Appendix C

Psychology and Psychiatry

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Psychology and Psychiatry

Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ. (Colossians 2:8)

And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols? for ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. (2 Corinthians 6:16)

A religious doctrine involves practical consequences so important, and its effects upon individual and social life are so infallible and so profound, that it can never be contemplated with indifference by the mass of society, and much less by their rulers. We pray you to observe, amongst other things, that the stronger the feeling of dependence to which religion reduces the individual, the more she invests him, on the other hand, with a lofty independence. All religion is freedom. By introducing us into the service of one master, she emancipates us from the dominion of all others. If she does not altogether do away with dependencies of another order, she transforms them from absolute into relative ones. We still belong to society, we are perhaps linked to it by closer ties than before; but it is in a mediate manner, for man cannot serve two masters. It is this independence which exasperates the rulers of this world, and indeed, for the most part, all those who do not share in it. It is this sacred retreat of liberty which they would invade -- this freedom, of which they would deprive us; as if the numerous sacrifices which from time to time liberty has made for the common weal were insufficient, as if it were not enough, or rather as if it were nothing, for us to have devoted all our bodily powers and all our worldly goods to the service of society, so long as this offering is not completed by the sacrifice of the soul. It is spiritual domination, dominion over the soul, of which despotism, whether of princes or of the people, is especially desirous. Thus, when a tyrant has bereft a nation of all its liberties, until throughout the realm his will has become law, his ambition having nothing else wherewith to satiate its appetite, directs itself against religion. Thencefowward, having subjugated the bodies of men, he directs his attacks against their souls. It is because he cannot but be sensible that dominion over souls -- what do you say? -- over one single soul, is as much superior to that over bodies, as the soul itself is superior to its envelope of clay. He cannot endure the humiliation of knowing that there is a sphere in which the most obscure man, by the force of sympathy alone, wields a greater power than his own. A deep-rooted and bitter feeling of envy takes possession of him; he can enjoy no more repose, until moral force shall have yielded to the pressure of physical force -- until the second Mordecai shall have bowed down to this second Haman -- until the soul, by dethroning itself, shall have delivered him from this odious rivalry. And should he encounter in this enterprise an unlooked-for resistance, his impatience becomes fury, and he destroys those whom he cannot subdue. This has been the origin of many religious persecutions, and it discloses the secret motives of those atrocities by which some have been distinguished.
It does not follow, however, that all the evils with which the world has been inundated in the name of religion, are to be referred to this cause alone. They have originated in that pre-eminently just idea, that religion gives the true signification of every man, and of the whole of society; that there is nothing more deeply seated in us, nothing which more decisively determines what we are; and that to declare what we believe, is at the same time, and as a matter of necessity, to declare what we wish to be. The influence of a lordly spirit apart, it is not astonishing that the social power has everywhere, more or less, attempted to regulate the faith of the citizens and the instructions of the priesthood. Nor is it surprising that the priesthood, in aid of the state, have themselves attempted to dictate in a matter of this importance. For the suppression of this evil, the assistance of ages has been necessary, and this has not proved sufficient; the veto of public opinion has been also needed. Perhaps in certain countries something further has been required -- the progress of religious indifference. But nowhere is the fire extinguished, because nowhere is man changed; he will never witness unmoved, the energetic manifestation of religious principle; he may be indulgent to philosophical religions, or to religious philosophy, which penetrates not to the very sources of will and of action; but he will be, with his own full knowledge and consent, severe upon genuine faith. And why? because man possessing genuine faith, rises to his highest elevation; an elevation to which it is necessary that others should rise also, not indeed to rule over him (for this is impossible), but to treat with him, and to be at peace together. This is the true position and individuality of each renewed man, and everything is put in requisition to annul, subdue, and modify it. -- Alexander Vinet and Charles Theodore Jones (translator), An Essay on the Profession of Personal Religious Conviction, pp. 73-76

"The growth of interest in psychology (which has its proper place in the scheme of things) and a world view that is increasingly human centered, have moved the center of gravity in our thinking toward our feelings and responses. A direct response to human needs and aspirations may seem to produce more and quicker `results,' but in the long term it is self-defeating. Explaining God's Word, emphasizing God's works, defining God's greatness--these are what motivate God's people, and Joshua knew that well." -- Morgan Derham

1650 The ENCYCLOPEDIA AMERICANA, in its article on the History of Psychology, credits Ren‚ Descartes (1596-1650) as being the initiator of the discipline of psychology.

1653 The term "psychologie" was used for the first time in 1653 in the Vack Discourse.

1882 Viennese physician Joseph Brever uses hypnosis to treat hysteria (beginning of psychoanalysis).

1909 Sigmund Freud lectured in the U.S. on Psychoanalysis. -- THE OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY

The fool hath said in his heart,
There is no God.
They are corrupt,
they have done abominable works,
there is none that doeth good.
(Psalm 14:1)
See the Theological Notes, "Mankind's Guilty Knowledge of God" at Romans 1:29, page 1767, and at Psalm 14:1, page 766 in The Reformation Study Bible

"Cornelius Van Til makes the theologically valid point that `irrationality in the mind of man, that is, insanity, must be the result of a deflection of man from the source of absolute rationality,' God, and consequently `all men have merited insanity because of their departure from God.' [Or, not until man repents is he truly sane. - SK] Eternal punishment is `the abyss of irrationalism,' and what we call rational or normative experience is a gift of God's common grace. No man is worthy of it'." -- Frederick Leahy

"There is no solution to any problem apart from God." -- William James

Adams, Jay E., Counseling Workshop: An Alcoholic Partner; Long-Term Counseling; Suicide; Forgiveness; Larry Crabb's Approach (Michigan City, IN: Sound Word Associates, 1991). [30021]
Audio cassette JA504.

Almy, Gary L. How Christian Is Christian Counseling? The Dangerous Secular Influences That Keep Us from Caring for Souls
"As a Christian counselor with a Phd working in the field of Christian counseling. I always wondered how christian counselors could cross and blurr the line of psychological and biblical counseling. If you want to where the line is and how not to cross it, I recommend to you this book. I will not only recommend it to all Christian counselors, I will recommed it to all Christians." -- James J. Kruger

Ankerberg, John, and John Weldon, The Facts on False Teaching in the Church (Eugene, OR: Harvest House Publishers, 1988). D1005 "If you are concerned about the new philosophies and psychologies that are infilrating today's churches, THE FACTS ON FALSE TEACHING IN THE CHURCH is an invaluable resource to help you judge which teachings are biblical and which are not." -- Synopsis

Ankerberg, John, and John Weldon, The Facts on Self-Esteem, Psychology, and the Recovery Movement: Psychology and the Recovery Movement
"This book conclusively shows much of the psychology and recovery movement's anti-Christian, pro-occult, pro-humanist foundations. This is a a must read for anyone who thinks that modern psychology and the Church can successfully mingle.
Ankerberg and Weldon raise some serious questions and concerns that need to be considered by lay Christians, pastors, students, and people in the mental-health industry." -- Reader Comment

Beechick, Ruth, A Biblical Psychology of Learning: How Your Mind Works (Denver, CO: Accent Books, 1982).
"May be the finest book on the contemporary scene that explains the learning process, while allowing the Scriptures to judge the vast array of learning theories. The mode of learning the author presents and her discussion of creativity, higher thinking, and the spiritual developmental tasks are provocative. But her use of the Biblical concept of the heart marks the book with its uniqueness. It pries open a variety of areas with a new touch." -- Warren S. Benson

Bobick, Michael W., From Slavery to Sonship: A Biblical Psychology for Pastoral Counseling (Scarsdale, NY: The Author, c1984). C1014
Distributed by Westminster Theological Seminary Discount Book Service. Includes bibliography.

Bobgan, Martin, and Deidre Bobgan, Against Biblical Counseling: For the Bible (Eastgate Pub).
"Martin Bobgan puts forth an appeal for Christians to abandon the biblical counseling movementand return to an earlier dependence on the Bible and on Biblically-ordained ministries and mutual care in the the Body of Chirst.
"A great book where an author dares to speak against positions previously held. This book is for Christians who already are against psychology but have replaced it with the "Biblical Counseling" model. This book shows that concepts such as paid sessions, timed sessions, and segregation of councelor and councelee outside of counceling are not in line with Biblical teachings and instead patterned themself after psychological counseling. Urges readers that Biblical counseling is only an attempt to replace psychological counseling when only a return to the Bible is needed." -- Editorial Review

Bobgan, Martin, and Deidre Bobgan, Competent to Minister: The Biblical Care of Souls
"The question raised in this book is, how did christians minister to suffering souls before psychology was developed? The author says that knowing and using psychology in caring for souls is not the biblical or best way to help people. He writes to Christians and raises many important issues that need to be looked at long and hard. You will either hate this book or love it, for it forces us to look at things that we have be avoiding. Mr. Bobgan sould be commended for his courage to take on the "Christian/Psycology" movement. He is blunt and yet give a positive alternative that is clearly needed and easily applied. It should set people free to love and help those that are hurting." -- Reader Comment

Bobgan, Martin, and Deidre Bobgan, CRI Guilty of Psychoheresy?

Bobgan, Martin, and Deidre Bobgan, The End of `Christian Psychology'
"This book shows how Psychology does not satisfy even the basic requirements of science, yet it is accepted as if it were. It also explains the various absurd teachings that `Christian' psychologists are choosing from. Psychology is such a non-science that anyone can take just about any position and still practice psychology from those assumptions. Urges Christians to outright reject psychology in their lives." -- Reader Comment

*Bobgan, Martin, and Deidre Bobgan, Four Temperaments, Astrology and Personality Testing (Santa Barbara, CA: EastGate Publishers, 1992). C1002
"Why are the four temperaments so popular among Christians, but have all but disappeared from the field of psychology? Do these personality typologies give true insight into behavior? Can knowledge in these areas foster Christian love and maturity? Does the Bible establish any temperament or personality types? Critiques the work of Tim LaHaye, Florence Littauer, et al." -- GCB

Bobgan, Martin, Hypnosis and the Christian

Bobgan, Martin, and Deidre Bobgan, James Dobson's Gospel of Self-Esteem and Psychology
"Another well written, well documented and footnoted book by the Bobgans. They do not attack Dr. Dobson personally, but they do quote extensively from his work and then show where he has moved away from biblical truth. It is a very eye opening book and is a must read for anyone who is wanting to hone their discernment skills. Don't take what the Bobgans say at face value, get your Bible out and see for yourself. Be a "Berean!" -- Reader Comment

Bobgan, Martin, and Deidre Bobgan, Larry Crabb's Gospel
"This book can be eye-opening to many of us who truly are hopeful that Crabb is moving toward a more biblical approach to counseling (and in understanding man and his vertical relationship with God and his horizontal relationship with his fellow man). If you have been impacted by Crabbs' books, this is a must read. It will give you a very discerning look at how Crabb, many times, still sees the world through the eyes of secular psychology. I do believe that a few times the authors were more sarcastic rather than the more loving exhortation for a brother (1 Cor 2:3-9) we're called to in God's Word. However, overall, we need to be warned: Psychology is at war with God's Word and let us be discerning in these last days." -- Reader Comment

*Bobgan, Martin, and Deidre Bobgan, Prophets of Psychoheresy I (Santa Barbara, CA: EastGate Publishers). C1003
"The Bobgans maintain the position that counseling must be based upon Scripture alone and not upon an integration of Scripture and psychology. To that end they critique the integration approach of Gary Collins, Lawrence Crabb, Paul Meier, and Frank Minirth. . . .
"Martin is a Vice President of Continuing Education at Santa Barbara City College. . . . This book is an expos‚ of the fallacies and failures of psychological counseling theories and therapies, and it is intended to arm Christians with the sound scriptural principles which will deliver them from the people who are displacing, diluting and distorting God's word. . . . [the Bobgans] insist on the absolute sufficiency of Scripture in all matters of life and conduct (2 Peter 1). . . . The sad condition of Christians, and of their churches, cannot be remedied by a mixture of human wisdom and scriptural wisdom, but only by the deepening and expanding of the grace and knowledge of the Lord Jesus Christ, which comes solely from the Bible. As seen on age 120, `A Christian's answer to problems of living depends on his [or her] relationship with God and obedience to His Word.'
`For the word of God is quick, and powerful . . . and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart (Hebrews 4:12). . . ." -- Jay P. Green, Sr.

*Bobgan, Martin, and Deidre Bobgan, Prophets of Psychoheresy II: Critiquing James Dobson (Santa Barbara, CA: EastGate Publishers). C1004
"Here is a call to the church to rely on the Word of God and the work of the Holy Spirit, rather than on the psychological opinions of men. Topics include: self-esteem, self-love, childhood memories, birth order, behaviorism, and many more." -- GCB

*Bobgan, Martin, and Deidre Bobgan, Psycho-Heresy: The Seduction of Christianity by Psychoanalysis (Santa Barbara, CA: EastGate Publishers). C1005
"Analyzes attempts to integrate psychology with the Bible, exposes fallacies of psychological counseling, examines four commonly held myths about psychology, and encourages a return to sound Biblical foundations for Christian living. Praised by Jay Adams, Ed Payne, et al." -- GCB
"Some people will say the Bobgans are hitting too hard--naming names and all that--but I don't think so. Whenever someone writes for the Christian public he sets forth his views to the scrutiny of others, but if others think that what he says is dangerous to the church, they, like Paul (who names names, too) have an obligation to say so. The chapter Amalgamania is the best. Indeed it should be enlarged and made into an entire book." -- Jay Adams
"In the Amalgamania chapter (5), the authors use 2 Corinthians 6:14-17, the separation between light and darkness, between Christ and Belial, between believers and unbelievers, to point out the unbiblical practice of mixing Bible and psychology, with the palm going to the latter. Note the many `How to' books being produced, the fact that they do not have the Bible as the sole rule of faith and practice. It is the Bible plus something else that will solve your problems. Just as teens think that the wisdom of their parents is pass‚, so the writers of today's books in effect regard the Bible's teaching in the same way. To hear the psychologists is to find that they think that the Bible is not adequate for this present age. . . .
"Find a church `counselor' who sticks strictly to God's Word, and you will know that you have seen a rare bird indeed. . . . The truth of the matter is that the Christian counselor who determines by the grace of God to know and use the Scriptures in his counseling is the only one who can ever have a solid basis for what he says and does (p. 203). . . . Read the Puritan sermons, for instance. They expounded the Word fully, and then they gave application after application to everyday life to show that every situation was covered by the Scriptures . . ." -- Jay P. Green Sr.

Bobgan, Martin, The Psychological Way: The Spiritual Way

*Bobgan, Martin, and Deidre Bobgan, Twelve Steps to Destruction: Codependency Recovery Heresies (Santa Barbara, CA: EastGate Publishers). C1001
"This book relates to those who are thinking about joining a recovery group or entering a treatment center for addiction, where the 12-step programs are a major thrust. The authors urge Christians who offer such programs to return to the faith once delivered to the saints. A much needed book." -- GCB

Bulkley, Ed, Why Christians Can't Trust Psychology
"I found that this book greatly increased my confidence in the Bible as the only reliable source for God's solutions to life problems. Although I believed that for myself, as a Bible teacher I had become intimidated by the Christian counseling community. The title is unfortunate in my mind. It is not a negative book. It's overall effect is to help you understand how God changes people. It is very positive in it's proclamation that God has given us everything we need for life and godliness. That message drives you to the scriptures with great hope and confidence." -- Reader Comment

*Bunyan, John, The Pilgrim's Progress, complete and unabridged (Carlisle, PA: The Banner of Truth Trust, 1979, 1895). A Christian classic.
Said to be "the greatest book, other than Scripture, which an Englishman has given to mankind." -- GCB
The Banner of Truth Trust publication is recommended. It is facsimile reprinted from the unabridged edition of 1895 published by John C. Nimmo, Ltd. containing the original marginal notes and Scripture references and illustrated with etchings by William Strang.
"Bunyan had better insight into the human heart than modern psychology; namely, because he did not study man apart from his Creator and apart from his deep inward problem." -- Ernest Reisinger
The Pilgrim's Progress
Pilgrim's Progress John Bunyan (audio files)

*Bunyan, John, The Pilgrim's Progress (Cassettes)
"The entire book, virtually unabridged -- rewritten for the modern ear by Jim Pappas and brought to life by 77 actors with original music and sound effects -- is now available on audio cassette." -- GCB. A Christian classic.
Pilgrim's Progress John Bunyan (audio files)

Clark, Gordon, H., Behaviorism and Christianity (Unicoi, TN: The Trinity Foundation). 31277
"American public education has been heavily influenced by the theories of the behaviorists. Many people know that behaviorism is wrong, but few know why. This book provided a detailed refutation of behaviorist arguments and a solid defense of the Christian view of man. It may be studied with profit by both teachers and parents . . . Dr. Clark says, in part, `Theology does not require brains, it requires a mind or spirit; and behaviorism is a denial of the Gospel'." -- Publisher's Annotation

Clark, Gordon H., A Christian View of Men and Things, 3rd edition (Unicoi, TN: The Trinity Foundation, 1998).
"It is important to learn many subjects in detail, but it is equally important to understand the whole picture. How does Christianity relate to history, politics, ethics, science, human religions, and the study of knowledge? This book carefully and clearly answers those questions. It may be studies with profit by teachers and parents . . . Clark's command of both worldly philosophy and Scripture is evident on every page, and the result is a breathtaking and invigorating challenge to the wisdom of this world." -- The Trinity Foundation
Contents: Foreword, Introduction; The Philosophy of History; The Philosophy of Politics; Ethics; Science; Religion; Epistemology; Index; Scripture Index.
"It was a Christian view of men and things that created and sustained Western civilization. It is a Christian view of things and men that gives us truth about history, science, religion, ethics, politics, and philosophy. . . . Gordon Clark demonstrates that it is Christianity, and Christianity alone, that offers hope both for this world and the world to come." -- Publisher's Annotation
In Chapter V, "Science," Clark makes, among many others, the following points: "Theism gives coherence to history, politics, and ethics, whereas naturalism does not. . . . Christian theism furnishes a basis for significance in history, orderly freedom in government, and a life that is still called respectable west of the iron curtain. . . . Scientific laws are not discovered but are chosen. . . . Not only are scientific laws non-empirical, they must indeed be false. . . . The fallacy of asserting the consequent is invalid whenever used. But it is precisely this fallacy that is used in every case of scientific verification. . . . There is a prior and much more important question: What is the purpose of science? . . . If there are any scientific facts, they are unattainable values with zero variable error. . . . No scientific or observational proof can be given for the uniformity of nature. . . . Science is incapable of arriving at any truth whatever. . . . Ethics and history do not depend on science, but science depends on them. . . ."

*Conn, Harry, Four Trojan Horses of Humanism (Milford, MI: Mott Media). [30112, 90385]
"This is one of the most important works to be published on this subject. The recollections brought before the reader of the fall of Troy are intentional. This time, however, it is the citadels of psychology, sociology, politics, and theology that have taken the deceptive `trophy' into their midst. The result is the overthrow of the truth in these disciplines." -- Cyril J. Barber

*Cosgrove, Mark P., Mental Health: A Christian Approach (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1977). C1006

Cosgrove, Mark P., B.F. Skinner's Behaviorism: An Analysis

*Cosgrove, Wayne, Psychology Gone Awry: Analysis of Psychological World Views (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1979). C1007
"This sorely needed treatise examines the presuppositions of naturalistic, humanistic, and transpersonal psychologies, and finds them wanting. In their place Cosgrove suggests a different approach based on an understanding of the imago Dei." -- Cyril J. Barber. Contains material useful in counseling.

Eakman, B. K. Cloning of the American Mind: Eradicating Morality through Education
"Mrs. Eakman's book is an excellent overview of various psychological schools of thought that have done more than almost any other discipline to adversely effect the modern age. As Mrs. Eakman points out, it is no accident that psychology and politics have come together in order to discover ways to manipulate attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors on a mass scale. While her book is meant to describe the ways in which psychological based curriculum, coupled with electronic data retrieval systems on the part of the State have created psychological profiling and attitude readjustment programs for all school-aged children, her book really out to be read as an expose of more sinister agendas and programs undertaken by governments in this century. The most interesting sections of the book are the ones that connect the development of 19th century materialist atheistic psychologies and 20th century totalitarian politics: the career paths of Nazi and Soviet psychologists crossing with that of such influential Foundations as the Ford and Carnegie Foundations, together with psychological programs emerging out of the Intelligence community after the War, is particularly disturbing. Mrs. Eakman connects the dots, pointing out how a particular person started off in Intelligence, made his way into academia, only to find his way to the corporate world or the media. The only draw back of her book is the absence in many places of detailed footnotes and citing of sources. However, for anyone who has actually read Kurt Lewin or Frankfurt School luminaries, it isn't hard to believe her claims. Additionally, Mrs. Eakman sometimes confuses personages and history: when referring to Dr. Albert Hoffman, the Swiss chemist who developed LSD, she claims he later became a counterculture icon known as Albert 'Abbie' Hoffman -- almost suggesting that Abbie Hoffman of the Sixties and Dr. Albert Hoffman are one and the same. She is also out of her element when discussing philosophers and leading intellectuals. At one point she claims that in Bertrand Russell in his writings about 'a certain educator, Johann Fichte' -- not realizing that Fichte was a Neo-Kantian German philosopher of the earlier 19th century. There are other snafus like these here and there but these can be easily forgiven in light of her insightful analyses and heroic overview of 20th century psychology. To some, Mrs. Eakman's book may sound like 'wacky' conspiracy theories. However, there are a number of so-called mainstream books and publications that have made the same accusations that Mrs. Eakman does and have provided histories of psychological warfare. For the skeptical, try reading Christopher Simpson's book -- published by Oxford Press." -- Reader Comment

Frankl, Viktor E., The Doctor and the Soul: From Psychotherapy to Logotherapy
"Emphasizing spiritual values and the quest for meaning in life in its approach to the neurotic behavior, by the founder of logotherapy." -- Synopsis
"A shining light in the darkness of the moral relativsm.
"Adler thought all human motivation was based on the will to power, manifesting itself in men's desires to get rich and to exercise dominion and women's desire to marry such men. Freud thought all human motivation was based on the will to sex, that is to say the will to procreate the manifestations of which we see in our sex obsessed society. Frankl shows that the misplacement of these desires in the center of human life causes all of the psychological turmoil under which our society suffers. He shows that by putting (dare I say) God, and the purpose for which He created each individual at the center of human existence (the will to meaning), love (misunderstood as the will to sex) and creativity (misunderstood as the will to power)are put into a proper perspective. Frankl's treatise makes the insights of Adler and Freud useful to the religious individual who consider either of these great psychologists secular humanist riff-raff. More over it renders the endless the tangled web weaved by psychoanalysis unnecessary as it shows how understanding oneself as a purposeful being one can alleviate all the binding ties of compulsion, addiction, and irrational fear. INCREDIBLE." -- Reader's Comment

Frankl, Viktor E., Man's Search for Meaning: An Introduction to Logotherapy Gordon W. Allport (Preface)
"This book will change your outlook on life. It will change you and the way you think about your experiences and your life situation. It's an extraordinary exploration of survival, the meaning of other people, what is right behavior and what is wrong behavior. It will make you question and answer these imponderables. You will change." -- Reader's Comment

Ganz, Richard L., Psychobabble: The Failure of Modern Psychology and the Biblical Alternative (Crossway Books).
"PSYCHOBABBLE explains the dichotomy between secular and Biblical counseling and shows the danger of incorporating secular techniques into a Christian aproach. This book will provide scriptural answers to the hurts of a broken world."-- Editorial Review
"I've been on both sides of the fence concerning integration (Psychology and Christianity), and I've always believed that the two could coexist; however, I was wrong despite my sincerity. PSYCHOBABBLE: THE FAILURE OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY AND THE BIBLICAL ALTERNATIVE opened my eyes. Richard Ganz shows his readers that Psychology and Christianity cannot be united. Throughout this book Ganz shares insights from his own personal journey, and encourages his readers to take a bold stance for Christ. This is a book that confronts modern psychotherapy with the Word of God. Within its pages we see Ganz cutting away the fluff of this `feel good' theology that has crept into our homes and churches; he reveals the `Psycho...' fields true motives. Armed with only the Bible he successfully confronts many of societies crutches (self-esteem, etc.). I would highly recommend this book for those who truly believe God's Word is sufficient for ever need." -- Reader Review

Gay, Peter, A Godless Jew: Freud, Atheism, and the Making of Psychoanalysis, new edition (Yale University Press, September 10, 1989).
"Freud himself asked why psychoanalysis had to be created by a 'completely godless Jew.' Gay elegantly and convincingly answers his question." -- Choice
"In 1918, Sigmund Freud posed the following question in a letter to his unlikely Swiss friend, the Christian pastor and lay analyst Oskar Pfister: 'Quite by the way, why did none of the devout create psychoanalysis? Why did one have to wait for a completely godless Jew?' It is this question that provides both the epigraph and the intellectual predicate for A GODLESS JEW, Peter Gay's erudite, brief and readable exploration of the relationship between Freud's atheism and his seminal, world-changing innovations in how mankind came to view the human mind in the twentieth century.
"Subtitled FREUD, ATHEISM, AND THE MAKING OF PSYCHOANALYSIS, Gay's short book was originally embodied in three lectures delivered at the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati in December 1986. It is an attempt, in Gay's words, 'to translate [Freud's] two light-hearted rhetorical questions into three propositions.' Gay states these propositions as follows: 'It was as an atheist that Freud developed psychoanalysis; it was from his atheist vantage point that he could dismiss as well-meaning but futile gestures all attempts to find common ground between faith and unbelief; it was, finally, as a particular kind of atheist, a Jewish atheist, that he was enabled to make his momentous discoveries.'
"After an introduction exploring the late nineteenth century intellectual milieu in which science and religion did battle ('Science Against Religion: "Clericalism, There's the Enemy" '), wherein Gay succinctly draws a counterpoint between the thought of William James and Freud, A GODLESS JEW successively examines each of Gay's three propositions.
"Chapter One ('The Last Philosophe: "Our God Logos" ') advances the notion that Freud was a child of the Enlightenment, a confirmed atheist who rejected all belief in supernatural faith as inconsistent with the scientific method. 'Freud appropriated the whole range of the Enlightenment's agenda, its ideals and its methods, its very language.' In doing so, Freud saw his mission, like that of the Philosophs that preceded him more than a century earlier, as one of 'awaken[ing] the world from the enchantment in which the magicians and priests had held it imprisoned since pagan antiquity.'
"Chapter Two ('In Search of Common Ground: "A Better Christian Never Was" ') examines the antagonistic relationship between psychoanalysis and religion, an antagonism adumbrated by Freud himself: 'Analysis produces no new world view. But it does not need one, for it rests on the general scientific world view with which the religious one remains incompatible.' It also examines, however, the way in which many religious thinkers (including Freud's friend Pfister and the brilliant Paul Tillich) managed to absorb psychoanalysis into Christianity and Judaism through a syncretic legerdemain that simultaneously exasperates and amuses.
"Chapter Three ('The Question of a Jewish Science') explores the relationship between Freud the Jew and Freud the scientist, for while Freud may have denied the existence of God, he never denied that he was a Jew. The question for Gay, then, is not one of Freud's Jewish identity, but 'just what share that identity could have had in the making of psychoanalysis.' In exploring the way in one may speak of the presence or absence of a 'Jewish quality' in psychoanalysis, Gay examines the professional, intellectual, tribal, and sociological meanings of such a quality. It is an interesting, if at times unsatisfying, discussion that fails to provide the reader with a conclusion more definitive than Gay's statement that 'Freud was a Jew, but not a Jewish scientist'." -- Reader Comment

Hanna, Charles B., The Face of the Deep: The Religious Ideas of C.G. Jung (Philadelphia, PA: Westminster Press, 1967). C1022

Lannom, Jack, "The Ministry of The Trinity Foundation," Introduction to Economics, a lecture series on CD The Trinity Foundation Lecture Series, 2005
This is Collection 1: Introduction to Economics, Lecture 3, "The Ministry of The Trinity Foundation" of The Conference on Christianity and Economics.
Jack Lannom speaks on the influence of The Trinity Foundation, and John Robbins on his life. "God's truth is all truth" not all truth is God's truth. The Bible is "Our Legacy of Salvation, Sanity, and Civilization." There is no truth in any science. Science provides us with much useful knowledge, but it is not a source of truth.

*Leahy, Frederick S., Satan Cast Out: A Study in Biblical Demonology (Carlisle, PA: Banner of Truth Trust, 1990, 1975).
"It is often said that wherever there is a rejection of faith in the living God a corresponding upsurge of the demonic will eventually appear. That is true not only in the pages of the Bible and in the annals of Christian missions; it has also become a striking feature of the life in our materialistic, post-Christian society. . . . Full of sane exposition and wise counsel, his work has been widely appreciated since its first publication in 1975." -- Publisher's Annotation
"Probably one of the best, most Scriptural books written today on the subject of demonology." -- Presbyterian Journal

Lloyd-Jones, D. Martyn, Conversion: Psychological and Spiritual (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press). [31572]
"Deals with the efforts of modern psychology to `explain away' the work of the Spirit of God." -- William J. Grier

McLemore, Clinton W., Clergyman's Psychological Handbook; Clinical Information for Pastoral Counseling (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1974). C1029
"This summary of the major functional and organic disorders pastors encounter in their counseling ministry is of particular value in determining when to refer someone to a psychologist, or a psychiatrist." -- Cyril J. Barber

Neal, John W., The Prayer for Help: A Biblical Theological Critique and Reconstruction of the Healing Memories Methodology (Philadelphia, PA: Westminster Theological Seminary, D.Min. thesis, 1986). 10774
Includes bibliography.

*Owen, Jim, Christian Psychology's War on God's Word: The Victimization of the Believer (Santa Barbara, CA: EastGate Publishers, 1993). C1029A
"Owen presents his well-reasoned arguments with kindness, but also with a note of urgency as he relates the disastrous results of Christians using psychological counterfeits of sanctification. Throughout CHRISTIAN PSYCHOLOGY'S WAR ON GOD'S WORD, Owen beckons believers to turn to the all-sufficient Christ and to trust fully in His ever-present provisions, the power of His indwelling Holy Spirit, and the sure guidance of the inerrant Word of God." -- Publisher's Annotation

Powlison, David, Secular Psychology and the Categories of Biblical Thought (Michigan City, IN: Sound Word Associates, 1991). [30512]
Audio cassette DP101.

Powlison, David, "Various Audio Cassette Tapes on Counseling Subjects in the NANC Tape Library," for example:

Inner Healing and Visualization, N9112s
"Where do these subjects belong in today's biblical counseling program?"
Demons, Deliverance and Counselor, N9212s
"Helping the counseled confront these problems with a Biblical approach."
Don't Fail To Get At The Idols, N8923
Inner Healing and Visualization #1, N9112
Inner Healing and Visualization #2, N9113
Demons and Deliverance (part 1 of 2), N9686
Demons and Deliverance (part 2 of 2), N9687
Demons, Deliverance and Counselor #1, N9212
Demons, Deliverance and Counselor #2, N9219
Critiquing Modern Integrationists, N9228
Critiquing and Converting Integrationists, N9304
Converting Psychologied Counselees, N9325
Counseling and Nature of Righteousness #1, N9511
Counseling and Nature of Righteousness #2, N9512
New Trends - Or Enduring Truth? N9911
Faiths'Psychology and Psychological Faiths, N9962
Are You Using the Bible Biblically? N0003
*Rushdoony, Rousas J., Freud (Vallecito, CA: Ross House Books)

*Spurgeon, C.H. (1834-1892), Spurgeon's Devotional Bible (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1975, 1974, 1964) and Spurgeon's Devotional Bible: Selected Passages From the Word of God With Running Comments (paperback), (Evangelical Press, February 1996). Other title: The Interpreter: Spurgeon's morning and evening devotions from the Bible.
"For anyone who wants to restore daily devotions on an individual or family basis, SPURGEON'S DEVOTIONAL BIBLE is the perfect answer. One can read through this book in a year when morning and evening devotions are maintained. . . .
"The gist of the entire Bible is found between the covers of this book. . . . some verses [and chapters] were omitted in whole or in part, but they are always summarized in such a way that the narrative or teaching remains clear. The emphasis is always on Scripture . . ." -- Publisher's Annotation
This is the C.H. Spurgeon who wrote, among other things:

Commenting on typology is a way to convince piers of the reality and immediacy of the Gospel. Spurgeon's concise, succinct, erudite comments point again and again to parallels in Scripture to the life and work of Christ. For example, see his comments on the life of Joseph, on the first Passover, and on God's provision of manna for Israel in the wilderness.
This work, by a modern Puritan, is preeminently practical. Spurgeon emphasizes application of Scripture to everyday life. Key verses appear at the top of each page.
His discernment has captured essential and profound lessons. He brings together Old and New Testament passages with similar lessons. Here is little known insight that should not be ignored or overlooked.
The Bible is full of wisdom on human behavior, real psychology, and Spurgeon points out these lessons everywhere.
The text is the Authorized King James Version.
Pilgrim Publications
Power BibleCD
Includes SPURGEON'S DEVOTIONAL BIBLE. This is the only etext of the work that we know of.

*Szasz, Thomas S., Myth of Mental Illness: Foundations of a Theory of Personal Conduct, revised edition, 1984 (Perennial Currents, November 10, 1984).
"A classic work that has revolutionized thinking throughout the Western world about the nature of the psychiatric profession and the moral implications of its practices. "Bold and often brilliant." -- Science
"I believe this is one of the most important books in the history of psychiatry. The book is ground-breaking and establishes a new parardigm and organizing concept for many `mind' disciplines. Dr Szasz's ideas are timeless, revolutionary and common sense -- not to be contrued as a criticism. Indeed many revolutionary ideas are simple and obvious and I think that is exactly why this book and Dr Szasz must be taken seriously. I am speaking behind the times when I say this because the book is nearly 40 years on the market. However Dr Szasz is as relevant today as ever. Institutionalized persecution of "different" behaviours has evolved beyond the ridiculous to the absurd. Dr Szasz's characterization of this as a `war on personal responsibility' is important from a medical and a moral perspective, as a challenge to the popular notions of `inner child,' the gowing `victim' industry (e.g. gambling and shopping `addictions,' among many many more) and similiar conceptual garabage.
"THE MYTH OF MENTAL ILLNESS creates for the reader a reference point for cross diciplinary thinking in sociology, linguistics, philosophy of mind and science, psychology, history and, of course, medicine. The concepts are true to human beings as self-responsible moral agents and consistent with the North American work-ethic. Dr Szasz is commended for his insight and understanding of a pyschiatric industry gone mad." -- Reader Comment
"Descriptive criteria aside, what is the essence of mental disorders? Are they merely physiological disorders of the brain, or, more precisely of its chemistry? If so, can they be cured by restoring the balance of substances and secretions in that mysterious organ? And, once equilibrium is reinstated - is the illness 'gone' or is it still lurking there, 'under wraps,' waiting to erupt? Are psychiatric problems inherited, rooted in faulty genes (though amplified by environmental factors) - or brought on by abusive or wrong nurturance?
"These questions are the domain of the 'medical' school of mental health.
"Others cling to the spiritual view of the human psyche. They believe that mental ailments amount to the metaphysical discomposure of an unknown medium -- the soul. Theirs is a holistic approach, taking in the patient in his or her entirety, as well as his milieu.
"The members of the functional school regard mental health disorders as perturbations in the proper, statistically 'normal,' behaviours and manifestations of 'healthy' individuals, or as dysfunctions. The 'sick' individual -- ill at ease with himself (ego-dystonic) or making others unhappy (deviant) -- is 'mended' when rendered functional again by the prevailing standards of his social and cultural frame of reference.
"In a way, the three schools are akin to the trio of blind men who render disparate descriptions of the very same elephant. Still, they share not only their subject matter -- but, to a counter intuitively large degree, a faulty methodology.
"As the renowned anti-psychiatrist, Thomas Szasz, of the State University of New York, notes in his article "The Lying Truths of Psychiatry", mental health scholars, regardless of academic predilection, infer the etiology of mental disorders from the success or failure of treatment modalities.
"This form of 'reverse engineering' of scientific models is not unknown in other fields of science, nor is it unacceptable if the experiments meet the criteria of the scientific method. The theory must be all-inclusive (anamnetic), consistent, falsifiable, logically compatible, monovalent, and parsimonious. Psychological 'theories' -- even the 'medical' ones (the role of serotonin and dopamine in mood disorders, for instance) - are usually none of these things.
"The outcome is a bewildering array of ever-shifting mental health 'diagnoses' expressly centered around Western civilisation and its standards (example: the ethical objection to suicide). Neurosis, a historically fundamental 'condition' vanished after 1980. Homosexuality, according to the American Psychiatric Association, was a pathology prior to 1973. Seven years later, narcissism was declared a 'personality disorder,' almost seven decades after it was first described by Freud.
"Szasz is the father of the 'anti-psychiatry' movement and this is his best book -- a riveting, mind boggling, scholarly read." -- Sam Vaknin, author of Malignant Self Love -- Narcissism Revisited
"This is the seminal work by the great Thomas Szasz, psychiatry's most important critic. Szasz ranks with Hayek, Mill, and Madison as one of the greatest proponents of liberty. No educated person should be unfamiliar with his writings." -- Nicolas S. Martin
Thomas S. Szasz Cybercenter for Liberty and Responsibility
"Liberty and responsibility are two sides of the same coin. No policy -- public or private -- can increase or decrease one without increasing or decreasing the other. Human behavior has reasons, not causes. . . .

*Weeks, Noel, The Sufficiency of Scripture (Carlisle, PA: The Banner of Truth Trust, 1988).
"Weeks is currently a Lecturer in History at the University of Sydney. He has a B.S. (Zoology), B.D., Th.M., and Ph.D. To be guilty of understatement, the man is highly and broadly educated.
"Weeks believes firmly that Scripture is sufficient for faith and practice. And he affirms that all disciplines of life are governed by the Lord Jesus Christ, and that His providential actions impact on every individual, and every area of knowledge. This rule is not only declared by the Scripture, but the Scriptures themselves enunciate the response due from each person. Whether it may be culture, or science, or nation, all are subject to the Scripture; that is, all will be judged by the Scriptures in the end. Therefore, it follows that we are daily to judge all things by the Scriptures.
"Weeks makes application of all this. And in doing so he again and again points out that the more we dilute the influence of the Scriptures, the further we go into doubt and confusion. The many apostasies which are today in evidence are the result of the diluting of, or the abandoning of, the authority of the Scriptures. . . .
"In the matter of translations, Weeks shows that there is no solid scriptural reason for the dynamic equivalence form of translation. Rather there is a great disservice to believers. He also shows that making the `receptor language' the governing language in translation is to subvert the original God-breathed words.
"His conclusion is excellent, in which he notes that we are acquiescing in a limitation of inspiration throughout our Christian practice. And this leaves a Christian without power; yea, and also without excuse before God. God's words are absolute, just as His power is absolute. To seek to accommodate the Christian message to what the world is willing to hear, is to doom it to failure, even ridicule. Paul and Barnabas confronted the Greeks with God's commands. And they turned the world upside down. We must return to this practice of announcing to the world what God has said, and present it as authoritative. . . ." -- Jay P. Green, Sr.

See also: The inspiration and infallibility of scripture (the doctrine of revelation, the doctrine of plenary inspiration, the doctrine of divine inspiration, the doctrine of verbal inspiration, theopneustia, sufficiency of scripture), Sola Scriptura, Cannonicity, Textual criticism, Bible translations, Absolute truth and relativism, The sufficiency of Christ, Selection of covenant heads for positions of leadership, Sexual relationship, Bad relationships as a cause of disease and death, Spritual warfare, Spiritual discernment, The religion of secular humanism, Modern myths and fallacies, A selection of works on pseudo-Christian movements

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The Journal of Biblical Counseling

Contemporary Biblical Counseling: An Annotated Bibliography Compiled and Annotated by David Powlison, editor of Journal of Biblical Counseling With 1995 Additions

Nouthetic Counseling Home Page -- Competent to Counsel
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The Commandments of Jesus, J.S. McConnell (1925)

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