The bloated and all-pervasive Federal bureaucracy which now rules the American people from Washington, D.C. did not arise overnight. Instead, as the author of this important volume documents, the usurpations of the Lincoln Administration during the War of 1861 and that of the Radical Republican Congress during Reconstruction were the fundamental causes of the existing political conditions of today. Pierce also discusses the inherent flaws in the Constitution which were the result of compromise between the quarreling factions at the Convention of 1787, and which would later lead to corruptions dangerous to the liberties of the people of the several States. The book concludes with a chapter entitled, 'How to Restore the Democratic Republic'." -- Publisher

    Rushdoony, R.J. (1916-2001), The Atheism of the Early Church, ISBN: 1879998181 9781879998186. Available through Exodus Books.
    "Early Christians were called 'heretics' and 'atheists' when they denied the gods of Rome, in particular the divinity of the emperor and the statism he embodied in his personality cult. These Christians knew that Jesus Christ, not the state, was their Lord and that this faith required a different kind of relationship to the state than it demanded. Because Jesus Christ was their acknowledged Sovereign, they consciously denied such esteem to all other claimants. Today the church must take a similar stand before the modern state." -- Publisher

    *Rushdoony, R.J. (1916-2001), This Independent Republic: Studies in the Nature and Meaning of American History. Available through Exodus Books.
    "First published in 1964 and out of print for many years, this series of essays gives important insight into American history by one who could trace American development in terms of the Christian ideas which gave it direction.
    "These essays will greatly alter your understanding of, and appreciation for, American history. Topics discussed include: the legal issues behind the War of Independence; sovereignty as a theological tenet foreign to colonial political thought and the Constitution; the desire for land as a consequence of the belief in "inheriting the land" as a future blessing, not an immediate economic asset; federalism's localism as an inheritance of feudalism; the local control of property as a guarantee of liberty; why federal elections were long considered of less importance than local politics; how early American ideas attributed to democratic thought were based on religious ideals of communion and community; and the absurdity of a mathematical concept of equality being applied to people. With index." -- Publisher

    *Rushdoony, R.J. (1916-2001), The Nature of the American System. Available through Exodus Books.
    "Originally published in 1965, these essays were a continuation of the author's previous work, THIS INDEPENDENT REPUBLIC, and examine the interpretations and concepts which have attempted to remake and rewrite America's past and present. 'The writing of history then, because man is neither autonomous, objective or ultimately creative, is always in terms of a framework, a philosophical and ultimately religious framework in the mind of the historian.' To the orthodox Christian, the shabby incarnations of the reigning historiographies are both absurd and offensive. They are idols, and he is forbidden to bow down to them and must indeed wage war against them." -- Publisher

    Sage, Bernard Janin, The Republic of Republics: or, American Federal Liberty (Crown Rights Book Company, 2003, 1878).
    "This is one of the most comprehensive treatises ever published on the doctrine of State sovereignty and the inherent right of a State to secede from the Union. Written by an English barrister who was to have been one of Jefferson Davis' counsel in the treason trial which never occurred, this book compiles extensive quotations from the earliest American statesmen, both before and after the ratification of the Constitution in 1789, which prove beyond all argument that the American people were never organized into a consolidated democracy, but had existed in their colonial condition as separate political bodies and continued to do so after their independence from Great Britain. The author singles out the tortured logic of Webster and Lincoln for heavy criticism, and shows that allegiance and treason are terms which have no meaning constitutionally if not in reference to a sovereign State. Also included are nine lengthy appendices outlining the ordaining acts of the original thirteen States in the Union, the changes made to the Constitution by the Southern States in 1861, the original forms of the Tenth Amendment, a review of Alexander Stephens' CONSTITUTIONAL VIEW OF THE WAR BETWEEN THE STATES, etc." -- Crown Rights Books Company

    Sidney, Algernon (1622-1683), Discourses on Government: To Which is Added, an Account of the Author's Life, 3 volumes, ISBN: 1584772093 9781584772095.
    "This important work appeared fifteen years after Sidney's execution for treason in 1683. A reply to Filmer's PATRIARCHA, the DISCOURSES is one of the earliest modern statements of republican ideals. He proposes a doctrine of natural justice and governmental order from which all institutions vary at their peril. More important, Sidney asserts that a king's authority is granted by parliament, which has the additional power to depose him, indeed a controversial idea during the Restoration period. Thomas Jefferson, one of several individuals influenced by this text, described it as '. . . probably the best elementary book of the principles of government, as founded in natural right which has ever been published in any language; and it is much to be desired in such a government as ours that it should be put into the hands of our youth as soon as their minds are sufficiently matured for that branch of study.' (Sowerby). Sidney [1622-1683], was beheaded by Charles II in part for his involvement in the Rye House plot. One of the other charges against him was that he had committed treasonable libel in this work, which was still in manuscript at that time. Sowerby, Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, III: 12. Marke, A Catalogue of the Law Collection at New York University (1953) 953. Catalogue of the Library of the Harvard Law School (1909) II: 588. Sweet and Maxwell, A Legal Bibliography of the British Commonwealth of Nations I: 107. Wing, Short Title Catalogue of English Books 1641-1700 S3761." -- Publisher

    Sidney, Algernon (author), and Hans W. Blom (editor), Eco Haitsma-Mulier (editor), Ronald Janse (editor), Raymond Geuss (editor), Quentin Skinner (editor), Sidney: Court Maxims, ISBN: 0521467365 9780521467360.
    "This remarkable expression of republican thought has never before been published. Algernon Sidney was among the most unrelenting republican partisans of the seventeenth century, and was executed for his opposition to Charles II. Written during Sidney's continental exile, the vivid COURT MAXIMS was only recently rediscovered. The work presents a lively discussion about the principles of government and the practice of politics, articulating a vital tradition of republicanism in an absolutist age." -- Publisher
    "Until quite recently, this wonderful book was lost to the world. Sidney was one of the most eloquent advocates for republicanism and liberty in his or any period of history. This work offers a clear and direct exposition of his political philosophy. Although it is no substitute for his great DISCOURSES CONCERNING GOVERNMENT it is certainly a worthy compliment." -- Will Murphy

    See also: The sovereignty of god, The doctrine of man (human nature, total depravity), Soteriology, atonement, Covetousness, greed, selfishness, The inspiration and infallibility of scripture (the doctrine of revelation, the doctrine of plenary inspiration, the doctrine of divine inspiration, the doctrine of verbal inspiration, The ten commandments, the moral law, Trusting god, Idolatry, Theft, Sexual relationship, Spiritual adultery (spiritual whoredom/harlotry), Idolatry, syncretism, Sexual wholeness, Rebellion and lawlessness: wickedness, demonic possession, substance abuse, abnormal behavior, insanity, mental illness, mental retardation, Repentance, the key to salvation and change, Justice, the theology of judgment, god's final judgment, the great white throne judgment, the day of the lord, The sovereign grace of god: his everlasting mercy and lovingkindness, Constitutionalism, The utter failure of the u.s. constitution as a social deed of covenant, Politics, Church and state, Power, Authority, The courts and the law base, Conspiracy and corruption, Individual responsibility, Christian scholarship, Servant leadership, Background and history of the covenanted reformation, The sovereign grace of god: his everlasting mercy and lovingkindness, and so forth, and so on.

    Related WebLinks

    The Christian and Politics #06: The Effects of Deism and Democracy on our Christian Heritage
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, The Christian and Politics
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12705183120

    John Calvin and Calvinism

    John Calvin
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, 46 min.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=92903104854

    Speaking on Calvinism
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, 53 min.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=8110391415

    Theology of John Calvin
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, 40 min.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=1060385424

    The History of Calvinism
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, The Christian View of History
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=72902195726

    Calvinism and the Reformation
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, 76 min.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=8180372910

    Church History #28: John Calvin
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Church History, 76 min.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=4150417057

    Church History #29: John Calvin and the Church #1
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Church History, 43 min.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=415041727

    Church History #30: John Calvin and the Church #2
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Church History, 67 min.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=4150417258



    A Theological Interpretation of American History

    See the Theological Notes, "God's Covenant of Grace," at Genesis 12:1 in The Reformation Study Bible.

    See Isaiah 40:1--55:13 and annotation in The Reformation Study Bible.

    Piety commands that the law and church of God be maintained. Justice requires that tyrants and destroyers of the commonwealth be compelled to reason. Charity challenges the right of relieving and restoring the oppressed. Those who make no account of these things do as much as in them lies to drive piety, justice, and charity out of this world, that they may never more be heard of. -- Junius Brutus

    Of course, the influence of theology on corporate bodies has its counterpart in influence of theology on the lives of individuals. For example, see Howie's appendix titled 'The Judgment and Justice of God,' which chronicles God's judgments upon Reformation apostates and those who persecuted the Covenanters. The appendix is found in THE SCOTS WORTHIES. BIOGRAPHIA SCOTICANA: OR, A BRIEF HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF THE LIVES, CHARACTERS, AND MEMORABLE TRANSACTIONS OF THE MOST EMINENT SCOTS WORTHIES, 2ND EDITION, CORRECTED AND ENLARGED, 1781, by John Howie and listed below.

    *Moore, Edwin Nisbet, Our Covenant Heritage: The Covenanters' Struggle for Unity in Truth as Revealed in the Memoir of James Nisbet (1667-1728), and Sermons of John Nevay (d. 1672), ISBN: 1857926188. Includes bibliographical references and index.
    "A new book, OUR COVENANT HERITAGE, examines the rise and fall of the Scottish Church. It rose when men placed the rights of God above the rights of man. It fell when men abandoned unity in truth. It is written by Ed Moore, who spent several years examining why the Covenanters, particularly those who lived near Loudoun Castle, were willing to die for their understanding of God's truth. The answer is found in the sermons of their minister John Nevay on God's Covenant of Grace and in the Memoirs of James Nisbet, one of their number who survived their epic battle for truth only to face the age-old struggle of Christ's church for unity in truth." -- Publisher
    Our Covenant Heritage, Edwin Nesbet Moore
    http://www.covenanters.com/

    Pettit, Philip, Republicanism: A Theory of Freedom and Government, ISBN: 0198296428 9780198296423.
    "A full-length presentation of a republican alternative to the liberal and communitarian theories that have dominated political philosophy in recent years. The author opens with an examination of the traditional republican conception of freedom as non-domination, contrasting this with established negative and positive views of liberalism. The book examines what the implementation of the ideal would imply for substantive policy-making, constitutional and democratic design, regulatory control and the relation between state and civil society. Professor Pettit's work offers not only a unified, theoretical overview of the many strands of republican ideas, it also provides a sophisticated perspective on studies in related fields including the history of ideas, jurisprudence, and criminology. The author has included a postscript to this edition, which offers a sketch of the crucial republican ideas, and to reinforce the argument that the republican tradition deserves more attention than it has generally received among contemporary political theorists." -- Editorial Review

    Pierce, Franklin, Federal Usurpation (Crown Rights Book Company, 2002, 1908).
    "This book is a plea for the sacredness of the Constitution of the United States.
    "The bloated and all-pervasive Federal bureaucracy which now rules the American people from Washington, D.C. did not arise overnight. Instead, as the author of this important volume documents, the usurpations of the Lincoln Administration during the War of 1861 and that of the Radical Republican Congress during Reconstruction were the fundamental causes of the existing political conditions of today. Pierce also discusses the inherent flaws in the Constitution which were the result of compromise between the quarreling factions at the Convention of 1787, and which would later lead to corruptions dangerous to the liberties of the people of the several States. The book concludes with a chapter entitled, 'How to Restore the Democratic Republic'." -- Publisher

    Sage, Bernard Janin, The Republic of Republics: or, American Federal Liberty (Crown Rights Book Company, 2003, 1878).
    "This is one of the most comprehensive treatises ever published on the doctrine of State sovereignty and the inherent right of a State to secede from the Union. Written by an English barrister who was to have been one of Jefferson Davis' counsel in the treason trial which never occurred, this book compiles extensive quotations from the earliest American statesmen, both before and after the ratification of the Constitution in 1789, which prove beyond all argument that the American people were never organized into a consolidated democracy, but had existed in their colonial condition as separate political bodies and continued to do so after their independence from Great Britain. The author singles out the tortured logic of Webster and Lincoln for heavy criticism, and shows that allegiance and treason are terms which have no meaning constitutionally if not in reference to a sovereign State. Also included are nine lengthy appendices outlining the ordaining acts of the original thirteen States in the Union, the changes made to the Constitution by the Southern States in 1861, the original forms of the Tenth Amendment, a review of Alexander Stephens' CONSTITUTIONAL VIEW OF THE WAR BETWEEN THE STATES, etc." -- Crown Rights Books Company

    *Singer, C. Gregg (1910-1999), From Rationalism to Irrationality: The Decline of the Western Mind From the Renaissance to the Present, ISBN: 0875524281 9780875524283 and a reprint of the P&R Publishing edition of 1979 (Wipf and Stock, 2006), 479 pp.
    "Now, frankly students, this course is presented from obviously the Reformed Theology. I hold unabashedly, unashamedly to the whole of Reformed Theology as we find it specifically in the Westminster Confession of Faith (1646) and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms.
    "At the same time I hold to a position in regard to Apologetics generally known as Presuppositionalism, and particularly that view held by Cornelius Van Til.
    "This book is an attempt to enlarge and to broaden the scope of Van Til's own Apologetical system, and also his Epistemology. By that I mean, and I worked this book with him, so anything that I say is not to be construed as a criticism of Cornelius Van Til. I might add he wrote me a letter. He is delighted with this book. But what I did was to take his principles, both of Apologetics and of Epistemology, and apply them to all realms of modern thought.
    "Dr. Van Til, for good and sufficient reason, sought to limit to the main stream of what we might call pure Philosophy, that is from Saint Thomas, well even before them, back to the Greeks, but particularly in the more modern period, from Saint Thomas Aquinas, William of Ockham (Occam), down through Descartes, the Rationalists, the Empiricists, down to Kant and Hegel, and of course Modern Philosophy and Modern Theology. Very seldom has he gone into what we might call the arena of Political Philosophy, or the arena of Social Thought, or the arena of Psychology and Psychiatry, the realm of Educational Philosophy, and into Art, Music, and so on, to the Fine Arts.
    "This book is an attempt to apply his system, and show what happens when the Western mind has forsaken his principles, or the principles which he has espoused, and turned into its own way. And thus the book called FROM RATIONALISM TO IRRATIONALITY. The thesis being that the Rationalism inherent in Saint Thomas and the post-Thomists, and more particularly, and more openly, in the Philosophy of the Renaissance, and Descartes, and Spinosa, and Leibniz has, as it's gained momentum in the modern world, brought Western Culture to its knees. We are living, as I would think, in the death throws of the Western Cultures, the Western Civilization." -- Dr. C. Gregg Singer, in the introductory address to his course in Apologetics soon after FROM RATIONALISM TO IRRATIONALITY came off the press in 1979
    Apologetics: #01: Classical and Medieval Thought #1
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Apologetics, 56 min.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=2250511453
    "Locke endeavored to set forth a political philosophy which would anchor his democratic political thought on what he felt were the firm foundations of his empiricism. However, his insistence that nature has bestowed upon mankind certain basic and inalienable rights was an assumption quite contrary to his empiricism. His denial of conscience as an innate possession or quality makes it impossible for men to know that they possess the rights of life, liberty, and property. The very concept of a human right is moral in nature and has its basis of authority in the human conscience. It is thus impossible for men to know through the senses that they have these cherished human rights. Granted that it was far from Locke's intention to undermine or destroy the traditional English concept of personal rights, his empiricism removed from his political thought the necessary foundations on which a government could be built for the protection of these rights. His empiricism supported neither the idea that men have such rights nor that they are inalienable. (p. 61)
    "Underlying the secular and naturalistic assumptions of the thought of the Enlightenment was a related and equally serious problem. In their political and economic thought the leaders of this era were passionately devoted to the pursuit of freedom, and yet they seemed to be completely unaware of this incompatibility between their quest for freedom on the one hand and their reliance upon natural law on the other. How can an impersonal and deterministic concept of law produce and sustain a meaningful concept of freedom? Blindly convinced that there was no problem involved in the contradiction, the leaders of the Enlightenment pushed boldly ahead in the quest for political and economic liberty. However, their failure to recognize the issues involved in this quest led not only to the disaster of the French Revolution but to the growth of the totalitarian political and economic philosophies which first appeared in Hegel and Marx during the nineteenth century and reached their culmination in the totalitarianism of the twentieth century." (p. 73) -- quoted at the blog, Imago Veritatis: Post-modern Reformed Paleo-orthodoxy
    Singer used this as textbook for his course in Apologetics. Epistemology is a recurring theme throughout the textbook and the course. The series of 24 addresses on Apologetics is available free online. See "Apolgetics" under:
    Works of C. Gregg Singer
    http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr3ch.html#cgsinger

    *Singer, C. Gregg (1910-1999), A Theological Interpretation of American History, 1994 edition, 354 pages (Greenville, SC: A Press, 1994, 1981, 1975, 1974, 1964), ISBN: 0875524265 9780875524269. A Christian classic.
    This book portrays "the influence of theology and the changing doctrines in the life of the church on the pattern of American political, constitutional, social and economic development.
    "The author shows that the decline of constitutional government in this country is the result of the departure from historical Christian faith and the resulting rise of alien political philosophies. Particularly does he emphasize the intimate relationship between theological liberalism on the one hand and political, social, and economic liberalism on the other. This theological liberalism has been a major agent in the decline of the Constitution in the political life of the people and in the appearance of a highly centralized government." -- Publisher
    "There is between the democratic philosophy and theological liberalism a basic affinity which has placed them in the same camp in many major political struggles.
    "This condition exists because theological liberalism shares the basic postulates of the democratic philosophy. . . .
    "Theological liberalism at heart has been a continuing protest against Calvinism, particularly against its insistence on the Sovereignty of God and the Total Depravity of the race. These two Biblical doctrines have often proved to be a stumbling block to theologians within the church as well as to the unbelieving world.
    "The result of theological liberalism has been the movement away from constitutionalism and away from liberty, and a movement toward collectivistic society and totalitarian regime." -- C. Gregg Singer, A Theological Interpretation of American History, p. 290
    See also: John Knox, the Scottish Covenanters, and the Westminster Assembly (tape 3 of 5), in a series of addresses History Notes on Presbyterianism, Reformation, and Theology by Dr. C. Gregg Singer on SermonAudion.com
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12607114250
    See also:
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer at SermonAudio.com (161 messages)
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/search.asp?SpeakerOnly=true&currSection=sermonsspeaker&Keyword=Dr.^C.^Gregg^Singer

    See also: The sovereignty of god, The doctrine of man (human nature, total depravity), Soteriology, atonement, Covetousness, greed, selfishness, The inspiration and infallibility of scripture (the doctrine of revelation, the doctrine of plenary inspiration, the doctrine of divine inspiration, the doctrine of verbal inspiration, The ten commandments, the moral law, Trusting god, History, "his" story, Church history, The works of c. gregg singer, Lectures by dr. c. gregg singer at the mount olive tape library of reformed theology and sermonaudio.com, Idolatry, Theft, Sexual relationship, Spiritual adultery (spiritual whoredom/harlotry), Idolatry, syncretism, Sexual wholeness, Reform of the Church, The protestant reformation, Background and history of the covenanted reformation, Toleration, liberty of conscience, pluralism, and neutrality, Rebellion and lawlessness: wickedness, demonic possession, substance abuse, abnormal behavior, insanity, mental illness, mental retardation, Repentance, the key to salvation and change, Justice, the theology of judgment, god's final judgment, the great white throne judgment, the day of the lord, The sovereign grace of god: his everlasting mercy and lovingkindness, Corporate faithfulness and sanctification, The ideology of the american revolution, God's sovereign hand in history, History, "his-story," Church history, The history of reformation of the church, A theological interpretation of american history, Background and history of the covenanted reformation of scotland, Selection of covenant heads for positions of leadership, Revisionist history

    Related WebLinks

    Works of C. Gregg Singer
    http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr3ch.html#cgsinger

    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Mount Olive Tape Library lectures, (MP3 audio files), approximately 161 of 171
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/search.asp?speakeronly=true&currsection=sermonsspeaker&keyword=Dr._C._Gregg_Singer
    The Catalog of the Mount Olive Tape Library in PDF Format
    http://www.lettermen2.com/olivecat.pdf
    Mt. Olive Audio Library, Greenville Presbyterian Theological Seminary
    http://gpts.edu/media/index.php?currpage=1&sa_action=
    Greenville Seminary & Mt. Olive
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/source_detail.asp?sourceid=gpts

    Rethinking the Articles of Confederation, H.A. Scott Trask
    http://www.mises.org/fullstory.asp?control=1296



    Constitutionalism

    Calvin, John (1509-1564), Epistle Dedicatory [to Calvin's Commentary on Hebrews -- compiler], by John Calvin, to the Most Mighty and Most Serene Prince, Sigismund Augustus, by the Grace of God, the King of Poland, Great Duke of Lithuania, Russia, Prussia, and Lord and Heir of Muscovy, etc.
    "You kingdom is extensive and renowned, and abounds in many excellencies, but its happiness will then only be solid, when it adopts Christ as its chief ruler and governor, so that it may be defended by his safeguard and protection; for to submit your sceptre to him, is not inconsistent with that elevation in which you are placed; but it would be far more glorious than all the triumphs of the world. . . ."
    http://www.biblestudyguide.org/comment/calvin/comm_vol44/htm/v.htm

    Napolitano, Andrew P., Theodore and Woodrow: How Two American Presidents Destroyed Constitutional Freedom, ISBN 9781595553515 1595553517.
    "Either the Constitution means what it says, or it doesn't." -- Judge Napolitano
    "America's founding fathers saw freedom as a part of our nature to be protected -- not to be usurped by the federal government -- and so enshrined separation of powers and guarantees of freedom in the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. But a little over a hundred years after America's founding, those God-given rights were laid siege by two presidents caring more about the advancement of progressive, redistributionist ideology than the principles on which America was founded.
    "THEODORE AND WOODROW is Judge Andrew P. Napolitano's shocking historical account of how a Republican and a Democratic president oversaw the greatest shift in power in American history, from a land built on the belief that authority should be left to the individuals and the states, to a bloated, far-reaching federal bureaucracy, continuing to grow and consume power each day.
    "With lessons rooted in history, Judge Napolitano shows the intellectually arrogant, anti-personal freedom, even racist progressive philosophy driving these men to poison the American system of government.
    "And Americans still pay for their legacy -- in the federal income, in state-prescribed compulsory education, in the Federal Reserve, in perpetual wars, and in the constant encroachment of a government that coddles special interests and discourages true competition in the marketplace.
    "With his attention to detail, deep constitutional knowledge, and unwavering adherence to truth telling, Judge Napolitano moves through the history of these men and their times in office to show how American values and the Constitution were sadly set aside, leaving personal freedom as a shadow of its former self, in the grip of an insidious, Nanny state, progressive ideology." -- Publisher "Judge Andrew P. Napolitano is Fox News Channel's senior judicial analyst, currently seen by millions of viewers weeknights on "The Big Story" and "The O'Reilly Factor." Napolitano is the youngest person in New Jersey history to receive a lifetime judgeship. He is bright (graduate of Princeton and Notre Dame Law School), articulate (four times voted most outstanding professor at the two law schools at which he taught), and broadcast-experienced (as a daily fixture on Fox News Channel since 1998). He is the author of CONSTITUTIONAL CHAOS and THE CONSTITUTION IN EXILE." -- Publisher "This book is an important contribution to the historian who would connect the dots from the early Progressive era to today, in figuring out how and why there was a silent revolution by the radical Left to destroy the Constitution and replace it with a Marxist platform. One can well argue that the Marxists captured the White House BEFORE they captured the Kremlin! Wilson and T. Roosevelt implemented radical ideas that were subsequently built upon by almost every administration since. One can see this Red Thread running through the entire fabric of the national government for more than a century now. So many planks of Karl Marx were accomplished by Wilson and Col. Mandel House that historians of the future will be compelled to ask how such a paradigm shift could occur without a guiding hand behind it (and I do not refer to a Divine Hand). It took two world wars to keep the American People diverted away from what amounted to a coup d'etat. Thanks to Judge Napolitano for this expose. Napolitano should be sitting on the Supreme Court. But then, what SHOULD be, rarely is." -- Reader's Comment

    Powell, Jim, Wilson's War: How Woodrow Wilson's Great Blunder led to Hitler, Lenin, Stalin, and World War II, ISBN: 1400082366 9781400082360.

    *Rutherford, Samuel (1600-1661), A Free Disputation Against Pretended Liberty of Conscience, 1649. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #9, #25, and #26.
    "Rutherford's FREE DISPUTATION, though scarce, is still one of his most important works with maybe only a few copies of the actual book left in existence. Though Rutherford is affectionately remembered in our day for his LETTERS, or for laying the foundations of constitutional government (against the divine right of kings), in his unsurpassed LEX, REX his FREE DISPUTATION should not be overlooked for it contains the same searing insights as LEX, REX. In fact, this book should probably be known as Rutherford's 'politically incorrect' companion volume to LEX, REX. A sort of sequel aimed at driving pluralists and antinomians insane. Written against 'the Belgick Arminians, Socinians, and other Authors contending for lawlesse liberty, or licentious Tolerations of Sects and Heresies,' Rutherford explains the undiluted Biblical solution to moral relativism, especially as it is expressed in ecclesiastical and civil pluralism! (Corporate pluralism being a violation of the first commandment and an affront to the holy God of Scripture). He also deals with conscience, toleration, penology (punishment), and the judicial laws, as related to both the civil and ecclesiastical realms. Excellent sections are also included which address questions related to determining the fundamentals of religion, how covenants bind us, the perpetual obligation of social covenants (with direct application to the Solemn League and Covenant and the covenant-breaking of Cromwell and his sectarian supporters), whether the punishing of seducing teachers be persecution of conscience, and much more. Walker adds these comments and context regarding Rutherford's FREE DISPUTATION, 'The principle of toleration was beginning to be broached in England, and in a modified shape to find acceptance there. Samuel Rutherford was alarmed, or rather, I should say, he was horrified, for he neither feared the face of man or argument. He rushed to the rescue of the good old view . . . It is not so easy to find a theoretical ground for toleration; and Rutherford has many plausible things to say against it. With the most perfect confidence, he argues that it is alike against Scripture and common sense that you should have two religions side by side. It is outrageous ecclesiastically, it is sinful civilly. He does not, however, take what I call the essentially persecuting ground. He does not hold that the magistrate is to punish religion as religion. Nay, he strongly maintains that the civil magistrate never aims at the conscience. The magistrate, he urges, does not send anyone, whether a heretic (who is a soul murderer -- RB), or a murderer, to the scaffold with the idea of producing conversion or other spiritual result, but to strengthen the foundations of civil order. But if he gives so much power to the king, he is no lover of despotism withal: the king himself must be under law. To vindicate this great doctrine is the object of another book, the celebrated LEX, REX; of which it has been said by one competent to judge, that it first clearly developed the constitutionalism which all men now accept.' (Theology and Theologians . . . pp. 11-12). In our day Francis Schaeffer, and numerous others, have critiqued many of the problems found in modern society, but most have spent little time developing explicitly Biblical solutions especially regarding the theoretical foundations that Rutherford addresses here. Rutherford's FREE DISPUTATION provides a detailed blueprint for laying the foundations that must be laid before any lasting, God-honoring solutions will be found. Furthermore, Rutherford and his writings were the enemies of all governments not covenanted with Christ. This book will give you a very clear picture as to why 'the beast' (civil and ecclesiastical), has reserved his special hatred for such teaching. As Samuel Wylie noted 'the dispute, then, will not turn upon the point whether religion should be civilly established . . . but it is concerning what religion ought to be civilly established and protected, -- whether the religion of Jesus alone should be countenanced by civil authority, or every blasphemous, heretical, and idolatrous abomination which the subtle malignity of the old serpent and a heart deceitful above all things and desperately wicked, can frame and devise, should be put on an equal footing therewith." -- The Two Sons of Oil; or, the Faithful Witness for Magistracy and Ministry Upon a Scriptural Basis. Can our generation swallow Rutherford's hard, anti-pluralistic, Covenanter medicine, poured forth from the bottle of the first commandment, without choking on their carnal dreams of a free and righteous society divorced from God (and His absolute claims upon everyone and everything)? Not without the enabling power of the Holy Spirit -- that is for sure! In summary, this book answers all the hardest questions theonomists (and their wisest and best opponents), have been asking for the last 20-30 years (and these answers are much more in depth than any we have seen in the last couple of millennia. [less about a century to account for the apostles]). As the reader will discover, Rutherford was a wealthy man when it came to wisdom (and much advanced theologically), and those who take the time to gaze into the King's treasure house, as exhibited in this book, will find that they are greatly rewarded. Furthermore, because of its uncompromising stand upon the Word of God, this book is sure to be unpopular among a wicked and adulterous generation. However, on the other hand, it is sure to be popular among the covenanted servants of King Jesus! This is one of the best books (in the top five anyway), for advanced study of the Christian faith. We have now obtained an easy-to-read, amazingly clear copy of this very rare, old treasure. Great price too, considering that a copy of the 1649 edition, containing this quality of print, would likely cost upwards of $1000 on the rare book market -- though it is unlikely you would ever see a copy for sale!" -- Publisher
    The Covenant Between God and Kings, from A DEFENSE OF LIBERTY
    http://www.constitution.org/vct/vindiciae1a.htm

    *Rutherford, Samuel (1600-1661), Lex, Rex, or the Law and the Prince, ISBN: 0873779517. A Christian classic. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #10, #25.
    Lex, rex is Latin for "law is king."
    "LEX, REX is 'the great political text of the Covenanters.' (Johnston citing Innes in Treasury of the Scottish Covenant, p. 305). 'Rutherford was the first to formulate the great constitutional principle Lex est Rex -- the law is King . . . much of the doctrine has become the constitutional inheritance of all countries in modern times.' (Idem.)
    "Gilmour writes [in SAMUEL RUTHERFORD], 'that, as regards religious fervor, scholastic subtlety of intellect, and intensity of ecclesiastical conviction, Samuel Rutherford is the most distinctively representative Scotsman in the first half of the seventeenth century'." -- Publisher
    "Without a doubt one of the greatest books on political philosophy ever written. Rutherford here has penned a great Christian charter of liberty against all forms of civil tyranny -- vindicating the Scriptural duty to resist tyrants as an act of loyalty to God." -- Publisher
    "That resistance to lawful authority -- even when that authority so called has, in point of fact, set at naught all law -- is in no instance to be vindicated, will be held by those only who are the devotees of arbitrary power and passive obedience. The principles of Mr. Rutherford's LEX, REX, however obnoxious they may be to such men, are substantially the principles on which all government is founded, and without which the civil magistrate would become a curse rather than a blessing to a country. They are the very principles which lie at the basis of the British Constitution, and by whose tenure the House of Brunswick does at this very moment hold possession of the throne of these realms." -- Rev. Robert Burns, D.D., in his Preliminary Dissertation to WODROW'S CHURCH HISTORY
    "Though Rutherford is affectionately remembered in our day for his Letters, or for laying the foundations of constitutional government (against the divine right of kings), in his unsurpassed LEX, REX, his Free Disputation should not be overlooked for it contains the same searing insights as Lex, Rex. In fact, this book should probably be known as Rutherford's 'politically incorrect' companion volume to LEX, REX. A sort of sequel aimed at driving pluralists and antinomians insane. Written against 'the Belgick Arminians, Socinians, and other Authors contending for lawlesse liberty, or licentious Tolerations of Sects and Heresies,' Rutherford explains the undiluted Biblical solution to moral relativism, especially as it is expressed in ecclesiastical and civil pluralism! (Corporate pluralism being a violation of the first commandment and an affront to the holy God of Scripture)." -- Publisher
    "This [THE DUE RIGHT OF PRESBYTERIES OR A PEACEABLE PLEA FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND . . . ], could be considered the LEX, REX of church government -- another exceedingly rare masterpiece of Presbyterianism! Characterized by Walker as sweeping 'over a wider field than most'." -- Publisher
    A HIND LET LOOSE by Alexander Shields is sometimes referred to as 'Lex, Rex volume two.'
    Lex, Rex, or The Law and the Prince, Samuel Rutherford
    "Rutherford is to be praised for his teaching that the king is subject to the law of God. The Bible has nothing but condemnation for those who frame mischief by a law and declares rhetorically, Shall the throne of iniquity have fellowship with thee? (Ps. 94:20 [Psalm 94:20]). Deuteronomy 17 is the classic passage in defense of Lex, Rex, wherein the king is charged to read therein all the days of his life: that he may learn to fear the Lord his God, to keep all the words of this law." (Deut. 17:19 [Deuteronomy 17:19])
    http://www.constitution.org/sr/lexrex.htm
    Lex, rex: the law and the prince, a dispute for the just prerogative of king and people, containing the reasons and causes of the defensive wars of the kingdom of Scotland, and of their expedition for the ayd and help of their brethren of England. In which a full answer is given to a seditious pamphlet, entitled, Sacro-sancta regum majestas, penned by J. Maxwell. By S. Rutherford. [Followed by], De jure regni apud Scotos; a dialogue, tr. by R. Macfarlan (repr. from the ed. of 1799).
    http://books.google.com/books?id=jtYDAAAAQAAJ&ie=ISO-8859-1&output=html
    Rutherford, Samuel (1600-1661), Lex, rex: The law and the Prince, a Dispute for the Just Prerogative of King and People . . . (1843)
    http://archive.org/details/lexrexlawandpri00ruthgoog
    The Covenant Between God and Kings, from A DEFENSE OF LIBERTY
    http://www.constitution.org/vct/vindiciae1a.htm

    *Schwertley, Brian M., and Westminster Presbyterian Church in the United States. Publications Committee, National Covenanting and Christ's Victory Over the Nations. Available at Reformed Online.
    "This is an outstanding accomplishment. It weaves all the strands of social/national covenanting into one comprehensive, up-to-date statement in 530 pages. It includes extensive documentation, Scripture proofs, footnotes, appendixes, author index, and Scripture index.
    "NATIONAL COVENANTING AND CHRIST'S VICTORY OVER THE NATIONS could serve as an advanced study guide for individuals who, by the Grace of God, have been guided to social/national covenanting, yet have not found time for additional self-education.
    "Notice also that best books are frequently relevant to a broad range of other topics. This is such a book.
    "It is a scholarly presentation of the biblical model for real reformation of society. So, do not buy a copy, and then let it sit on the shelf for years unread.
    "It was preceded by 'Social Covenanting,' a series of 31 sermons in MP3 format, given by the author starting in the summer of 2012." -- Steven C. Kettler
    Social Covenanting series of 31 sermons by Brian Schwertley
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/search.asp?seriesOnly=true&currSection=sermonstopic&sourceid=ccc&keyword=National+Covenanting&keyworddesc=National+Covenanting

    *Singer, C. Gregg (1910-1999), A Theological Interpretation of American History, 1994 edition, 354 pages (Greenville, SC: A Press, 1994, 1981, 1975, 1974, 1964), ISBN: 0875524265 9780875524269. A Christian classic.
    This book portrays "the influence of theology and the changing doctrines in the life of the church on the pattern of American political, constitutional, social and economic development.
    "The author shows that the decline of constitutional government in this country is the result of the departure from historical Christian faith and the resulting rise of alien political philosophies. Particularly does he emphasize the intimate relationship between theological liberalism on the one hand and political, social, and economic liberalism on the other. This theological liberalism has been a major agent in the decline of the Constitution in the political life of the people and in the appearance of a highly centralized government." -- Publisher
    "There is between the democratic philosophy and theological liberalism a basic affinity which has placed them in the same camp in many major political struggles.
    "This condition exists because theological liberalism shares the basic postulates of the democratic philosophy. . . .
    "Theological liberalism at heart has been a continuing protest against Calvinism, particularly against its insistence on the Sovereignty of God and the Total Depravity of the race. These two Biblical doctrines have often proved to be a stumbling block to theologians within the church as well as to the unbelieving world.
    "The result of theological liberalism has been the movement away from constitutionalism and away from liberty, and a movement toward collectivistic society and totalitarian regime." -- C. Gregg Singer, A Theological Interpretation of American History, p. 290
    See also: John Knox, the Scottish Covenanters, and the Westminster Assembly (tape 3 of 5), in a series of addresses History Notes on Presbyterianism, Reformation, and Theology by Dr. C. Gregg Singer on SermonAudion.com
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12607114250
    See also:
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer at SermonAudio.com (161 messages)
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/search.asp?SpeakerOnly=true&currSection=sermonsspeaker&Keyword=Dr.^C.^Gregg^Singer

    See also: Christianity and democracy, The sovereignty of god, The doctrine of man (human nature, total depravity), Soteriology, atonement, Covetousness, greed, selfishness, The inspiration and infallibility of scripture (the doctrine of revelation, the doctrine of plenary inspiration, the doctrine of divine inspiration, the doctrine of verbal inspiration, The ten commandments, the moral law, Trusting god, The covenant faithfulness of god, Covenant theology and the ordinance of covenanting, The westminster confession of faith and related documents, The covenanted reformation, Reform of the church, Leniency, Church discipline, Unfaithful reformed ministries, The utter failure of the u.s. constitution as a social deed of covenant, The destruction of liberty in america, The decline of american society, Corporate faithfulness and sanctification, Selection of covenant heads for positions of leadership, The works of c. gregg singer, Lectures by dr. c. gregg singer at the mount olive tape library of reformed theology and sermonaudio.com, Toleration, liberty of conscience, pluralism, and neutrality, Idolatry, Theft, Sexual relationship, Spiritual adultery (spiritual whoredom/harlotry), Idolatry, syncretism, Sexual wholeness, Rebellion and lawlessness: wickedness, demonic possession, substance abuse, abnormal behavior, insanity, mental illness, mental retardation, Repentance, the key to salvation and change, Justice, the theology of judgment, god's final judgment, the great white throne judgment, the day of the lord, The sovereign grace of god: his everlasting mercy and lovingkindness, The ideology of the american revolution, and so forth, and so on.

    Related WebLinks

    Social Covenanting series of 31 sermons by Brian Schwertley
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/search.asp?seriesOnly=true&currSection=sermonstopic&sourceid=ccc&keyword=National+Covenanting&keyworddesc=National+Covenanting

    Works of C. Gregg Singer
    http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr3ch.html#cgsinger

    Rethinking the Articles of Confederation, H.A. Scott Trask
    http://www.mises.org/fullstory.asp?control=1296

    Restoring the Republic with Truth and Fearlessness, Karen Kwiatkowski
    "The agreement put forth in the Articles of Confederation established a classical and workable Republic. That is, a 'mixed constitutional government which embodies civic duty, virtue, social cohesion and where there is a high devotion, fidelity and regard for the rule of law.' One thing comes through for all types of republican forms of government. This is the idea of partnership -- consenting, agreeable, aware and free partnerships, between large and small states, between those people and states with very different talents, skills, resources -- but joined together for peacefulness and profitability. The Articles put forth such a partnership, with a presiding administrative president."
    http://www.lewrockwell.com/kwiatkowski/kwiatkowski184.html



    Christianity and Democracy

    If the people be governors, who shall be governed? -- John Cotton (1584-1652)

    A simple democracy is the devil's own government. -- Benjamin Rush

    In Calvin's concept of the church you have the seed of the constitutional republic, as over against the democracy. Calvin did not teach democracy, either in government or in the church. What he did teach was a constitutional monarchy in the church, as Christ rules it, and under him a constitutional republic, the rule by the elders and the minister." -- C. Gregg Singer in John Calvin

    Thus, the Puritans believed that all government is ordained by God to carry out His Law in the State. Away with this heresy of democracy. There has been no greater poisen in the human mind today than the theory and philosophy, and I might add, the practice of democracy, for democracy today has destroyed itself. It has eaten itself up. It in done. And I might add, unless, unless, somehow Calvinism can be restored to its proper and historical place in American history, in the American society, we are going to see a dictatorship emerge in this country. I don't think there is any question of this.
    Law, then, must be carried out by the State in regard to the Word of God. The State does not exist to tickle its citizens, to tickle their fancies. It exists to carry out His Law.
    The next great principle, then, is this. That government derives its just powers from God and not from the consent of the governed. When John Locke brought this poisen into American history he sowed the seed which we are reaping today in the fruit of anarchy, lawlessness, immoral degeneracy, and what not. I want you to get that very straight. John Locke is not a hero. Jefferson is not a hero. They sow the seeds of destruction. And the textbooks, which some of you were raised upon, and I admit, on which I was raised until I doubted -- [got] it differently, contained this terrible heresy. There is no greater heresy, there is not greater seed of destruction than this idea that government exists by the consent of the governed. And Abraham Lincoln was so horribly wrong when he said "government by the people, for the people, and of the people" in the reverse order. This is wrong! Totally wrong. It has no historical foundation, it has no philosophical foundation, it has no theological foundation -- now it has no justification. Government derives its just powers from God. You know why? Government exists for the glory of God and not for the glory of a political party -- not for the glory of the people, not for the glory of any group within the state. Government exists for the glory of God. The Lord reigneth, let the people rejoice.
    The government does not exist for the benefit of the majority or any minority. It exists to maintain justice for the glory of God, to execute his revealed will in the form of statutory law, for the proper government of his people.
    You know, a long time ago John Cotton wrote, and he saw this so very clearly, "If the people govern, who shall be governed?" (laughter). You think about that. You think about that and you will see the answer. It is spelled A-N-A-R-C-H-Y. You know, there is a tremendous statement, I think it is in the last verse, or the next to the last verse of the book of Samuel -- of Judges "There was no king in those days and the people did as everyone saw fit in his own eyes." Have we not reached that place today? If we havn't, I don't know what it is which we have. . . . -- C. Gregg Singer in The Christian View of History

    Now note, we talk about the glories of Greek democracy. Do you know how long democracy lasted. You do not, do you? Thirty years. Thirty years. And what took its place? The word still survives in our language. The tyrant. Hoy kurinoi [sic], the tyrant, which even today has a very sinister implication which we use when we are speaking of people who have put themselves above the law, and have exercised tyranical power. You see, even in Plato democracy, which he preached, was what? -- a thinly veiled absolutism in which the irrationality of his philosophy gives rise to what? -- absolutism in politics.
    And I want you to write this down as a note today that where you have irrationalism in politics, notably the democratic philosophy, you will find that it produces and gives way to an absolutism, because this philosophical irrationalism of which we have been speaking must always create a defense against itself, the antidote to its own lawlessness. And in the political field democracy will always produce tyranny or dictatorship. And you say to me, no, do you not believe in democracy? No, I do not. It is thoroughly pagan concept of government, giving forth perfectly pagan ends or results. I do not believe in democracy. And you look at me as if I am some sort of potential Hitler. No, I am not at all. I believe in a constitutional republic, but I do not believe in democracy. To worship at the shrine of democracy is to worship at your own clay feet. -- C. Gregg Singer in Classical and Medieval Thought #2

    Simply to say, that Locke set the stage for the degredation of modern man, for the degredation from the rationality in the universe, for the degredation of education, for the degredation of political philosophy, for the degredation of social philosophy, for the degredation of the church.
    Now, why do I say this? I say it with good reason, and I would suggest that sometime, when you have time, not for this course, but when you have time, read a very powerful treatment of this basic idea by John H. Hallowell, the very learned and very able professor of Political Philosophy at Duke University [also served as Director of the Lilly Endowment Research Program in Christianity at Duke University -- compiler], a tremendous book called MAIN CURRENTS IN MODERN POLITICAL THOUGHT. He also expanded this idea in another book on modern democracy.
    And I would add, just in passing, that John Hallowell sees very, very clearly what John Locke has meant to the modern world, passing over for the moment the fact that he [Locke -- compiler], can not prove his own position, and he violates his own position of epistemology in asserting it. Nevertheless, he bases this assertive in the realm of Philosophy, that man has no innate ideas, that man learns only through his senses, and in learning only through his senses, of course, he can only have those areas of knowledge, can only inquire in those areas of knowledge which are immediately apprehendable by the senses.
    Now, Locke consciously tried to set forth a new Weltanschauung, or a new world and life view. You will remember that his great work, began in 1690 with his two essays on government. He speedily followed this with an essay on human understanding, and another one in defense of Christianity, a rather feeble defense, but, nevertheless, he did it. . . ." -- C. Gregg Singer in "The Decline of Modern Philosophy" http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=7202144553

    John Marshall, in deciding a case in 1803, Marbury vs. Madison, gave echo, gave voice to this great principle when he said that we are a government of law and not of men. We are a government of law and not of men. Think of that, along with John Cotton, if the people govern, who shall be governed. The answer, of course, is nobody. Anarchy, which is the inevitable result of democracy. Democracy has never done anything except produce dictatorship. You think back. Every democracy has been replaced by the [wavering] hand -- the heavy hand of a despotic government. For when the people govern, it then transforms itself into this question, which people? And of which people, then who, or how small the group?
    Thus, Calvinism was the basic form of reference for our political system of government. Steadily this has been witled away. Unobtrucively at first, and then in the 20th century what was a slow storm, moving very slowly, casting its shadow over the American land. Suddenly it became a hurrican. And the election of 1932 released that hurrican on an unsuspecting public. This was the great pivotal election of this century.
    Often times in class my students ask me about the great pivotal elections. I would say that, perhaps of all the elections, 1932 was it. There were actually two Democratic parties running, The Democratic Party and Roosevelt. (laughter). You know, in 1936 the Republican Party hauled out the 1932 Democratic platform and some of the Democrates, sort of, you know, laughed at this. And, ah, ah, Senator Vandenburg of Michigan said, Why not? You haven't used it. It's still in good condition. (laughter). And he was right.
    I say this, that Roosevelt marks an epical turning point. While he may not have always realized himself, he was not too smart, he just looked that way (laughter), he brought with him a group of people who knew exactly what they were going to do and why. One of them was Henry Wallace.
    Henry Wallace wrote a book and he had it published in London, because it would not have been too wise to publish it here in this country, in which he clearly set forth what he had in mind. And speaking to the National Council of Church, in 1935 and 36 Roosevelt and Henry Wallace and others revealed clearly there great kinship with The Federal Council of Churches and there acceptance of the social creed of that Council which had been revised in 1932, which was a very thinly disquised call for a Christian social collectivism. The easier name was dictatorship.
    This was in the wind. This was in the making. We have widdled away, we have given up through amendment, through judicial decisions, through party platforms, through popular leaders, through apathy, through ignorance, we have given up the heritage.
    You can not have a political dictatorship if you adhere to the principles of Calvinism, because the two are antithetical. It can not be done. It has been done. Why? How? Because of the subtle widdeling away of our Calvinistic heritage. You take the average school book, high school or college, it makes no difference. What do they do? They laugh at Calvinism. They laugh at the Puritans as if the Puritans never had any fun. How? Because of the subtle widdeling away of our Calvinistic heritage. You take the average school book, high school or college, it makes no difference. What do they do? They laugh at Calvinism. They laugh at the Puritans, as if the Puritans never had any fun. You know. They lead a dull life. They were orderly people. You know, they obeyed the law and all that. But they were dull. Dull, gloomy.
    There is only one little problem. Their literature doesn't reveal that at all. You read the liturature. It does not reveal that. It reveals a high degree of political acumen. It reveals a high degree of insight. They were educated people. That . . . I guess that is why our modern leadership thinks they were dull, because our modern leadership certainly is not educated. (laughter). That is one charge that you could never make stick in any House Judiciary Committee, including the Committee. (laughter)
    I may sound bitter. I am not. I may sound sarcastic. I am. (laughter). Sometimes sarcasim has a Christian message. I hope it is a Christian sarcasim. -- C. Gregg Singer in The Christian View of History

    Sometime ago I found an article in the Journal of Religious Education. The writer of the article was Arthur C. McGifford, Sr. He wrote as follows, I quote, "democracy demands a god who will cooperate with us, but never a god to whom it must submit." That is blasphemy. In other words, for McGifford and the liberals, they either have a god who will cooperate with our modern concept of government or he can be dismissed. They will not have a god that will not cooperate with them.
    Now you say, how could he write that? Very easily. All modern thought -- non-Christian -- thought denies this doctrine. But alack and alass, the denial of this doctrine is rampant in the Church. It is rampant in many denominations. It is rampant among those who will deny the sovereignty of Scripture. -- C. Gregg Singer in Theology of John Calvin

    Democracy breeds a spirit of lawlessness and the intense opposition to the notion that men must obey higher authority . . . is basic to the democratic concept of life. -- C. Gregg Singer in The Obedient Life

    There are three kinds of lies: a lie told, a lie taught, a lie acted out. -- Joseph Caryl

    DeJong, Norman, Christianity and Democracy (Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed).
    "He will convince you that democracy is foreign to, and is the enemy of Christianity. And in that you will see why the Christians are again facing the lion's den, being overwhelmed by the democratic society that does not consent to their rule, or even to their peaceful existence." -- Jay P. Green, Sr.
    De Jong, Norman, Christianity vs. Democracy (Westminster Media).
    An audio file.

    *McFetridge, N.S., Calvinism in History. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    "A splendid book." -- Loraine Boettner
    "The rich Reformation heritage of truth and freedom is set forth in four chapters: 1. Calvinism as a Political Force, 2. Calvinism as a Political Force in the History of the USA, 3. Calvinism as a Moral Force, 4. Calvinism as an Evangelizing Force." -- Publisher
    "Arminianism, taking to an aristocratic form of church government, tend toward a monarchy in civil affairs, while Calvinism, taking to a republican form of church government, tends toward a democracy in civil affairs."

    Miller, C. John (1928-1996), Calvinistic Critique of a Radical Democracy (Christian Counseling and Educational Foundation.)
    A lecture as part of the course, Calvinism in American Literature, taught at Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadelphia.
    Audio cassette CM322 [audio file].

    *Phillips, Kevin, Wealth and Democracy: A Political History of the American Rich, ISBN: 0767905334 9780767905336.
    "Most American conservatives take it as an article of faith that the less governmental involvement in affairs of the market and pocketbook the better. The rich do not, whatever they might say -- for much of their wealth comes from the 'power and preferment of government.' So writes Kevin Phillips, the accomplished historian and one-time Washington insider, in this extraordinary survey of plutocracy, excess, and reform. 'Laissez-faire is a pretense,' he argues; as the wealth of the rich has grown, so has its control over government, making politics a hostage of money. Examining cycles of economic growth and decline from the founding days of the republic to the recent collapse of technology stocks, 2. Phillips dispels notions of trickle-down wealth creation, pricks holes in speculative bubbles, and decries the 2. ever-increasing 'financialization' of the economy -- all of which, he argues, have served to reduce the well-being of ordinary Americans and government alike. Highly readable for all its charts and graphs, Phillips's book offers a refreshing -- and, of course, controversial -- blend of economic history and social criticism. His conclusions won't please all readers, but just about everyone who comes to his pages will feel hackles rising." -- Gregory McNamee
    "The influence of money on government is now, more then ever, a hot political issue. With a grand historical sweep that covers more than three centuries, Phillips's astute analysis of the effects of wealth and capital upon democracy is both eye-opening and disturbing. While his main thrust is an examination of 'the increasing reliance of the American economy on finance,' Phillips weaves a far wider, nuanced tapestry. Carefully building his arguments with telling detail (the growth of investment capitalism in Elizabethan England was essentially the result of privateering and piracy), and statistical evidence, he charts a long, exceptionally complicated history of interplay between governance and the accumulation of wealth. Explicating late-20th-century U.S. capitalism, for instance, by drawing comparisons to the technological advances and ensuing changes in commerce in the Renaissance, he also discusses how 18th-century Spanish colonialism is relevant to how 'lending power began to erode . . . broad prosperity' in 1960s and '70s America. Finding detailed correspondences between the giddy greediness of America's Gilded Age (complete with a surprising quote from Walt Whitman 'my theory includes riches and the getting of riches'), and the 'great technology mania and bubble of the 1990s,' Phillips (THE COUSINS' WAR, etc.), noted NPR political analyst, notes that 2. 'the imbalance of wealth and democracy in the United States is unsustainable,' as it was in highly nationalistic mid-18th-century Holland and late-19th-century Britain both of which underwent major social and political upheaval from the middle and underclasses. Lucidly written, scrupulously argued and culturally wide-ranging, this is an important and deeply original analysis of U.S. history and economics." -- Publisher's Weekly

    *Rushdoony, Rousas J. (1916-2001), Christianity and the State, ISBN: 9996717755. Available through Exodus Books.
    "The need to return to a Biblical doctrine of civil government is evidenced by our century's worldwide drift into tyranny. Humanism invariably rushes in to fill the world's theological vacuums: the need of the hour is to restore a full-orbed, Biblical, theology of the state. This work sets forth that theology." -- GCB

    *Tocqueville, Alexis de, Democracy in America, 2 volumes, ISBN: 0060915226.
    Translated by Henry Reeve and revised by Francis Bowen. Edited by Philip Bradley
    "Tocqueville in the early part of the 19th century was commissioned by the French government to travel throughout the United States in order to discover the secret of the astounding success of this experiment in democracy. . . . A classic of political and sociological reporting and analysis . . ." -- Publisher
    Democracy in America
    http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/home.html

    See also: Freedom: a gift of the grace of god, Political and economic freedom, Biblical economics, Christian liberty, Freedom with responsibility to god, The utter failure of the u.s. constitution as a social deed of covenant, Constitutionalism, Christian self-government, The decline of american society, A theological interpretation of american history, Biblical civil government and the basis for civil resistance, The Christian Foundation of America, Colonial History, Covenanting in America, and so forth, and so on.

    Related WebLinks

    The Decline of American Culture 1800-1974, 10 audio tapes [audio files]. Available from Pocket College.
    "In these ten taped lectures originally given for the Christian Studies Center in Memphis, TN, Dr. Singer gives incisive analysis of modern life, tracing a decline politically, culturally, economically, educationally, and theologically. He sees as man's only hope a Biblical world and life view which applies the whole counsel of God to every area of human endeavor. Dr. Singer is an interesting lecturer; even in dealing with such weighty topics, a keen sense of humor shows through. For some who have not carefully investigated the Scriptural cultural mandate, some of his ideas will be nothing short of startling, such as the concept that Christianity and democracy are totally incompatible." -- Rev. Michael Schneider, Pastor, St. Paul Presbyterian Church, Jackson, MS

    Introduction: A Span of History
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Decline of American Culture
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=72902195856

    Decline in Theology, #1
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Decline in American Culture
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=9902215956

    Decline in Theology, #2
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Decline of American Culture
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?ID=91602194147

    The Departure From the Biblical View in Constitutional Government
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Decline of American Culture
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=82602124719

    Decline of Jurisprudence
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Decline of American Culture
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=82602124432

    Decline (Political, Economic, Cultural), Part 1
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Decline of American Culture
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=819021843

    Decline (Political, Economic, Cultural), Part 2
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Decline of American Culture
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=8190218822

    Decline in the 1830's: Philosophical Revolution in Political Thought
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Decline of American Culture
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=9202112722

    Decline Through the 1840's: Philosophical Revolution in Political Thought
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Decline of American Culture
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=9202112914

    Decline in Education
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Decline of American Culture
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=9902215826


    The Christian and Politics, a series of addressed by C. Gregg Singer (1910-1999), delivered about 1984

    The Christian and Politics #01: The Christian Heritage of America (English Background)
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=1270518267

    The Christian and Politics #02: The Christian Heritage of America (American Background)
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=1270518276

    The Christian and Politics #03: The Essence of Our Christian Heritage
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12705182811

    The Christian and Politics #04: Enemies of Our Christian Heritage #1
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12705182945

    The Christian and Politics #05: Enemies of our Christian Heritage #2
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12705183035

    The Christian and Politics #06: The Effects of Deism and Democracy on our Christian Heritage
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12705183120

    The Christian and Politics #07: Evaluating Political Positions in Light of the Sovereign Word of God #1
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12705183227

    The Christian and Politics #08: Evaluating Political Positions in Light of the Sovereign Word of God #2
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12705183324

    The Christian and Politics #09: The Place of Biblical Law in our Society #1
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12705183429

    The Christian and Politics #10: The Place of Biblical Law in Our Society #2
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12705183645

    The Christian and Politics #11: Summary
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=12705183720

    Apologetics #07: Irrationalism and Theistic Rationalism
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Apologetics, 86 min
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=3105182032

    America's Transformation From Liberty to Democracy, Randall G. Holcombe
    "If we were able to go back to the time of the Revolutionary War and ask the typical American to describe, in one word, the underlying principle of the new American government, that one word would have been liberty. If we were to ask the typical American citizen today to describe, in one word, the underlying principle of American government, that one word would be democracy. The Declaration of Independence is largely a list of grievances against the King of England, and the American Founders wanted to escape the oppression of the British government and establish a constitutionally limited government to protect the rights of its citizens -- to preserve their liberty. Today Americans view the role of their government as carrying out the will of the majority. My new book, FROM LIBERTY TO DEMOCRACY: THE TRANSFORMATION OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT (University of Michigan Press), describes how the fundamental principle of American government has been transformed from liberty to democracy."
    http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig3/holcombe1.html



    Politics

    We are an illiterate nation incapable of understanding great truth. -- C. Gregg Singer

    The Christ is the only One truly called. . . . The flesh has always struggled against Him, as we see when we survey the history of God's people. The struggle was especially acute at Golgotha. -- S.G. De Graaf

    But many that are first shall be last; and the last shall be first. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Matthew 19:30)

    For the transgression of a land many are the princes thereof: but by a man of understanding and knowledge the state thereof shall be prolonged. (Proverbs 28:2). See annotations in The Reformation Study Bible.

    So then every one of us shall give account of himself to God. (Romans 14:12)
    http://www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/gills-exposition-of-the-bible/romans-14-12.html
    http://www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/matthew-henry-complete/romans/14.html

    Not by might, nor by power, but by my spirit, saith the Lord of hosts. (Zechariah 4:6b)

    And he went out to meet Asa, and said unto him, Hear ye me, Asa, and all Judah and Benjamin; The Lord is with you, while ye be with him; and if ye seek him, he will be found of you; but if ye forsake him, he will forsake you. (2 Chronicles 15:2)
    See "God's Presence With a People the Spring of Their Prosperity; With Their Special Interest in Abiding in Him," a sermon by John Owen (1616-1683). It is listed below.

    Not a novice, lest being lifted up with pride he fall into the condemnation of the devil. -- (1 Timothy 3:6)

    Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear. (Hebrews 11:3)
    "Ideas have consequences."

    See the Theological Notes, "God's Covenant of Grace" at Genesis 12:1 in The Reformation Study Bible.

    The Treasury of David, Psalm 89, C.H. Spurgeon
    I have made a covenant with my chosen, I have sworn unto David my servant, Thy seed will I establish for ever, and build up thy throne to all generations. (Psalm 89:3,4)
    http://www.spurgeon.org/treasury/ps089.htm

    The roots of liberty and limited government are in the Protestant Reformation. We believe the key to the maintenance of liberty and limited government is to be found in the Scottish covenanting struggle.

    See "Covenant Theology and the Ordinance of Covenanting"
    http://www.lettermen2.com/bcrr9chc.html#covtheology

    For the Lord is our Judge, the Lord is our Lawgiver, the Lord is our King; He will save us. (Isaiah 33:22)
    Isaiah's Prophesy after the Angel of the Lord smote Sennacherib's army for good King Hezekiah.

    The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me, He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God. (2 Samuel 23:3)

    Conservatism is a political philosophy that professes to be practical and grounded in reality -- not in ideological or utopian dream worlds -- yet it cannot furnish a coherent answer to a very practical question: What is the proper punishment for a thief? Even ignoring the big questions -- What is the ideal government? Is there an ideal government? Is any government justified? What is the proper relationship between church and state? -- conservatism cannot answer a small question. If conservatism cannot offer a justified answer to a small question, it probably cannot answer larger questions. -- John W. Robbins in Conservatism: An Autopsy

    Shall the throne of iniquity have fellowship with thee, which frameth mischief by a law? (Psalm 94:20)

    See the Theological Notes, "God Reigns: Divine Sovereignty," at Daniel 4:34 in The Reformation Study Bible.

    The Treasury of David, Psalm 2, C.H. Spurgeon
    Be wise now therefore, O ye kings: be instructed, ye judges of the earth. Serve the LORD with fear, and rejoice with trembling. Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all they that put their trust in him. (Psalm 2:10-12)
    http://www.spurgeon.org/treasury/ps002.htm

    The best course for nations and states is to kiss the Son (Psa. 2:12 [Psalm 2:12]), and to embrace Christ and his religion; to side with Christ, and to own his cause in the world. His side will prove the stronger side at last. Happy are we if Christ honours us so much as to use our help to fight his battle against the might (Judg. 5:23 [Judges 5:23]). True religion in a state is as the main pillar of a house and the post of a tent that upholds all. So also for families, let Christ be the chief governor of the family. And let every one be as a house of Christ, to dwell familiarly in, and to rule. Where Christ is, all happiness must follow. If Christ goes, all will go. Where Christ's government, in his ordinances and his Spirit, is, there all subordinate government will prosper. Religion inspires life and grace into all other things. All other virtues without it are but as a fair picture without a head. Where Christ's laws are written in the heart, there all other good laws are best obeyed. None despise man's law but those that despise Christ's first. Nemo humanam auctoritatem contemnit, nisi qui divinam prius contempsit (No none despises human authority unless he first despises divine authority). Of all persons, a man guided by Christ is the best; and of all creatures in the world, a man guided merely by will and affection, next to the devil, is the worst. The happiness of weaker things stands in being ruled by stronger. It is best for a blind man to be guided by him that has sight. It is best for sheep, and other feckless creatures, to be guided by man. And it is happiest for man to be guided by Christ, because his government is so victorious that it frees us from the fear and danger of our greatest enemies, and tends to bring us to the greatest happiness that our nature is capable of. This should make us rejoice when Christ reigns in us. When Solomon was crowned, the people rejoiced so that the city rang (1 Kings 1:45). Much more should we rejoice in Christ our king. . . .
    If Christ's judgment shall be victorious, then popery, being an opposite frame, set up by the wit of man to maintain stately idleness, must fall. And it is fallen already in the hearts of those on whom the light of Christ has shone. It is a lie, and founded on a lie, on the infallible judgment of a man subject to sin and error. When that which is taken for a principle of truth becomes a principle of error, the more reliance on it, the more danger there is. -- Richard Sibbes

    If we are not governed by God, then we will be ruled by tyrants. -- William Penn

    See the Theological Notes, "The Fall" at Genesis 3:6 in The Reformation Study Bible.

    See the Theological Notes, "Christ the Mediator," at 1 Timothy 2:5 in The Reformation Study Bible.

    See the Theological Notes, "Sanctification: The Spirit and the Flesh," at 1 Corinthians 6:11 in The Reformation Study Bible.

    See the Theological Notes, "Christians and Civil Government," at Romans 13:1 in The Reformation Study Bible.

    See the Theological Notes, "Christians in the World," at Colossians 2:20 in The Reformation Study Bible.

    The wealthy stand as magistrates in the economic arena and have the same duty of stewardship as do those who hold political office. -- C. Gregg Singer, "Calvinism and Economic Thought and Practice" in John Calvin: His Roots and Fruits, p. 46

    All things must be referred to the Glory of God. -- Augustine's final sentence of The City of God

    The city of man seeks the praise of men, whereas the height of glory for the other is to hear God in the witness of conscience. The one lifts up its head in its own boasting; the other says to God: Thou art my glory, thou liftest up my head. (Psalm 3.4). In the city of the world both the rulers themselves and the people they dominate are dominated by the lust for domination; whereas in the City of God all citizens serve one another in charity. . . . XIV:28 -- Reader's Comment on Augustine's The City of God

    The depravity of man is at once the most empirically verifiable reality, but at the same time the most intellectually resisted fact. -- Malcolm Muggeridge. See also: Calvin's Commentary on Isaiah, Chapter 33

    [Pascal] was the first and perhaps is still the most effective voice to be raised in warning of the consequences of the enthronement of the human ego in contradistinction to the cross [during his time -- compiler], symbolizing the ego's immolation. How beautiful it all seemed at the time of the Enlightenment, that man triumphant would bring to pass that earthly paradise whose groves of academe would ensure the realization forever of peace, plenty, and beatitude in practice. But what a nightmare of wars, famines, and folly was to result therefrom. -- Malcolm Muggeridge, The End of Christendom

    For the love of money is the root of all evil: which while some coveted after, they have erred from the faith, and pierced themselves through with many sorrows. (1 Timothy 6:10)

    Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Great men are almost always bad men, even when they exercise influence and not authority: still more when you superadd the tendency or the certainty of corruption by authority. -- John Emerich Edward Dalberg, Lord Acton (1834-1902), in a letter to Mandell Creighton, April 5, 1887, quoted by Gertrude Himmelfarb in Acton, Essays on Freedom and Power, pp. 335-36 (1972)

    When justice is taken away, what are kingdoms but a vast banditry. -- Augustine in City of God, IV. iv (MPL [Migne, J.P., Patrologiae cursus completus, series Latina], 41. 115; tr. NPNF [A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, second series] II. 66)

    Without justice there can be no liberty.

    Hosea 7:3 They make the king glad with their wickedness, and the princes with their lies.
    The Prophet now arraigns all the citizens of Samaria, and in their persons the whole people, because they rendered obedience to the king by flattery, and to the princes in wicked things, respecting which their own conscience convicted them. He had already in the fifth chapter mentioned the defection of the people in this respect, that they had obeyed the royal edict. It might indeed have appeared a matter worthy of praise, that the people had quietly embraced what the king commanded. This is the case with many at this day, who bring forward a pretext of this kind. Under the papacy they dare not withdraw themselves from their impious superstitions, and they adduce this excuse, that they ought to obey their princes. But, as I have already said, the Prophet has before condemned this sort of obedience, and now he shows that the defection which then reigned through all Israel, ought not to be ascribed to the king or to few men, but that it was a common evil, which involved all in one and the same guilt, without exception. How so? "By their wickedness," he says, "they have exhilarated the king, and by their lies the princes"; that is, If they wish to cast the blame on their governors, it will be done in vain; for whence came then such a promptitude? As soon as Jeroboam formed the calves, as soon as he built temples, religion instantly collapsed, and whatever was before pure, degenerated; how was the change so sudden? Even because the people had inwardly concocted their wickedness, which, when an occasion was offered, showed itself; for hypocrisy did lie hid in all, and was then discovered. We now perceive what the Prophet had in view. And this place ought to be carefully noticed: for it often happens that some vice creeps in, which proceeds from one man or from a few; but when all readily embrace what a few introduce, it is quite evident that they have no living root of piety or of the fear of God. They then who are so prone to adopt vices were before hypocrites; and we daily find this to be the case. When pious men have the government of a city, and act prudently, then the whole people will give some hope that they will fear the Lord; and when any king, influenced by a desire of advancing the glory of God, endeavors to preserve all his subjects in the pure worship of God, then the same feeling of piety will be seen in all: but when an ungodly king succeeds him, the greater part will immediately fall back again; and when a magistrate neglects his duty, the greater portion of the people will break out into open impiety. I wish there were no proofs of these things; but throughout the world the Lord has designed that there should exist examples of them. This purpose of God ought therefore to be noticed; for he accuses the people of having made themselves too obsequious and pliant. When king Jeroboam set up vicious worship, the people immediately offered themselves as ready to obey: hence impiety became quite open. They then "delighted the king by their wickedness, and the princes by their lies"; as though he said, "They cannot transfer the blame to the king and princes. Why? Because they delighted them by their wickedness; that is, they haltered the king by their wickedness and delighted the princes by their lies." -- John Calvin in a sermon on Hosea 7:3 in Calvin's Commentary on Hosea

    The king is as much bound by his oath not to infringe the legal rights of the people, as the people are bound to yield subjection to him. From whence it follows that as soon as the prince sets himself above the law, he loses the king in the tyrant. He does, to all intents and purposes, un-king himself. -- Jonathan Mayhew, in a sermon in 1765

    Christianity is the source of Absolute Truth and Life Everlasting, and it is the highest ethical standard known to mankind.

    A religious doctrine involves practical consequences so important, and its effects upon individual and social life are so infallible and so profound, that it can never be contemplated with indifference by the mass of society, and much less by their rulers. We pray you to observe, amongst other things, that the stronger the feeling of dependence to which religion reduces the individual, the more she invests him, on the other hand, with a lofty independence. All religion is freedom. By introducing us into the service of one master, she emancipates us from the dominion of all others. If she does not altogether do away with dependencies of another order, she transforms them from absolute into relative ones. We still belong to society, we are perhaps linked to it by closer ties than before; but it is in a mediate manner, for man cannot serve two masters. It is this independence which exasperates the rulers of this world, and indeed, for the most part, all those who do not share in it. It is this sacred retreat of liberty which they would invade -- this freedom, of which they would deprive us; as if the numerous sacrifices which from time to time liberty has made for the common weal were insufficient, as if it were not enough, or rather as if it were nothing, for us to have devoted all our bodily powers and all our worldly goods to the service of society, so long as this offering is not completed by the sacrifice of the soul. It is spiritual domination, dominion over the soul, of which despotism, whether of princes or of the people, is especially desirous. Thus, when a tyrant has bereft a nation of all its liberties, until throughout the realm his will has become law, his ambition having nothing else wherewith to satiate its appetite, directs itself against religion. Thencefowward, having subjugated the bodies of men, he directs his attacks against their souls. It is because he cannot but be sensible that dominion over souls -- what do you say? -- over one single soul, is as much superior to that over bodies, as the soul itself is superior to its envelope of clay. He cannot endure the humiliation of knowing that there is a sphere in which the most obscure man, by the force of sympathy alone, wields a greater power than his own. A deep-rooted and bitter feeling of envy takes possession of him; he can enjoy no more repose, until moral force shall have yielded to the pressure of physical force -- until the second Mordecai shall have bowed down to this second Haman -- until the soul, by dethroning itself, shall have delivered him from this odious rivalry. And should he encounter in this enterprise an unlooked-for resistance, his impatience becomes fury, and he destroys those whom he cannot subdue. This has been the origin of many religious persecutions, and it discloses the secret motives of those atrocities by which some have been distinguished.
    It does not follow, however, that all the evils with which the world has been inundated in the name of religion, are to be referred to this cause alone. They have originated in that pre-eminently just idea, that religion gives the true signification of every man, and of the whole of society; that there is nothing more deeply seated in us, nothing which more decisively determines what we are; and that to declare what we believe, is at the same time, and as a matter of necessity, to declare what we wish to be. The influence of a lordly spirit apart, it is not astonishing that the social power has everywhere, more or less, attempted to regulate the faith of the citizens and the instructions of the priesthood. Nor is it surprising that the priesthood, in aid of the state, have themselves attempted to dictate in a matter of this importance. For the suppression of this evil, the assistance of ages has been necessary, and this has not proved sufficient; the veto of public opinion has been also needed. Perhaps in certain countries something further has been required -- the progress of religious indifference. But nowhere is the fire extinguished, because nowhere is man changed; he will never witness unmoved, the energetic manifestation of religious principle; he may be indulgent to philosophical religions, or to religious philosophy, which penetrates not to the very sources of will and of action; but he will be, with his own full knowledge and consent, severe upon genuine faith. And why? because man possessing genuine faith, rises to his highest elevation; an elevation to which it is necessary that others should rise also, not indeed to rule over him (for this is impossible), but to treat with him, and to be at peace together. This is the true position and individuality of each renewed man, and everything is put in requisition to annul, subdue, and modify it.
    We dwell no longer upon these different attempts, but return to the principle. We find that in the judgment of the community, the religious conviction of a man moulds his character, estimates his worth, and fortels his life. It is the invisible source of many efforts, and often of much violence. Well, then, we infer [sic] unhesitatingly, that the faith of a member of society cannot remain either a mystery or a matter of doubt to those who surround him. If, as we have sought to establish a former part of this work, the spiritual unity of society, its reality in the elevated sense of that word, depends on the mutual interchange of sentiments; and if that individual only can be said to belong to the community, with whose character she is acquainted, it must be especially in the sphere of religious convictions that this truth is apparent; we may even go further, and say, that although we might keep our sentiments on other subjects to ourselves, those that we entertain respecting religion could not be concealed. For our religious convictions embue us so thoroughly and practically, that society knows not what she possesses in us, except as she knows what we are with respect to God.
    This fact is more conspicuous, we admit, with reference to the Christian religion than to any other. In comparison with it, all other systems of faith are superficial; and we may remark in passing, that this is the reason why Christianity has drawn upon itself, and even excited among its followers, more intolerance than any other religion. The experimental character of its doctrines, coming in contact with the diverse passions of the human heart, has enkindled in the midst of society an active and devouring flame; and its profession has occasioned a host of outrages and calamities. Christianity is radical in the highest degree; radical in morals. It uproots one life, it implants another. Of all religions, it alone is in direct hostility with human nature in its fallen condition, as it is also the only religion which coincides with that same nature in all that sin has not polluted; at once the most human, and the least human of all systems; appearing to grant us everything, and to refuse us everything, but, in reality, granting everything to humanity, and refusing everything to sin. No religion consequently so effectually reforms the moral being; in such a manner, that the complexion of our life and conduct depends on whether we are or are not Christians, and upon what sort of Christians we are.
    We should find it impracticable to attempt to distinguish between the doctrines of Christianity and its morals; between what is called its natural and universal morality, and its peculiar and arbitrary doctrines. Christian doctrine is morality -- Christian morality; to wish to distinguish between the two is to desire to divide a stream from its source. Christian doctrine is no sooner received than it regulates the conduct; the character of God becomes a model for man; what God is, man ought to be; and inasmuch as God in the Scriptures is invested with attributes which belong not to human nature, so also man, by means of the Gospel, is invested with a character which nature had not impressed upon him; it makes him a new man in every sense of the term: a man peculiar and extraordinary in the eyes of nature, but in every case a man, who, by the judgment of that very nature, is approved and esteemed. To declare our opinion upon Christian doctrine avails much; it is in fact to profess certain principle of conduct, and to attach ourselves to one or another system of morality; it is to reveal our inward man, to publish the operations of conscience; it is to give the standard of our judgments, and the rule of our actions.
    We do well to avow it: whenever we revert to the considerations which most forcibly recommend a duty, we revert to the greatest difficulties in the way of its accomplishment; indeed, in most cases, to point out the motive, is to recognize the difficulty. In the present case, for example, nothing can render candour more difficult than that which enforces its obligation. It is just because such a religious doctrine, of necessity involves such a principle of morality, and such a rule of conduct; it is precisely because it is a disclosure of inward man, that so many persons are averse to declare to what doctrine they adhere. And it is sometimes because their opinion condemns them, sometimes because it elevates them, not so much in itself as in the characteristics and practical consequences with which public opinion has invested it. It is painful to excite repugnance or aversion, and it is sometimes still more painful to excite expectations which we feel but too conscious we cannot fulfil. If it were not so, why should we make a secret of our religious opinions, when we are at no pains to conceal any other? Why, when we are open and unreserved upon all the rest, should we not allow free expression to our thoughts upon this, the noblest of subjects? Why should communications of this nature be so generally regarded as the acme of candour and the pledge of intimacy? Why is there no real union, no true communion of soul, until both parties have expressed what they think, and above all, what they feel upon invisible and infinite subjects? Why do beings long united by the closest ties of affection, as soon as spiritual communion is formed between them, discover with surprise, that up to that period they had really never known, understood, or loved each other? -- that, as Montaigne expresses it, there was wanting to their friendship 'a certain inexplicable, yet essential power, the mediatrix of that union;' or that (as is really the fact), 'God is the true medium of true friendship?' All such instance go to confirm the truth of what we have said. A great effect supposes a powerful force -- a powerful force is employed only against a formidable resistance, and a formidable resistance has no place but in opposition to an urgent necessity. Here the necessity is a moral one -- it is a duty; an evident, and urgent, but a painful duty; for the consequences, even limiting them to their narrowest range, and considering none but those which are developed in the bosom of private relations, these consequences are, it must be confessed, of a startling character.
    Nevertheless, if regarded only in the light of morality and natural reason, this candour, which appears so difficult and dangerous, would be found to possess real advantages, whilst reserve would have none but what are false and deceptive. Candour would break the ice which dissimulation thickens and consolidates from day to day; it would procure a more lasting peace; it would put the seal to confidence and friendship. You dread a storm: any storm would be preferable to the dead calm in which you live, -- a calm without peace and without security; for since no one can suppose that you are altogether destitute of religious prepossessions, that you have not some inward conviction to disclose, it will become a matter either of dread or of desire that you should disclose it. This very feeling of anxiety will be an evil in your social relations; if your connexions are desirous of it, when you are averse to making it, their importunity will disturb your peace; on the contrary, if they are averse to its manifestation, when you yourself desire it, they will avoid your company; there will of necessity be in your social relations something painful, constrained, and, in the end, insupportable. If they neither desire nor fear it, it must be because they are not acquainted with your character, and have no desire to become so, because they are not solicitous about your most important interests -- in other words, because they do not love you. And as between a mind occupied with spiritual things and one that is not, there is a wide gulf fixed, as true intimacy between two persons so different is altogether impossible, it is the duty of the more serious of the two, to sound the mind of his friend by disclosing his own, to provide a declaration by declaring himself. Every connexion founded upon a voluntary and designedly prolonged misunderstanding, every factitious union between minds pursuing directly opposite courses, is contrary to human dignity. . . . -- Alexander Vinet (1797-1847), and Charles Theodore Jones (translator), An Essay on the Profession of Personal Religious Conviction, pp. 73-81

    The State, considered in its corporate character, is A MORAL PERSON, with a moral standing and responsibility. It is not the creation of the so-called social compact or of the popular will, but a divine institution based on natural religion. It coheres by a moral and religious bond; and its rulers are the lieutenants of God. If the State is a moral person, capable of performing duty, of committing sin, and suffering punishment, which every one must own who traces the fate of nations according to the divine word, it follows that a nation, acting by its rulers, can accept Christianity and make a public profession of it as the national rule and guide. It had been held together previous to the recognition of Christianity by some form of religion however impure, without which it could not have existed. And the first duty of the civil ruler when brought in contact with Christianity and persuaded of its divine origin is to RECEIVE THE BIBLE AS A REVELATION in a national way. The immediate effect of this is that it constitutes the State a Christian State, and pledges it to purge out its previous religion in the same way as Pagan and Mahommedan nations constituted themselves, according to their false religions, or as the atheistic state was constituted, or rather attempted to be constituted, by the French Convention. A nation must have a religion, and the only question is, which it will adopt. And when Christianity comes to the nation, or to the family, it does not frown on either of these institutions, which also are divine in origin, but enters into them with an elevating purifying power, and sweetly coalesces with all that is purely human in both. These ordinances of God now became vessels by which Christianity is diffused. The national recognition of the Bible as a revelation subjecting the nation to its authority, though a great step gained, does not exhaust the nation's duty, as widely diverging views prevail upon the right interpretation of the Bible. The State must by the necessity of the case ADOPT A CREED which will commonly be prepared by the Church. The same duty that devolves upon an individual Christian confronts a Christian State, and it naturally appends the civil sanction to the Church's creed. It must distinguish between scripture truth and its perversion. The State, by the adoption of a creed, gives utterance to the self-consciousness of a Christian community. It confesses the Christianity it has adopted. . . . The nation, acting by its rulers, must needs adopt a creed, and so distinguish between truth and error in the confession which it makes. It must be Trinitarian or Unitarian, Protestant or Popish, Calvinistic or Arminian, by the necessity of the position. These diverging lines of profession cannot be ignored. More than that; the responsible rulers must proclaim a Christian constitution and adopt a legislation all through the nation's history upon the principles of revelation. A Christian State is competent to make the same confession of its faith that an individual makes. -- George Smeaton, The Scottish Theory of Ecclesiastical Establishments, pp. 4-6

    The Treasury of David, Psalm 72, C.H. Spurgeon
    Give the king thy judgments, O God, and thy righteousness unto the king's son.
    He shall judge thy people with righteousness, and thy poor with judgment.
    Yea, all kings shall fall down before him: all nations shall serve him.
    (Psalm 72:1,2,11)
    http://www.spurgeon.org/treasury/ps072.htm

    The Spirit of the LORD spake by me, and his word was in my tongue.
    The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me, He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God.
    And he shall be as the light of the morning, when the sun riseth, even a morning without clouds; as the tender grass springing out of the earth by clear shining after rain.
    Although my house be not so with God; yet he hath made with me an everlasting covenant, ordered in all things, and sure: for this is all my salvation, and all my desire, although he make it not to grow.
    But the sons of Belial shall be all of them as thorns thrust away, because they cannot be taken with hands:
    But the man that shall touch them must be fenced with iron and the staff of a spear; and they shall be utterly burned with fire in the same place.
    (2 Samuel 23:2-7 [2 Samuel 23:2-7]), The Last Words of David. (also see Psalms 2 and 72. Psalm 72 is thought to be the last Psalm of David because of verse 20. [Psalm 72:20])

    For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain; for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil. (Romans 13:4)

    The Treasury of David, Psalm 90, C.H. Spurgeon
    "The 90th Psalm might be cited as perhaps the most sublime of human compositions -- the deepest in feeling -- the loftiest in theologic conception -- the most magnificent in its imagery." -- Isaac Taylor
    Lord, thou hast been our dwelling place in all generations. (Psalm 90:1)
    See the commentary of both Spurgeon and others on the first and last verses, 1 and 17.
    http://www.spurgeon.org/treasury/ps090.htm

    Be wise now therefore, O ye kings: be instructed, ye judges of the earth. Serve the LORD with fear, and rejoice with trembling. Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all they that put their trust in him. (Psalm 2:10-12)

    The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom: a good understanding have all they that do his commandments: his praise endureth for ever. (Psalm 111:10)

    The fear of the Lord is the beginning of all knowledge. (Proverbs 1:7)

    Great and marvellous are thy works,
    Lord God Almighty;
    just and true are thy ways,
    thou King of saints.
    Who shall not fear thee, O Lord, and glorify thy name?
    for though only art holy:
    for all the nations shall come and worship before thee;
    for thy judgments are made manifest.
    (Revelation 15:3b,4)

    There is nothing in which all men ought to feel a deeper interest, nothing in which God wishes us to exhibit a more intense zeal, than in endeavoring that the glory of his name may remain unimpaired, his kingdom be advanced, and the pure doctrine, which alone can guide us to true worship, flourish in full vigor. How much more, therefore, does it become princes to make these things their care, to design, commence, and prosecute them to a close, seeing God has honored them with a communication of his name, that they may be on earth the guardians and vindicators of his glory. -- John Calvin, The Necessity of Reforming the Church, 1543, p. 146

    Kings then have not an absolute power in their regiment to do what pleases them; but their power is limited by God's Word. -- John Knox

    4. The magistracy is ordained by God
    With regard to the function of magistrates, the Lord has not only declared that he approves and is pleased with it, but, moreover has strongly recommended it to us by the very honourable titles which he has conferred upon it. To mention a few. When those who bear the office of magistrate are called gods, let no one suppose that there is little weight in that appellation. It is thereby intimated that they have a commission from God, that they are invested with divine authority and, in fact, represent the person of God, as whose substitutes they in a manner act. This is not a quibble of mine, but is the interpretation of Christ. "If Scriptures" says He, "called them gods to whom the word of God came." What is this but that the business was committed to them by Gods to serve him in their office, and (as Moses and Jehoshaphat said to the judges whom they were appointing over each of the cities of Judah), to exercise judgement, not for man, but for God? To the same effect Wisdom affirms, by the mouth of Solomon, "By me kings reigns and princes decree Justice. By me princes rule, and nobles, even all the judges of the earth," (Prov. 8: 15, 16 [Proverbs 8:15,16]). For it is just as if it had been said, that it is not owing to human perverseness that supreme power on earth is lodged in kings and other governors, but by Divine Providence, and the holy decree of Him to whom it has seemed good so to govern the affairs of men, since he is present, and also presides in enacting laws and exercising judicial equity. This Paul also plainly teaches when he enumerates offices of rule among the gifts of God, which, distributed variously, according to the measure of grace, ought to be employed by the servants of Christ for the edification of the Church (Rom. 12: 8 [Romans 12:8]). In that place, however, he is properly speaking of the senate of grave men who were appointed in the primitive Church to take charge of public discipline. This office, in the Epistle to the Corinthians he calls "kuberneseis," governments (1 Cor. 12: 28 [1 Corinthians 12:28]). Still, as we see that civil power has the same end in view, there can be no doubt that he is recommending every kind of just government.
    He speaks much more clearly when he comes to a proper discussion of the subject. For he says that "there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God;" that rulers are the ministers of God, "not a terror to good works, but to the evil," (Rom. 13: 1, 3 [Romans 13:1,3]). To this we may add the examples of saints, some of whom held the offices of kings, as David, Josiah, and Hezekiah; others of governors, as Joseph and Daniel; others of civil magistrates among a free people, as Moses, Joshua and the Judges. Their functions were expressly approved by the Lord. Wherefore no man can doubt that civil authority is in the sight of God, not only sacred and lawful, but the most sacred and by far the most honourable, of all stations in mortal life. [Emphasis added. Current events (September 11), evidence that "all stations in mortal life" includes the Evangelist and the Gospel Minister. -- compiler] -- John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion (Beveridge translation), IV:20:4

    And Almighty God being the only Lord of conscience, Father of lights and spirits and the author of, as well as object of, all divine knowledge, faith and worship, who only doth enlighten the minds and persuade and convince the understanding of people. . . . And that all persons who also profess to believe in Jesus Christ the Saviour of the World shall be capable to serve this government in any capacity both legislatively and executively. -- The First Charter of Pennsylvania

    And lest it be thought that this is but the opinion of some few, that the magistrate ought thus by a strong hand, and by civil punishments suppress heretics and sectaries: let it be observed what is held forth and professed concerning this business, by the Reformed Churches in their public confessions of faith. In the latter Confession of Helvetia (cap. 30), it is said that the magistrate ought to 'root out lies and all superstition, with all impiety and idolatry.' And after, 'Let him suppress stubborn heretics.' In the French Confession (art. 39), 'Therefore he hath also delivered the sword into the hands of Magistrates, to wit, that offenses may be repressed, not only those which are committed against the second table, but also against the first.' In the Belgic Confession (art. 36), 'Therefore hath he armed the Magistrate with the sword for punishing them that do evil, and for defending such as do well. Moreover it is their duty not only to be careful and watchful for the preservation of the civil government, but also to defend the holy ministry, and to abolish and overthrow all idolatry, and counterfeit worship of God.' Beza (De Hareticis), tells us in the beginning, that the ministers of Helvetia had declared themselves to be of the same judgment, in a book published of that argument. And toward the end he cites the Saxon Confession, Luther, Melancthon, Brentius, Bucerus, Wolfgangus Capito, and Bullinger. The Synod of Dordt (ses. 138), in their sentence against the Remonstrants does not only interdict them of all their ecclesiastical and academical functions, but [does] also beseech the States General by their secular power to suppress and restrain them. -- George Gillespie (Wholesome Severity Reconciled With Christian Liberty (mid-1640's)

    They have set up kings, but not by me: they have made princes, and I knew it not: of their silver and their gold have they made them idols, that they may be cut off. (Hosea 8:4)

    Therefore was the wrath of the LORD kindled against his people, in so much that he abhorred his own inheritance.
    And he gave them into the hands of the heathen; and they that hated them ruled over them.
    Their enemies also oppressed them, and they were brought into subjection under their hand.
    (Psalm 106:40-42)

    The Treasury of David, Psalm 106, commentary by C.H. Spurgeon
    Our fathers understood not thy wonders in Egypt. (v. 7)
    Nevertheless he saved them for his name's sake, that he might make his mighty power to be known. (v. 8)
    And he saved them from the hand of them that hated them. (v. 10)
    They soon forgat his works. (v. 13)
    And he gave them their request; but sent leanness into their soul. (v. 15)
    They made a calf in Horeb, and worshipped the molten image. (v. 19)
    Thus they changed their glory into the similitude of an ox that eateth grass. (v. 20)
    They forgat God their saviour. (v. 21)
    Thus they provoked him to anger with their inventions: and the plague brake in upon them. (v. 29)
    Then stood up Phinehas, and executed judgment: and so the plague was stayed. (v. 30)
    And that was counted unto him for righteousness unto all generations for evermore. (v. 31)
    They did not destroy the nations, concerning whom the LORD commanded them. (v. 34)
    But were mingled among the heathen, and learned their works. (v. 35)
    Yea, they sacrificed their sons and their daughters unto devils. (v. 37)
    Thus were they defiled with their own works, and went a whoring with their own inventions. (v. 39)
    Therefore was the wrath of the LORD kindled against his people, in so much that he abhorred his own inheritance. (v. 40)
    And he gave them into the hands of the heathen; and they that hated them ruled over them.(v. 41)
    Their enemies also oppressed them, and they were brought into subjection under their hand.
    (v. 42)
    Many times did he deliver them; but they provoked him with their counsel, and were brought low for their iniquity. (v. 43)
    Nevertheless he regarded their affliction, when he heard their cry. (v. 44)
    And he remembered for them his covenant. (v. 45)
    Save us, O Lord our God, and gather us from among the heathen, to give thanks unto thy holy name, and to triumph in thy praise. (v. 47)
    Blessed be the Lord God of Israel from everlasting to everlasting: and let all the people say, Amen. Praise ye the Lord. (v. 48)
    http://www.spurgeon.org/treasury/ps106.htm

    The Treasury of David, Psalm 4, C.H. Spurgeon
    http://www.spurgeon.org/treasury/ps004.htm

    The Treasury of David, Psalm 14, C.H. Spurgeon
    The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God. They are corrupt, they have done abominable works, there is none that doeth good. (Psalm 14:1)
    http://www.spurgeon.org/treasury/ps014.htm

    The whole of the prophecies of Isaiah are precious, and should be read by us constantly in private. -- C.H. Spurgeon, Spurgeon's Devotional Bible

    On the contrary, he charges them with gross and voluntary ignorance, as if he had said that, by their madness, they brought down destruction on themselves. The meaning therefore is, that the people perished because they despised instruction . . . .
    Hence we draw a useful doctrine; namely, that the source of all our calamities is, that we do not allow ourselves to be taught by the word of God, and this is what the Prophet chiefly intended that we should observe. . . .
    So then it is a true statement, that the reason why the people endure such a variety of afflictions is, that they are ignorant of God, and will not allow themselves to be taught by him. -- Calvin commenting on Isaiah 5:13

    A lying tongue hateth those that are afflicted by it: and a flattering mouth worketh ruin. (Proverbs 26:28)

    Where are they? where are thy wise men? and let them tell thee now, and let them know what the LORD of hosts hath purposed upon Egypt. (Isaiah 19:12)

    This is the purpose that is purposed upon the whole earth: and this is the hand that is stretched out upon all the nations.
    For the LORD of hosts hath purposed, and who shall disannul it? and his hand is stretched out, and who shall turn it back?
    (Isaiah 14:26,27)

    See Isaiah 41:21-24 and annotation in The Reformation Study Bible.

    Then, when he had expatiated somewhat more fully, and had more copiously illustrated the benefits of its presence [harmony -- compiler], and the ruinous effects of its absence upon a state, Pilus, one of the company present at the discussion, struck in and demanded that the question should be more thoroughly sifted, and that the subject of justice should be freely discussed for the sake of ascertaining what truth there was in the maxim which was then becoming daily more current, that "the republic cannot be governed without injustice." Scipio expressed his willingness to have this maxim discussed and sifted, and gave it as his opinion that it was baseless, and that no progress could be made in discussing the republic unless it was established, not only that this maxim, that "the republic cannot be governed without injustice," was false, but also that the truth is, that it cannot be governed without the most absolute justice. And the discussion of this question, being deferred till the next day, is carried on in the third book with great animation. For Pilus himself undertook to defend the position that the republic cannot be governed without injustice, at the same time being at special pains to clear himself of any real participation in that opinion. He advocated with great keenness the cause of injustice against justice, and endeavored by plausible reasons and examples to demonstrate that the former is beneficial, the latter useless, to the republic. Then, at the request of the company, Lælius attempted to defend justice, and strained every nerve to prove that nothing is so hurtful to a state as injustice; and that without justice a republic can neither be governed, nor even continue to exist.
    When this question has been handled to the satisfaction of the company, Scipio reverts to the original thread of discourse, and repeats with commendation his own brief definition of a republic, that it is the weal of the people. "The people" he defines as being not every assemblage or mob, but an assemblage associated by a common acknowledgment of law, and by a community of interests. Then he shows the use of definition in debate; and from these definitions of his own he gathers that a republic, or "weal of the people," then exists only when it is well and justly governed, whether by a monarch, or an aristocracy, or by the whole people. But when the monarch is unjust, or, as the Greeks say, a tyrant; or the aristocrats are unjust, and form a faction; or the people themselves are unjust, and become, as Scipio for want of a better name calls them, themselves the tyrant, then the republic is not only blemished (as had been proved the day before), but by legitimate deduction from those definitions, it altogether ceases to be.
    "Tully [Cicero -- compiler], himself, too, speaking not in the person of Scipio or any one else, but uttering his own sentiments, uses the following language in the beginning of the fifth book, after quoting a line from the poet Ennius, in which he said, "Rome's severe morality and her citizens are her safeguard." "This verse," says Cicero, "seems to me to have all the sententious truthfulness of an oracle. For neither would the citizens have availed without the morality of the community, nor would the morality of the commons without outstanding men have availed either to establish or so long to maintain in vigor so grand a republic with so wide and just an empire. Accordingly, before our day, the hereditary usages formed our foremost men, and they on their part retained the usages and institutions of their fathers. But our age, receiving the republic as a chef-d'oeuvre of another age which has already begun to grow old, has not merely neglected to restore the colors of the original, but has not even been at the pains to preserve so much as the general outline and most outstanding features. For what survives of that primitive morality which the poet called Rome's safeguard? It is so obsolete and forgotten, that, far from practising it, one does not even know it. And of the citizens what shall I say? Morality has perished through poverty of great men; a poverty for which we must not only assign a reason, but for the guilt of which we must answer as criminals charged with a capital crime. For it is through our vices, and not by any mishap, that we retain only the name of a republic, and have long since lost the reality. . . ."
    For I mean in its own place to show that -- according to the definitions in which Cicero himself, using Scipio as his mouthpiece, briefly propounded what a republic is, and what a people is, and according to many testimonies, both of his own lips and of those who took part in that same debate -- Rome never was a republic, because true justice had never a place in it. But accepting the more feasible definitions of a republic, I grant there was a republic of a certain kind, and certainly much better administered by the more ancient Romans than by their modern representatives. But the fact is, true justice has no existence save in that republic whose founder and ruler is Christ, if at least any choose to call this a republic; and indeed we cannot deny that it is the people's weal.
    But if perchance this name, which has become familiar in other connections, be considered alien to our common parlance, we may at all events say that in this city is true justice; the city of which Holy Scripture says, "Glorious things are said of thee, O city of God." -- Augustine in The City of God, Book 2, Chapter 21, "Cicero's Opinion of the Roman Republic"
    City of God, St. Augustine, Book II. Chapter 21. -- Cicero's Opinion of the Roman Republic.
    http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf102.iv.II_1.21.html

    So many times people in the pew and the pulpit say, well how did all this get started? How did psychology descend to its present level? . . . How did political science produce our political thought, produce the dictatorships which are engulfing the modern world? Why are we in the economic mess in which we are today? Why is sociology such a jumble of immorality? Why is education as it is today? Why is art so meaningless? . . . Why is modern music an affront to the modern ears as well as to the mind and ear of God? . . . Why are all these things!? . . .
    I would suggest to you that if you will follow this course with thought and care, you will finally come to see the answer to the questions which haunt us today in Western society." -- Singer, C. Gregg (1910-1999), in the Apologetics lecture series using FROM RATIONALISM TO IRRATIONALITY: THE DECLINE OF THE WESTERN MIND FROM THE RENAISSANCE TO THE PRESENT (1979), as the text, and delivered in Decatur, Georgia, beginning November, 1979.
    Apologetics: #01: Classical and Medieval Thought #1
    Dr. C. Gregg Singer, Apologetics, 56 min.
    http://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=2250511453

    And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Matthew 19:28)
    Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Matthew 25:34)
    And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together. (Romans 8:17)
    Know ye not that we shall judge angels? how much more things that pertain to this life? (1 Corinthians 6:3)
    And hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus. (Ephesians 2:6)
    But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence. (1 Timothy 2:12)
    And he that overcometh, and keepeth my works unto the end, to him will I give power over the nations. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Revelation 2:26)
    To serve God is to reign. -- Seneca

    Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen you, and ordained you, that ye should go and bring forth fruit, and [that] your fruit should remain: that whatsoever ye shall ask of the Father in my name, he may give it you.
    These things I command you, that ye love one another.
    -- The Lord Jesus Christ (John 15:16,17)

    Our Triune God has ordained that the preeminent leader of the Church is the Lord Jesus Christ, the God Man, Our Righteousness. (John 1:1-18; Matthew 19:30; Matthew 28:18-20; Isaiah 49:7; Colossians 1:16-19; Colossians 2:9,10; Hebrews 12:1,2; Revelation 5:1-14; Revelation 19:11-15; Revelation 20:11-15; Revelation 22:12, and so forth, and so on). Human leadership is also divinely ordained and tends to devolve to those who are most perfectly at one with Christ, and to those who also know the most Truth (the Apostle Paul, Saint Augustine, Martin Luther, John Calvin, Puritan leaders, The Scots Worthies, and so forth, and so on.)
    And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Matthew 19:28). See: (Matthew 19:28, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    Then his master said unto him, It is well done good servant and faithful, Thou hast been faithful in little, I will make thee ruler over much: enter into thy master's joy. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Matthew 25:21 1599 Geneva Bible)
    Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Matthew 25:34). See: (Matthew 25:34, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    And he said unto him, Well, good servant: because thou hast been faithful in a very little thing, take thou authority over ten cities. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Luke 19:17, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    Therefore I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Luke 22:29, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together. (Romans 8:17). See: (Romans 8:17, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    Know ye not that we shall judge angels? how much more things that pertain to this life? (1 Corinthians 6:3). See: (1 Corinthians 6:3, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    And hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus. (Ephesians 2:6). See: (Ephesians 2:6, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    To execute vengeance upon the heathen, and corrections among the people:
    To bind their kings in chains, and their nobles with fetters of iron,
    That they may execute upon them the judgment that is written: this honor shall be to all his Saints. Praise ye the Lord.
    (Psalm 149:7-9, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence. (1 Timothy 2:12). (1 Timothy 2:12, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    And he that overcometh, and keepeth my works unto the end, to him will I give power over the nations. -- The Lord Jesus Christ (Revelation 2:26). See: (Revelation 2:26, 1599 Geneva Bible)
    To serve God is to reign. -- Seneca

    When righteous men do rejoice, there is great glory: but when the wicked rise, a man is hidden. (Proverbs 28:12). See annotations in The Reformation Study Bible.

    Many seek the ruler's favour; but every man's judgment cometh from the Lord. (Proverbs 29:26). See annotations in The Reformation Study Bible.

    For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places. (Ephesians 6:12)

    A republic once equally poised must either preserve its virtue or lose its liberty. . . . He is the best friend of American liberty who is most sincere and active in promoting pure and undefiled religion. -- John Witherspoon

    If men would struggle for unity in truth, as they did during the Scottish Covenanted Reformation, then politics would no longer be necessary.

    The roots of liberty and limited government are in the Protestant Reformation. We believe the key to the maintenance of liberty and limited government is to be found in the Scottish covenanting struggle.

    National security is dependent upon covenant relationship with the Triune God.

    Pride makes men pretend to be more just than God; and to think that they could more justly govern the world; and to censure God's threatenings, and the sufferings of the good, and the prosperity of the wicked, as things so unjust, as that they thereby incline to atheism. So James and John would be more just than Christ, and call down fire on the rejecters of the gospel; and the prodigal's brother, Luke xv. [Luke 15] repined at his father's lenity.
    Pride maketh men slight the authority and commands of God, and despise his messengers, and choose to be ruled by their own conceits, and lusts, and interests, Jer. xiii. 15,17 [Jeremiah 13:15,17]; xliii. 2,3 [Jeremiah 43:2,3]; when the humble tremble at his word, and readily obey it, Isa. lvii. 15 [Isaiah 57:15]; Neh. ix. 16,29 [Nehemiah 9:16,29]; Isa. ix. 9 [Isaiah 9:9].
    A proud man in power will expect that his will be obeyed before the will of God; and that the subjects of God displease their Master rather than him: he will think it a crime for a man to inquire first what God would have him do; or to plead conscience and the commands of the God of heaven, against the obeying of his unjust commands. If he offer you preferment, as Balak did Balaam, he looketh you should be more taken with it, than with God's offer of eternal life: if he threaten you, as Nebuchadnezzar did the three witnesses, he looks that you should be more afraid of him than of God, who threateneth your damnation; and is angry if you be not.
    A proud man is more offended with one that would question his authority, or speak diminutively of his power, or displease his will, or cross his interest, than with one that sinneth against the authority, and will, and interest of God. He is much more zealous for himself and his own honour, than for God's; and grieved more for his own dishonour, and hateth his own enemies more than God's; and can tread down the interest of God and souls, if it seem but necessary to his honour or revenge: he is much more pleased and delighted with his own applause, and honour, and greatness, than with the glory of God, or the fulfilling of his will.
    Proud men would fain steal from God himself the honour of many of his most excellent works. If they are rulers, they are more desirous that the thanks for the order and peace of societies be given by the people to them, than unto God. If they are preachaers, they would fain have more than their due, of the honour of men's conversion and edification: if they are pastors, they would encroach upon Christ's part of the government of his church. . . . -- Richard Baxter

    Nearly everything that Congress does is unconstitutional. -- Howard Phillips

    And ye peoples, to whom God gave the liberty to choose your own magistrates, see to it that ye do not forfeit this favor by electing to the positions of highest honor, rascals and enemies of God. -- John Calvin, in his commentary on 1 and 2 Samuel

    Bad men cannot make good citizens. It is impossible that a nation of infidels or idolators should be a nation of freemen. It is when a people forget God that tyrants forge their chains. A vitiated [defective] state of morals, a corrupted public conscience, are incompatible with freedom. -- Patrick Henry

    Percent of all births to unmarried women: 40.7 percent. . . . Data are for the U.S., 2012. Source: Births: Final Data for 2012, table C

    Paul does not regard government as provider of income, health care, education, national parks, money, or any of the other services common to our modern welfare states; its function is quite simple: to punish wrongdoers. -- John W. Robbins

    Conservatism is a political philosophy that professes to be practical and grounded in reality -- not in ideological or utopian dream worlds -- yet it cannot furnish a coherent answer to a very practical question: What is the proper punishment for a thief? Even ignoring the big questions -- What is the ideal government? Is there an ideal government? Is any government justified? What is the proper relationship between church and state? -- conservatism cannot answer a small question. If conservatism cannot offer a justified answer to a small question, it probably cannot answer larger questions. -- John W. Robbins in Conservatism: An Autopsy

    The budget is the script (real intention), for government. -- Howard Phillips

    Remember that the grand design of the devil, and all deceivers, is to delude and corrupt the rulers of the people, knowing how much they signify by their laws, power, and examples; and how sad it will be to be judged as a persecutor, or a captain of iniquity. And therefore you must have a greater self-suspicion, and fear of seduction and sin, than others; and must watch more carefully against wicked counsel and example, but especially the temptations of your own flesh and corrupted nature, and of your wealth and place. -- Richard Baxter

    The king is as much bound by his oath not to infringe the legal rights of the people, as the people are bound to yield subjection to him. From whence it follows that as soon as the prince sets himself above the law, he loses the king in the tyrant. He does, to all intents and purposes, un-king himself. -- Jonathan Mayhew, in a sermon in 1765

    The civil government, as all life, stands under the Law of God. . . . when any office commands that which is contrary to the World of God, those who hold that office abrogate their authority and they are not to be obeyed. -- Francis Schaeffer

    Having learnt from the Holy Scriptures that wise, brave, and virtuous men were always friends to liberty -- that God gave the Israelites a king in His anger, because they had not the sense and virtue enough to like a free commonwealth [1 Samuel 8:4-22] -- and where the Spirit of the Lord is there is liberty [2 Corinthians 3:17] -- this made me conclude that freedom was a great blessing. -- Jonathan Mayhew, from his autobiography

    It is time we consciously realize that when an office commands what is contrary to God's Law, it abrogates its authority. And our loyalty to the God who gave this law then requires that we make the appropriate response in that situation to such a tyrannical usurping of power. . . . -- Francis Schaeffer

    Man will ultimately be governed by God or by tyrants. . . . Those who are willing to trade their essential liberties for a little temporary safety, deserve neither safety nor liberty. -- Benjamin Franklin

    True, the state as the policeman can be corrupt; in fact, if the society as a whole is corrupt, the state will also be corrupt. In a healthy and godly society, the state will function successfully to restrain the minority of evil-doers. The key to the situation is not the state but the religious health of the society. -- Rousas John Rushdoony, in Institutes of Biblical Law, p. 470

    He is first of all God's judgment on our land. According to the Scriptural pattern, a sign that God is displeased with a nation is when he removes competent, righteous, valiant leaders and gives you over to weak, inept, wicked rulers. (Isaiah 3). He is also the Lord's rebuke to the Church of Jesus Christ. Conservative Christians can demonize Clinton all they like, but that doesn't remove God's warning through this corrupt administration that the Church is going the wrong way and was a major contributing factor to Clinton's rise to power. Allegorically, Bill Clinton is Balaam's donkey that God used to speak to a wayward prophet that was about to head into a collision course with the dread Sovereign of the Universe. Balaam thought by beating the donkey that would alleviate his problems. So it is today, many Christian and conservative groups who fill their coffers by beating the President think they can alleviate the problems with America by pursuing this same foolish course. Unfortunately, many of us are just as blind as Balaam when it comes to the understanding that the president is not the problem, we are. The bottom line is, Bill Clinton is God's x-ray into the heart of America that reveals the moral sickness that is plaguing our nation for abandoning God and for trashing His Laws. He is a prophetic warning that the bridge is out up ahead and we need to turn around before it is too late.
    I believe it is imperative that the American people understand that Bill Clinton is not the only one being investigated and on trial here today. The truth is our entire nation is on trial. For us to even have a debate whether character counts is an admission of how far we have fallen. It is also an indictment against our inability for self-government (the very cornerstone of our Republic), the breakdown of family government, the failure of church government to be salt and light to the culture, and the abdication of civil government to uphold God's Laws. These sacred institutions that God established for our benefit and for His pleasure were to uphold what is noble and honorable amongst men and to restrain that which is base and destructive. -- Rusty Lee Thomas in Does Character Count?

    This moral dilemma which has defiled the highest office in the land and made our nation the brunt of every lewd joke is yet another penalty for rejecting the standards of the Bible and the lessons from history. The Bible teaches that God holds leaders, rulers, and to those who instruct others to a higher standard. Their lives come under a greater magnifying glass. That is why there are certain requirements for civil and church leadership that are not required by God for lay people and the common citizens. It is also why God warns in James 3:1, My brethren, be not many masters, knowing that we shall receive the greater condemnation. According to God, those in leadership are not called to uphold a lesser standard, but to uphold a higher one. They are to be aware that their lives will be subject to greater scrutiny and judgment as one who stands in the place of authority. That is why civil rulers are to be men who are just, ruling in the fear of God. (2 Samuel 23:3). In Exodus 18:21, the Lord confirms this criteria for civil leaders by declaring, Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people able men (this reveals a representative form of government), such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness . . . -- Rusty Lee Thomas

    Blasphemy against the Almighty is denying his being or providence, or uttering contumelious reproaches on our Savior Christ. It is punished, at common law by fine and imprisonment, for Christianity is part of the laws of the land. -- William Blackstone

    Is leadership to blame for our problems?
    Lack of individual responsibility (Individual Responsibility for Corporate Faithfulness and Sanctification), has a lot to do with the problems of individuals and nation today. Sometimes the truth hurts. We humans, with our fuzzy understanding of the Doctrine of (The Sovereignty of God), and (The Doctrine of Man [Human Nature, Total Depravity]), tend to shift blame for our problems to leadership. (see: Scapegoating and Blame Shifting). Blinded to the broader perspective we tend to blame our leaders for our problems. We think the enemies of society are elected officials, civil servants, judges, lawyers, and business CEOs. Or we blame church leaders in the visible church who are not true to Christ. After all they repress and suppress the Truth and are instrumental in maintaining a famine of spiritual knowledge. We blame anyone who has usurped power and who is rebellious and idolatrous.
    Viewed from a broader perspective, in the Old Testament our Heavenly Father entered into a covenant with us The Ten Commandments: The Moral Law. (see also: Covenant Theology and the Ordinance of Covenanting). And in the New Testament He has redeemed us by adopting us back into His family on the basis of the finished life and work of Christ (see also: Book-length Presentations of the Free Offer of The Gospel Message of Salvation and the Life to Come: The Means of Grace and The Teaching of our Lord Jesus Christ). But when we as individuals turn our backs on Christ, when we fall into idolatry, then one of the ways He punishes us is to give us leaders like ourselves who are rebellious and idolatrous. Notice He gives us exacting what we deserve. He gives us exactly what we have willed for ourselves by the lives we live (Psalm 106:40-43). Notice also that He is simply being faithful to his covenant with us. (The Covenant Faithfulness of God).
    It is the presence of the Holy Spirit in the hearts of individual members of society that restrains evil. In other words, in the final analysis it is individual hearts filled with the Holy Spirit that determines the leadership of a nation. We are redeemed and saved by our absolute sovereign God in his covenant faithfulness with us. The consequence is righteous leadership and a renewed and stabilized nation. Our prayer should be "Turn us again, O God, and cause thy face to shine; and we shall be saved." (Psalm 80:3). See A Theological Interpretation of American History.

    Positive good is the real moderating influence, not compromise with evil. -- Roger Pooley

    Our Constitution was made only for a moral and religious people. It is wholly inadequate for the government of any other. -- John Adams, Address to the Militia of Massachusetts, 1798

    If God does not exist, everything is permitted. -- Fyodor Dostoevski

    They have the earth in their hands (Job 9:24), who have nothing of heaven in their hearts; they bear sway in the world who are slaves to the world; they govern and order others at their will who are led captive by Satan at his will. Be not offended and troubled to see the reins of government in their hands who know not how to govern themselves, or to see them rule in the world who are unworthy to live in the world. -- Joseph Caryl

    George Barna reviewed more than a dozen national surveys related to matters of faith conducted by the Barna Research Group during 2000 and devised three lists of faith-related survey results -- particularly noteworthy insights. . .
    Surveys showed the following results:

    If the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the God of the Bible, the God of historic, orthodox Christianity is in fact Absolute Truth, if in fact truth is one of His attributes, then political polytheism, pluralism, and political correctness are a myth.

    We have staked the whole future of American civilization, not upon the power of government, far from it. We have staked the future of all of our political institutions upon the capacity of each and all of us to govern ourselves, to control ourselves, to sustain ourselves according to the Ten Commandments of God." -- James Madison, "The Father of our Constitution"

    James Madison famously quipped that if men were angels no government would be necessary.

    A simple democracy is the devil's own government. -- Benjamin Rush

    If the people be governors, who shall be governed? -- John Cotton (1584-1652)

    Against the totalitarianism of the pagan world empires, Christ taught the limitation of state power and the separation of church and state: Render therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's (Matthew 22:21). Neither Caesar nor any other mere man was pontifex maximus. Christ himself was the way, the truth, and the life, the only mediator between God and man (John 14:6; 1 Timothy 2:5). He explicitly denied the political theory and practice of the pagans: You know that the rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and those who are great exercise dominion over them. Yet it shall not be so among you; but whoever desires to become great among you, let him be your servant (Matthew 20:25-26). Christ demanded that rulers -- both civil and ecclesiastical -- serve, not control, the people. He outlined a limited role for civil government, not as the shaper of souls, as in pagan philosophies, but simply as the punisher of criminals. He founded a church whose government was representative and republican, whose officers were elected by the people, and whose constitution -- the Bible -- was written. Inspired by his words, the American Founders made their plans for a new Republic, a government of the people, by the people, and for the people.(13)
    The early Christians, condemned by pagans such as Celsus and Porphyry(14) as stupid, foolish, and superstitious, were not killed for their stupidity, but because they rejected the highest value of pagan society: worship of the totalitarian state in the person of the Emperor. The Christians rejected Aristotle ('The state is the highest of all. Citizens belong to the state.') and believed Christ. Christ, in dying for the salvation of individual men, exalted both the individual and God. God is eternal and men are immortal; nations and rulers come and go with surprising rapidity, but individual souls live forever. Rome is not an eternal city; only individual men enjoy everlasting life.
    Christ taught that man was a creature of God and the lord of creation. Man's ancestry was not animal, but divine, and the Earth was made for man. Individual men were immortal; what they believed and did on Earth would have eternal consequences. After death, they did not descend into some shadowland, but each was required to give an account of his life to his maker and judge. All men were equal before God and his law, and each man would be judged individually. The classes of ancient society -- the nobles, the proletariat, the slaves, the citizens, the men, the women, the Jews, the barbarians -- meant nothing to God. In the new Christian faith, There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. (Galatians 3:8)
    Christ's kingdom grows only by persuasion, never by coercion(15) -- it is a republic of knowledge, truth, and doctrine, not an empire of dominion, compulsion, or violence -- and it has taken centuries for some Christian ideas to be understood and believed. Nevertheless, as the anguished wailing of Friedrich Nietzsche in the nineteenth century so clearly indicates, the absorption of Christian ideas has been widespread, though far from complete. -- John W. Robbins in Christ and Civilization

    A bad man in a bad system is an untouchable pope simply because he is protected by the system. -- John Reisinger

    The current "lack of moral vigor" in our society has resulted in an unwritten "code red." If a colleague in an organization reports incompetency or error, regardless of how tactful and respectful they are, leadership tends to unite, and to brand the "whistle blower" as a "trouble maker."
    "Code red," as practiced in the military, was dramatized in the movie A Few Good Men (1992).
    In healthcare the victim of a "code red" might be either a practictioner or a patient. If practitioner who reports medical error, malpractice, misconduct, or price gouging, then he becomes the victim and may lose his job and have difficult finding another one.
    Likewise a patient who reports medical error, malpractice, misconduct, or price gouging, may find that suddenly they are dropped as a patient or "given a hard time" by their previous local healthcare support group. They may be denied medical care in the future.
    "Code red" may be thought of as a corollary to the "blue code of silence" that "has protected police officers [and doctors and healtcare workers], from being reported for misconduct. This unwritten rule keeps fellow officers from revealing errors or criminal activity."
    The "code red" and "blue code of silence" in government, healthcare, and business are just several reasons why things have gone so horribly wrong and at the same time leadership does not seem to care.
    In the Washington metropolitan area it is said that if an individual comes to town with the goal of changing what is not right, then within six months he either "bends his knee to the powers that be," or ends up leaving town.

    A blue code of silence has protected police officers from being reported for misconduct. This unwritten rule keeps fellow officers from revealing errors or criminal activity. Now a new study in the Journal of the American Medical Association suggests that a similar code of silence prevents many doctors from reporting colleagues who are impaired or incompetent.
    Even though the AMA has a code of ethics that states doctors have an ethical obligation to report such behavior, a survey of nearly 3,000 physicians found that many don't comply. In this research, about one third who knew of an incompetent colleague did not report the person to the relevant authorities. Reasons for not reporting included the belief that someone else would take action, the worry that nothing would happen as a result of a report and the fear of retribution. The authors conclude that the current atmosphere results in patients being exposed to unacceptable risks. -- JAMA, July, 14 2010

    Trusting in men instead of trusting in God results in incompetence and corruption
    The unregenerate, the skeptic, regardless of their level in society, look to men for their livelihood and well-being, instead of trusting in God to prepare a table before me in the face of mine enemies, to care for them and to satisfy their needs throughout life, a lesson that King David learned and expressed in Psalm 23:5,6. They are blind to spiritual values and swallowed up by needs of the flesh.
    The skeptic, who can not trust God, is more worried about loosing his job than he is worried about job duties, responsibilities, and performance. This inevitably leads to incompetence and corruption in the workplace.
    This obsessive preoccupation with job security, whether conscious or sub-conscious, also applies to elected officials, from top to bottom, who make demands on subordinates to not "rock the boat," to not jeopardize their popularity with the electorate, leading to the observation that "all bureaucracies are incompetent and corrupt."
    The "savvy" Washington bureaucrat is "hog-tied" because he is more interested in "covering his butt," not jeopardizing his easy, secure, well-paying, lifetime "career" with retirement and benefits, than in carrying out his responsibilities, especially regulatory or enforcement duties (i.e. the Securities and Exchange Commission). The net effect is paralysis in the workplace. Friday evening rush hour in Washington, DC is said to be the most sluggish of any city in the country.
    Calvin unfolds Scripture on this fact of the incompetence and corruption of the unregenerate, the blind, in their fearful pursuit of fleshly needs. See his commentary on Proverbs 1:7, Genesis 4:7, Genesis 25:29-34, Hebrews 2:14,15, and Matthew 16:26.

    The fundamental problem, which Starr calls the "policy trap," is that important segments of society get enough out of a woefully inefficient system to resist, and to be suspicious of, any reform. The deductibility of health insurance premiums by employers and nationalized healthcare for the elderly via Medicare means that the most important voting blocs in society do well under the system without really appreciating the ridiculously high cost of what they are provided. Middle class people with jobs and senior citizens vote -- and they are invested in the status quo. -- Paul Starr, Remedy and Reaction: The Peculiar American Struggle Over Health Care Reform

    Vested interests -- people who make a great deal of money by maintaining the status quo -- have systematically worked to keep Americans clueless about the extent of the health care meltdown, the causes of the meltdown, and the real story about feasible alternatives. -- Robert H. LeBow and C. Rocky White, Health Care Meltdown: Confronting The Myths and Fixing Our Failing System

    Job security and job performance in healthcare "Working oneself out of a job," would be the equivalent, in healthcare, of developing a cure for, or preventing major diseases, addictions, or abnormal behaviors -- of fostering a society of healthy individuals who do not need doctors. It would be the equivalent of educating the patient so they know how to prevent disease and stay healthy.
    Notice that the "fact of incurability" is built into the business model of most recovery programs. (i.e., "once an alcoholic, always an alcoholic"). Yet there is ample documented evidence that this fact is not true.
    Not being able to trust God to provide a table before us, to provide a lifetime of employment, leads to a whole array of unethical practices in healthcare, a few of the more egregious being: flip-flopping after taking the Hippocratic Oath and receiving a Medical License from the state (which is essentially a monopoly, and fosters lack of competition and price fixing), and then pursing the personal goal of becoming a "wealthy doctor," performing unnecessary surgery to "keep the mill running," deliberate misdiagnosis in order to perform expensive procedures, "stuffing" hospital bills with costs for "standby equipment" that is not used, recommending procedures or prescribing medicines that involve serious risks without informing the patient of the risks involved, "price fixing" through corporate monopolies and professional "trusts," the $1,000 crown and build up, the $6,000 orthodontist treatment, the $6,000 hearing aid, $600 for 100 Prozac capsules when the generic version (though not identical and not as effective), is $12, $9,500 to $18,850 (January 2007), for prenatal care and delivery (bearing a child is a normal process), depending upon the type of delivery and the geographical location, performing unnecessary C-sections (Washington, DC has one of the highest rates of C-sections in the country) -- without insurance they can run from $14,000 to $25,000, failure to diagnose hypothyrodism which can lead to physiological depression and a constellation of symptoms, resulting in multiple doctor visits and wrong diagnose over a lifetime, and seriously degrading quality of life, public advertising of healthcare organizations, public advertising of prescription drugs, "paper-thin" health insurance, recent changes in bankruptcy laws excluding medical expenses from bankruptcy (medical bills are the leading cause of bankruptcy), and so forth, and so on, and on, and on, and on -- all because leaders and professionals can not trust in God to provide them with a livelihood throughout their lives.
    It is not surprising that doctors have the highest suicide rate of any professional group.
    This tendency to be fearful of losing one livelihood is seen in every sphere of the economy. Similarly corrupted business models are found in the oil, the automotive, and the healthcare industries.
    In the final analysis