Home | About | Help | Browse | Site Map | Local Search | Translation | Contact

This review of the GENEVA BIBLE NOTES differs significantly from the original review of the NEW GENEVA STUDY BIBLE (NGSB) in 1998. Since then the writer has completed a read through of the NGSB in April 2010, and has completed a read through of the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE, Tolle Lege restoration, in June 2012. Various weakness of the NGSB are noted below. The 1599 GENEVA BIBLE, Tolle Lege restoration, was found to be an unsatisfactory publication as noted in 1599 Geneva Bible, Tolle Lege Press Restoration, Fourth Printing, 2008, Probable Errata Listing (June 30, 2014, revised August 15, 2014, revised September 4, 2015, December 21, 2015, and March 19, 2016).
Furthermore, the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE text is said to be approximately 80 percent Tyndale translation. The AUTHORIZED KING JAMES VERSION would be the preferred text. Therefore, THE AUTHORIZED KING JAMES VERSION (London, 1672), WITH THE NOTES FROM THE GENEVA BIBLE emerges as the superior Bible text containing the GENEVA NOTES [it was used as authority for approximately 64 of the 117 probable errors found in the 1599 Tolle Lege restoration, -- compiler]. This publication is available today only as a PDF file of a bit-map scan of the original publication.
The writer proposes that a limited modernization (modern typeface and modern spelling) of THE AUTHORIZED KING JAMES VERSION (London, 1672), WITH THE NOTES FROM THE GENEVA BIBLE be published.

Related WebLinks

The Authorized King James Version (London, 1672), with the Notes from the Geneva Bible. Also available on the Puritan Hard Drive,
"The best Reformation translation (King James Version) combined with the best Bible notes of the first Reformation, the GENEVA BIBLE notes [These notes contain the insights of the Reformers at Geneva, John Calvin and the ministers surrounding him, John Knox, Theodore Beza, Miles Coverdale, William Whittingham, Anthony Gilby, and other Protestant scholars of the day. -- compiler]. A great tool for public, family and private worship and study. Printed from a marvelously clean original copy, surpassing the quality of all other printings (of the GENEVA BIBLE NOTES in particular) we have seen. Contains almost 1000 (8.5 X 11 inch) pages with notes on the complete Bible (Old and New Testaments) making this a veritable library of study and classic Protestant commentary in just one book." -- Publisher


Calvin, John (1509-1564), et al. [John Knox, Theodore Beza, Miles Coverdale, William Whittingham, Anthony Gilby, and Martin Luther, and others -- compiler], Peter A. Lillback (Foreword), Tolle Lege Press (Preface), Gary DeMar (Notes to the Modern Reader), ) Marshall Foster (The History and Impact of the Geneva Bible), 1599 Geneva Bible, restoration (Tolle Lege Press), 1400 pages, ISBN: 0975484699 9780975484692 0975484613 9780975484616 0975484621 9780975484623. The complete, original publication is considered to be a Christian classic. Considered to be among the ten greatest books in the English language. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
"When the Pilgrims arrived in America in 1620, they brought along supplies, a consuming passion to advance the Kingdom of Christ, a bright hope for the future, and the Word of God. Clearly, their most precious cargo was the Bible. The GENEVA BIBLE, printed over 200 times between 1560 and 1644, was the most widely read and influential English Bible of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This superb translation was the product of the best Protestant scholars of the day and became the Bible of choice for many of the greatest writers, thinkers, and historical figures of that time. The GENEVA BIBLE is unique among all other Bibles. It was the first Bible to use chapters and numbered verses and became the most popular version of its time because of the extensive marginal notes. These notes, written by Reformation leaders such as John Calvin, John Knox, Miles Coverdale, William Whittingham, Anthony Gilby, and others, were included to explain and interpret the scriptures for the common people. For nearly half a century these notes helped the people of England, Scotland, and Ireland understand the Bible and true liberty. King James despised the GENEVA BIBLE because he considered the notes on key political texts to be seditious [to question the Divine Right of Kings -- compiler] and a threat to his authority. Unlike the KING JAMES VERSION, the GENEVA BIBLE was not authorized by the government. It was truly a Bible by the people and for the people. You can see why this remarkable version with its profound marginal notes played a key role in the formation of the American Republic. Until now, the only complete version available was a large, cumbersome, and difficult-to-read facsimile edition. But this new edition contains all the original words and notes [see the errata listing below -- compiler], but the type set has been enlarged and the font style change for today's reader." -- Publisher
"This is the Bible that eventually put an end to Feudalism in Europe, strengthened Puritans, Quakers, and came to America on the Mayflower. This was the first Bible published in the language of the common people, the first Bible to contain commentary and verse numbers, and the first Bible written in English from Greek and Hebrew texts available from Constantinople, not from the Latin Vulgate. The dynamite in this Bible is the commentary accounting for about one third of its length.
"The Church of England and King James were so upset they determined to create a new translation. They called it the KING JAMES VERSION. They choose to use language so formal and grand, even by the standards of those days, that the common people would find difficult to understand. The GENEVA BIBLE was found seditious by it's insertions of commentary that spoke directly about the priesthood of lay believers, the church as naturally anti-oligarchy, and setting forth some other ideas considered anarchy by the King, but meaning freedom to the masses who read it.
"Important facts to remember about this Bible. The Reformation was strong in England and the Lollards were a lay group of huge influence that had to go underground. English Christian theologians, not Catholics and not Anglicans, fled in huge numbers to Geneva for freedom. Geneva was not part of Switzerland at that time, because Geneva was its own city-state. The GENEVA BIBLE was printed 1560-1644. THE KING JAMES VERSION was published in 1611. The GENEVA BIBLE was against the law to own." -- Reader's Comment
Available "in printed formats with various binding options from Tolle Lege Press. Tolle Lege Press has given SWRB permission to provide a PDF copy of their retypeset and fully searchable edition of the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE (Copyright 2006-2008, Tolle Lege Press), on the SWRB Puritan Hard Drive.
"The GENEVA BIBLE is the Puritan Bible with Reformation promoting marginal notes authored by prominent leaders of the Reformation (during the time of John Calvin and John Knox). The New Testament was translated out of the Greek by Theodore Beza. The GENEVA BIBLE was the predominant English translation during the period in which the English and Scottish Reformations gained great impetus.
"Iain Murray, in his classic work on revival and the interpretation of prophecy, THE PURITAN HOPE, notes,

The two groups in England and Scotland developed along parallel lines, like two streams originating at one fountain. The fountain was not so much Geneva, as the Bible which the exiles newly translated and issued with many marginal notes . . . it was read in every Presbyterian and Puritan home in both realms. (p. 7)
"This time also saw the rise of the forces for covenanted Reformation against the corruption and abuses of prelacy and the royal factions. Darkness was dispelled as people read this Bible and saw for themselves that there is no authority above the Holy Scriptures. Discerning this truth, it became apparent that the civil tyranny and the heretical superstitions imposed by Pope, King and Bishops were to be resisted unto death, if necessary (i.e. because these innovations in church and state were opposed to the Kingship of Christ and the law of His kingdom, as set forth in Holy Scripture).
"Moreover, this is the Bible that led to the King James edition. James (a flaming homosexual, megalomaniac, and tyrant), did not want the Calvinistic marginal notes of the GENEVA BIBLE getting into the hands of the people because he considered them 'seditious' hence, he authorized the KING JAMES VERSION as a substitute (though the KJV far surpasses modern translations).
"Although most people today have never heard of the GENEVA BIBLE, it was so popular from 1560 to 1644 that it went through 140 plus printings. The reason for its popularity among the faithful is obvious: the marginal notes promoted a full-orbed, nation-changing Protestantism! Taking a modern work, such as the SCOFIELD REFERENCE BIBLE, and comparing the notes to those of the GENEVA BIBLE, it will readily be seen that the religion of the Protestant Reformation bears no resemblance to much of the nonsense being prattled today!
"Additionally, the later editions of the GENEVA BIBLE (like this 1599 edition), are more strongly Calvinistic and anti-Papal noted by Eason in THE GENEVAN BIBLE, NOTES ON ITS PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION."
The notes of TOMSON'S NEW TESTAMENT of 1576, which took the place of the New Testament of the Bible of 1560 in many editions from 1587 onward, are entirely different from those in the GENEVA BIBLE. They are taken from Beza's Latin Testament, and are controversial and strongly Calvinistic.
"Furthermore, Eason cites Pocock (a rabid anti-Calvinist), in the same book,
The changes adopted in the GENEVA BIBLE and New Testament synchronize with the gradual spread of the Calvinistic heresy and the contemporaneous development of hatred of the whole Papal system of doctrine. The notes attacked the Sacramental teaching of the Church, substituting for it the Calvinistic doctrines of election and reprobation. They taught that Sacraments are nothing more than signs and seals of grace previously given to the elect. All passages about the Sacraments are explained away.
("We cite this quote, though it is full of a good deal of devilish nonsense, to demonstrate that even the enemies of biblical truth recognized the powerful impact that the GENEVA BIBLE was having in furthering the Protestant Reformation, as well as to show that the notes in the later versions of the GENEVA BIBLE were moving in the direction of a more distinct testimony against error and for the truth." -- RB)
"There were three primary editions of the GENEVA BIBLE:
(1) The editions that follow the first edition of 1560.
(2) The editions in which TOMSON'S NEW TESTAMENT of 1576 is substituted for the 1560 New Testament.
(3) The Bibles from 1598 that contain the Notes on Revelation of Francis Junius." -- The Genevan Bible, Notes on its Production and Distribution
"In our opinion, the notes in the 1599 edition were the most faithful to Scripture. [Of course, the judgment and candor of Calvin are renown. This Bible played a key role in the Reformation, and anyone not using it 'will be the poorer for their neglect.' However, very few works are without caveats. Calvin used the LATIN VULGATE. His comments had to be translated from French. Experts (see 'Textual Criticism'), consider the authorized KING JAMES VERSION to be the most accurate translation. It used a literal approach to translation of the Traditional Text, which is referred to today as the Majority Text or Textus Receptus. Beza's translation of the New Testament is in a different category. One is urged to not neglect the knowledge developed over 400 years of Reformed scholarship since 1599. For example, compare the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE (1400 pages, 1366 in the Tolle Lege restoration edition), annotation with the annotation, theological notes, text notes, scripture notes, and other study aids of the NEW GENEVA STUDY BIBLE (2228 pages), with its own noted caveats. -- compiler]
"Features of the Tolle Lege 1599 GENEVA BIBLE:
  • Word-for-word accuracy with the 1599 Geneva Bible [see the errata listing below -- compiler]
  • Original cross-references
  • Modern spelling
  • Original study notes by Reformers
  • Old English Glossary
  • 2-page Family Tree Chart
  • Presentation Page with several family registry pages
  • Easy-to-read print [see the errata listing below -- compiler]
  • Size: 8.75" X 11.5"
  • Approximately 1,400 pages
    Excerpts from two articles on the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE may be read at the SWRB site: "The Forgotten Translation," Gary DeMar, President of American Vision and Honorary Member of the 1599 Geneva Bible Advisory Board, and "Introduction to the 1599 Geneva Bible," Marshall Foster, President of the Mayflower Institute, Member of the 1599 Geneva Bible Advisory Board.
    "The GENEVA BIBLE has a unique place in history. It is some times called the BREECHES BIBLE. That term comes from the reference in Genesis 3:7 where it says that Adam and Eve clothed themselves in 'breeches' made from fig leaves. It is the product of Protestant scholars who had taken refuge in Geneva, Switzerland during the reign of Queen 'Bloody Mary' of England (1553-1558). It is also known as the Bible that the Pilgrims brought to America. It is older than the KING JAMES VERSION and is considered by some to be more 'Protestant' than the KING JAMES VERSION." [probably because of the Notes of the Geneva Reformers -- compiler] -- Reader's Comment
    "I've seen the facsimile versions of the GENEVA BIBLE and they don't even come close to this edition. The legibility and readability of this edition is far superior to other editions. -- Reader's Comment
    Tolle Lege Press edition of the 1599 Geneva Bible
    Perhaps the unique wisdom in the annotation by the Reformers, John Calvin, Martin Luther, John Knox, and Theodore Beza, among others, is due to their doctrinal position of the absolute sovereignty of God and the utter depravity of mankind. The notes are also very concise, explaining the meaning of Scripture and free of pedantic material.
    Sample notes from the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE, the Tolle Lege Press restored edition of 2007:
    Genesis 1:12 "This sentence is so oft repeated, to signify that God made all his creatures to serve to his glory, and to the profit of man: but for sin they were accursed, yet to the elect, by Christ they are restored, and serve to their wealth.
    Genesis 2:16 "So that man might know there was a sovereign Lord, to whom he owed obedience.
    Genesis 2:17 "By this death he meaneth the separation of man from God, who is our life and chief felicity: and also that our disobedience is the cause thereof.
    Genesis 3:4 "This is Satan's chiefest subtlety, to cause us not to fear God's threatenings.
    Genesis 4:5 "Because he was an hypocrite, and offered only for an outward show without sincerity of heart.
    Genesis 9:6 "Not only by the magistrate, but oft times God raiseth up one murderer to kill another.
    Therefore to kill man is to deface God's image, and so injury is not only done to man, but also to God.
    Psalm 37:1,7,11 "1 This Psalm containeth exhortation and consolation for the weak, that are grieved at the prosperity of the wicked, and the affliction of the godly. 7 For how prosperously soever the wicked do live for the time, he doth affirm their felicity to be vain and transitory, because they are not in the favor of God, but in the end they are destroyed as his enemies. 11 And how miserably that the righteous seemeth to live in the world, yet his end is peace, and he is in the favor of God, he is delivered from the wicked, and preserved.
    Psalm 37:5 "Be not led by thine own wisdom, but obey God, and he will finish his work in thee.
    Psalm 37:6 "As the hope of the daylight causeth us not to be offended with the darkness of the night: so ought we patiently to trust that God will clear our cause and restore us to our right.
    Psalm 37:8 "Meaning, except he moderate his affections, he shall be led to do as they do.
    Psalm 37:12 "The godly are assured that the power and craft of the wicked shall not prevail against them, but fall on their own necks, and therefore ought patiently to abide God's time, and in the meanwhile bewail their sins, and offer up their tears, is a sacrifice of their obedience.
    Psalm 37:16 "For they are daily fed as with Manna from heaven, and have sufficient, when the wicked have never enough, but ever hunger.
    Psalm 37:25 "Though the just man die, yet God's blessings are extended to his posterity, and though God suffer some just man to lack temporal benefits, yet he recompenseth him with spiritual treasures.
    Psalm 37:29 "They shall continually be preserved under God's wings, and have at least inward rest.
    Psalm 37:30 "These three points are required of the faithful, that their talk be godly, that God's law be in their heart, and that their life be upright.
    Psalm 37:37 "He exhorteth the faithful to mark diligently the examples both of God's mercies, and also of his judgments.
    Psalm 37:39 "He showeth that the patient hope of the godly is never in vain, but in the end hath good success, though for a time God prove them by sundry tentations.
    John 1:1 "1 The Son of God is of one, and the selfsame eternity or everlastingness, and of one and the selfsame essence or nature, with the Father.
    "2 From his beginning, as the Evangelist saith, 1 John 1:1, as though he said, that the world began not then to have his being, when God began to make all that was made: for the word was even then when all things that were made, began to be made, and therefore he was before the beginning of all things.
    "3 Had his being.
    "4 This word, That, pointeth out unto us a peculiar and choice thing above all other, and putteth a difference between this Word, which is the Son of God, and the Laws of God, which otherwise also are called the word of God.
    "5 This word (With) putteth out the distinction of persons to us.
    "6 This word (Word) is the first in order in the sentence, and is that which the learned call (Subjectum) and this word (God) is the latter in order, and the same which the learned call (Predicatum.)
    John 1:3 "1 The son of God declareth that same his everlasting Godhead, both by the creating of all things, and also by the preserving of them, and especially by the excellent gifts of reason and understanding, wherewith he that beautified man above all other creatures.
    "2 Paul expoundeth this place, Col. 1:15 and 16 [Colossians 1:15,16].
    "3 That is, as the Father did work, so did the Son work with him: for he was fellow worker with him.
    "4 Of all those things which were made, nothing was made without him.
    Jude 1:24 "He commendeth them to the grace of God, declaring sufficiently that it is God only that can give us that constancy which he requireth of us.
    Hebrews 13:8b "all precepts of manners, and that is this: That we ought to quiet and content ourselves in Christ only: for there was yet never any man saved without the knowledge of him, neither is at this day saved, neither shall be saved hereafter.
    Revelation 4:9 "God is said to have glory, honor, kingdom, and such like given unto him, when we godly and reverently set forth that which is properly and only his." -- excerpts from 1599 Geneva Bible, Tolle Lege Press)
    The 1599 Geneva Bible, Tolle Lege edition, online
    In the version drop-down menue go to "-- English (EN)--," then select "1599 Geneva Bible." Page Options include footnotes, cross references, verse numbers, and headings.

    1599 Geneva Bible, Tolle Lege Press Restoration, Fourth Printing, 2008, Probable Errata Listing (June 30, 2014, revised August 15, 2014, revised September 4, 2015)

    A Resolution That Tolle Lege Press and White Hall Press of Chicago Complete the Limited Modernization of the 1599 Geneva Bible Begun in 2004 and of all Spin-off Publications (August 15, 2014, revised September 7, 2015)

    A Petition Urging the Publishers to Complete the Restoration of the 1599 Geneva Bible Begun in 2004
    It is hoped that everyone will sign this petition, and then will share it with friends who own the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE.
    Notice that owners (of both the restoration and the facsimile of the source document) can make corrections to their copies by using the errata listing linked to this petition.

    Following is a review of THE REFORMATION STUDY BIBLE (former title: The NEW GENEVA STUDY BIBLE)

    The Reformation Study Bible: The Word That Changes Lives -- The Faith That Changed the World, New King James Version (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, March 2001). Previously published under the title New Geneva Study Bible: Bringing the Light of the Reformation to Scripture, New King James Version [a problematic statement -- Scripture, of course, was the light of the Reformation -- compiler], (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1995), 2228 pages.
    This work "offers a restatement of Reformation truth for Christians today. The first GENEVA BIBLE (1560) was a pivotal force in the Reformation. Using the everyday language of its time, it opened the pages of Scripture to readers and provided helpful notes to assist them in understanding its message. It became the family Bible of the English people, and was the Bible that the Pilgrims brought to the New World. Since that time a multitude of English translations and study Bibles have appeared, but none of these has incorporated a summary of Reformed theology." -- Thomas Nelson Publishers

    Caveat: The writer apologizes for the unreserved praise of THE REFORMATION STUDY BIBLE in this review from 1996 to 2004.
    Both Calvin and Luther named the Pope as the Antichrist in their writings. For modern Reformed editors to omit the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE annotation on the Antichrist is unbelievable. The omission dishonors the blood of the Protestant martyrs, it misleads the reader, it give ground to the Counter-reformation, it weakens the study Bible, and it spoils the testimony of editors. The decline of Reformed theology began in 1661, about 350 years ago. See "A Theological Interpretation of American History,"
    "R.C. Sproul is a Preterist, a fact which he does not hide. This can be seen in his Revelation commentary, as well as his NEW GENEVA STUDY BIBLE annotations which deliberately omit original annotations of the Reformers [in the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE -- compiler], who taught that the Pope was the predicted Antichrist. Thus, Sproul and his editors have brushed over the thorough corruption of the Roman Catholic institution, and are misleading the reader about the Protestant Reformation, with which they claims kinship.
    "J.I. Packer [an Associate Editor of THE NEW GENEVA STUDY BIBLE, who also wrote the 96 "Theological Notes" found in sidebars throughout the text -- compiler], was an original signatory of the Evangelicals and Catholics Together treatise. We still respect his work, but this action is most disheartening, and fails to honor the Reformation which he certainly honors.
    "Rather than a world converting to true Christianity -- a doctrine believed by post-millennialists -- we see the unfolding, decade by decade, of apostasy from the faith by those who would claim to be Protestant Evangelicals. This apostasy is also seen in the so-called 'Reformed' seminaries. John Robbins of The Trinity Foundation has documented this fact in publications. Truly, the love of many is waxing cold." -- Rand Winburn, Director, Protestant Reformation Publications
    "Reader's should be aware that Joe Trafton of Western Kentucky University, a contributor to the NGSB/RSB is pro-Catholic, something entirely foreign to the universe of the original GENEVA BIBLE. A simple Internet check will show that Trafton is a member of the Catholic Biblical Association (with Jerome as the patron saint and the Pope as the official interpreter). Further, Trafton has taken the lead in removing a Reformed pastor from his position for calling Catholics to search the scriptures. The original Reformers of Geneva would turn over in their graves to see their modern standard bearers." -- Reader's Comment
    Readers should be aware that another contributor, Allan MacRae, "years earlier had served on the NEW SCOFIELD REFERENCE BIBLE revision committee under the chairmanship of E. Schuyler English."
    Thanks to Rand Windburn and others for pointing out serious flaws in the work.
    In the experience of the compiler, sharing the Gospel one-on-one, the Counter-reformation has been the most vicious enemy of the Means of Grace.
    Nonetheless, THE REFORMATION STUDY BIBLE may be seen as one of the best study Bibles compiled in our time. However, the reader must be aware of its flaws.
    Readers will find that the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE does not "skirt the hard truths" that expose the radically depraved nature of our fallen state -- truths that hurt us so, if we are intellectually honest. Therefore, we recommend first reading the entire 1599 GENEVA BIBLE [either the restoration or the facsimile of its source document -- compiler], before reading the NEW GENEVA STUDY BIBLE. Select notes from the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE appear below.
    Other study Bibles are listed in this review, and we encourage readers to use them to check THE REFORMATION STUDY BIBLE.
    Regarding the newest edition of the REFORMATION STUDY BIBLE, not all textual critics are in agreement that the English Standard Version is an improvement over the New King James Version. However, Thomas Nelson holds copyrights to the New King James Version (August 30, 2004 -- compiler).
    See the "References" and "Related Weblinks" below for additional information.

    Most of us are suspicious of new Bibles, being familiar with the 200 plus "translations" offered in the marketplace today. Textual criticism is such an obscure, complex, and tedious field. A major block of time is required to get to the bottom of the question of accuracy.

    Wilber N. Pickering states in "What Difference Does it Make?" found in THE IDENTITY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT TEXT, that "until such a time as a good translation of the Majority Text becomes available, the best current English version of the New Testament is the NKJV -- an excellent translation of a good Greek text."

    He goes on to point out that all modern translations except the AKJV, NKJV, and MKJV (each modified literal translations), attack the "most basic doctrine of all, divine inspiration of the text," and put at risk or weaken other cardinal Christian doctrine such as Eternal Judgment, The Ascension, and The Deity of Christ. All this has been done contrary to the Word of God found in Deuteronomy 4:2, Deuteronomy 12:32; Proverbs 30:6; Jeremiah 26:2, and Galatians 3:15.

    For a detailed analysis of other major translations of the Bible see Peter J. Johnston and Jay P. Green (editor), UNHOLY HANDS ON THE BIBLE: AN EXAMINATION OF SIX MAJOR NEW VERSIONS, (Volume 2 of UNHOLY HANDS ON THE BIBLE).

    The publisher states, "the New King James Version follows the historical precedent of the Authorized King James Version in maintaining a literal approach to translation, except were the idiom of the original language cannot be translated directly into our tongue."

    The NKJV stays with the traditional text, but modifies it to improved accuracy and understandability. Variations are given as textual notes in the side column, so the reader can make his own comparisons to the Critical Text and to the Majority Text.

    The editors state in the preface "the textual notes reflect the scholarship of the past 150 years and will assist the reader to observe the variations between the different manuscript traditions of the New Testament. Such information is generally not available in English translations of the New Testament." The side column also provides alternative translations, equivalent translations, literal translations, explanatory notes, and language notes.

    For a discerning critique of the NKJV translation and Revised Authorized Version, as the NKJV is known in Great Britain, see REMARKS ON THE NEW KING JAMES VERSION AND REVISED AUTHORIZED VERSION by D.K. Madden, (Petersburg, OH [Pilgrim Brethren Press, P.O. Box 171, Petersburg 44454]: Pilgrim Brethren Press, 1991). He points out some noteworthy inaccuracies and weaknesses introduced by the NKJV translation, but they seem to be outweighed by the NKJV corrections of inaccuracies and weaknesses of the AKJV.

    The Holy Bible is the best commentary on itself, a truth that came out of the Reformation. The focus of these study notes is unreservedly Biblical, and they are full of supporting cross-references, making them refreshingly authoritative and transparent.

    The study notes combine modern scholarship by J.I. Packer, Moises Silva, Luder Whitlock, Edmund Clowney, Roger Nicole, R. Laird Harris, and many others -- over 50 scholars contributed to this work -- combined with the insights of Reformers such as John Calvin, Martin Luther, John Knox, and Theodore Beza.

    The 96 Theological Notes, written by J.I. Packer, "on central doctrinal teachings of Scripture," with scriptural references, will bless the soul and delight the purist, with the caveats noted above. And they are indexed.

    God's character and plan of salvation for mankind shine clearly from the Theological Notes, Study Notes, and Chapter Introductions.

    The NKJV text reads smoothly. Among other modifications to grammar and wording, the pronouns "thee," "thou," and "ye," and the endings "-eth" and "-est" have been removed. The words of Christ are in read. The words of the Lord quoted by the prophets are placed in quotation marks a feature not found in the Authorized King James Version.

    The devotional quality attached to the Elizabethan English of the AKJV can not be matched. This writer, for one, will continue to memorize Scripture from THE KING JAMES VERSION. He will continue to use YOUNG'S LITERAL TRANSLATION OF THE HOLY BIBLE, 2nd revised edition (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1956, 1898), to check other translations. Robert Young (1822-1888) was a highly gifted linguist and a noted scholar. Before preparing his LITERAL TRANSLATION he first prepared YOUNG'S ANALYTICAL CONCORDANCE OF THE BIBLE. He is also the author of CONCISE CRITICAL COMMENTS: YOUNG'S BIBLE. CONCISE COMMENTARY ON THE HOLY BIBLE, BEING A COMPANION TO THE NEW TRANSLATION OF THE OLD AND NEW COVENANTS.

    In general, the larger the database, the more valuable it is to the user. The REFORMATION STUDY BIBLE provides "the most comprehensive set of helps in study Bible format for Christians interest in the Reformed tradition." On the downside it becomes pedantic, and lacks the conciseness. The writer finds the GENEVA NOTES to be most helpful because they concisely focus on explaining the meaning of the passage, and are free of pedantic material, which is usually far less helpful.

    Biblicists recognize that the Bible itself becomes the ultimate index. The 1599 GENEVA BIBLE, and to a lesser extent, the REFORMATION STUDY BIBLE are bound to become a notebook and principle index for many who search the Scripture for practical guidance in daily life.

    By transferring markings and notes from previous study Bibles, the reader will have the added pleasure of reading the Reformers comments for favorite verses.

    Readers who appreciate book design, page style, format, and typography will be pleased with the intelligent and aesthetic composition of REFORMATION STUDY BIBLE. Features making it easy to read and study are:

    The REFORMATION STUDY BIBLE is one of the finest Reformed study Bibles to be published in our time, all factors considered.

    We owe a debt of gratitude to the Foundation for Reformation who "established the vision for the NEW GENEVA STUDY BIBLE and who provided the financial support for the project," to R.C. Sproul, general editor, to the editorial staff, and to the contributors.

    We are also indebted to Thomas Nelson Publishers for the excellent publication. After millions spent on advertising Bibles, estimates are that the NKJV has sold "only 2 million or so compared to some 150 million of other new versions."

    The 2228 pages must be turned carefully. They are large, 6 1/2 X 9 1/4 inches, and on thin paper. The volume is 1 1/2 inches thick.

    The REFORMATION STUDY BIBLE is available in a variety of bindings and thumb indexed.

    Rights to both THE NEW GENEVA STUDY BIBLE and THE REFORMATION STUDY BIBLE now belong to The Foundation for Reformation. (February 2008)

    Ligonier Ministries is now the publisher. New copies of both THE NEW GENEVA STUDY BIBLE (1995, NKJV), and THE REFORMATION STUDY BIBLE (2001, NKJV), are available from Ligonier Ministries, leather bound only (February 2008).
    Copies of all previous editions are available in the used book trade. See "How to Find a Book"

    Nelson Reference, Ultimate Bible Reference Library, is apparently no longer available in LLS format or from Nelson Reference. It includes THE NEW GENEVA STUDY BIBLE (now THE REFORMATION STUDY BIBLE), THE NEW TREASURY OF SCRIPTURE KNOWLEDGE, THE NEW NAVE'S TOPICAL BIBLE, MATTHEW HENRY'S COMMENTARY (complete and unabridged), and about 55 other works.
    The electronic edition in (LLS) format, does not include the margin notes, that is, the side column that provides alternative translations, equivalent translations, literal translations, explanatory notes, and language notes. However, it does contain all the text notes appearing at the foot of the page in the printed edition.

    THE REFORMATION STUDY BIBLE NOTES are also available in the Logos Library System (LLS) format and can be used in combination with various Bible translations available in LLS format.
    The electronic edition in (LLS), does not include the margin notes, that is, the side column that provides alternative translations, equivalent translations, literal translations, explanatory notes, and language notes. However, it does contain all the text notes appearing at the foot of the page in the printed edition.

    Sproul, R.C. (editor), and Keith Mathison (editor), The Reformation Study Bible: English Standard Version (2005), 1948 pages, ISBN: 9781567694406 1567694403 9781567694413 1567694411 9781567694437 1567694438 9781567694444 1567694446 9781567694451 1567694454 9781567694468 1567694462 9781567694475 1567694470.
    A description of this Bible, explaining how it differs from original REFORMATION STUDY BIBLE, former title: NEW GENEVA STUDY BIBLE, may be found at the following Ligonier Ministries website.
    The Reformation Study Bible


    Clark, Gordon H. (1902-1985), Logical Criticisms of Textual Criticism, 2nd edition (Trinity Foundation, February 1990), 60 pages, ISBN: 0940931931.
    "For over a century scholars have been making new translations of the Bible, encouraging laymen to buy and use them. These new translations, we are told, are better than the old, based on superior Greek texts, and more suited to the modern mind. In this little book, Dr. Clark exposes the sloppy scholarship of the textual critics -- their misleading footnotes, their incorrect translations, their capriciousness in excluding words, phrases, and whole verses from the Bible. No Christian should be without this book." -- Publisher
    Contents: Introduction; Examples from the Old Testament; New Testament Examples; Logical and Textual Criticism; The Greek Text; Variant Readings; Textual Criticism of Matthew; Mark; Luke; John; Acts; Romans; Revelation; Index; Scripture Index.
    Logical Criticisms of Textual Criticism, by Gordon Haddon Clark

    Elliott, E.B., Horae Apocalypticae; or, A Commentary on the Apocalypse, Critical and Historical; Including Also an Examination of the Chief Prophecies of Daniel (1862, 4 volumes). Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #13 and #14.
    " 'The title continues: "Illustrated by an Apocalyptic Chart, and Engravings from Medals and Other Extant Monuments of Antiquity. With Appendices: Containing, Besides Other matters, A Sketch of the History of Apocalyptic Interpretation, Critical Reviews of the Chief Apocalyptic Counter-Schemes, and Indices.'
    "This four volume set is respected by many as a scholarly work on eschatology. It will be especially valuable in our day as it absolutely destroys the Jesuit inspired preterist system by conclusively proving a late date for the writing of the book of Revelation. Elliott also demonstrates the impossibility of the futurist system, which, like preterism, was also concocted (as a system), by the Jesuits to counteract the classic Reformation eschatology called historicism. That this is no small issue is clear, as Kevin Reed exhibits (in his book review titled 'The Ecclesiology of John Foxe: A book review by Kevin Reed of John Foxe and the Elizabethan Church' by V. Norskov Olsen [Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973]), by citing Olsen when he writes,

    The Counter Reformation is generally considered to have three aspects: the Jesuits, the Inquisition, and the Council of Trent. In view of the significance of the Protestant apocalyptic interpretation of history which prophetically pinpointed step by step the events covering the whole Christian era from the beginning to the end, it seems justifiable to suggest a fourth aspect, namely the praeteristic and futuristic interpretations launched by Catholic expositors as a counterattack. (p. 47)
    "All the major Reformers and all the major Reformation creeds and confessions adopted the historicist position -- and it is this position that Elliott so skillfully defends.
    "Sadly, one major warning needs to be given about this book. However valuable the contents are as a defense of historicism (and the late date of the book of Revelation), the author adopted the premillenial heresy (meaning a destructive heresy and not necessarily a damnable heresy; see George Gillespie's Truth and Heresy, free at:, for more on the distinction between destructive and damnable heresies), and thus marred an otherwise useful work when he promotes these views. 2611 pages, with a 29 page index.
    "The Counter Reformation (had -- RB) three aspects: the Jesuits, the Inquisition, and the Council of Trent. In view of Protestant apocalyptic interpretation (i.e. historicism -- RB), it seems justifiable to suggest a fourth, the preteristic and futuristic interpretations launched by Catholic expositors as a counterattack." -- Publisher
    Preterism Refuted (1 of 3)
    Historic Reformation Eschatology by E.B. Elliott, David Steele, Alexander M'Leod, et al.
    "Contains all of the sections from Elliott's classic HORAE APOCALYPTICAE, and five other selections which directly refute (Jesuit inspired), preterism. This set also shows why it is Scripturally impossible for Nero to be the antichrist, while taking a few passing shots a futurism too. Refutes modern Preterists like Gentry, DeMar (caveat, DeMar prescribes to the Federal Vision), and other Reconstructionists too." -- Publisher
    Preterism Refuted (2 of 3)
    Historic Reformation Eschatology by E.B. Elliott, David Steele, et al.
    Preterism Refuted (3 of 3)
    "Historic Reformation Eschatology by E.B. Elliott by E.B. Elliott, David Steele, et al.
    "Reg Barrow (president of SWRB), notes, 'If I'd had access to this information before I became a Preterist as a young Christian I doubt that I would have ever embraced this erroneous, Jesuit-inspired, reformation-denying heresy -- I can only thank God that He has now led me to the eschatology of the Scriptures and of our Reformed forefathers (i.e. Historicism)'
    Preterism Refuted (1-3), a set of three MP3 audio files. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Also available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #14.

    Geneva Bible Notes
    The GENEVA BIBLE NOTES are featured in the THE ONLINE BIBLE CD-ROM. Created by Larry Pierce and the Woodside Bible Fellowship (Winterbourne, Ontario, CANADA [Woodside Bible Fellowship], 11 Holmwood Street, Ontario N0B 2V0, 1997).
    Apparently it is still being used in Europe, but has never been updated to be used with current operating systems. One keystroke brings the notes up in the second window alongside THE 1769 AUTHORIZED VERSION KING JAMES BIBLE.
    Online Bible Homepage

    Geneva Bible Notes, 1599
    The GENEVA BIBLE contained "marginal notes which were heavily influenced by John Calvin, John Knox, and many other leaders of the Reformation. The GENEVA BIBLE was the predominant English translation during the period in which the English and Scottish Reformations gained great impetus. Iain Murray, in his classic work on revival and the interpretation of prophecy, THE PURITAN HOPE, notes that, 'the two groups in England and Scotland developed along parallel lines, like two streams originating at one fountain. The fountain was not so much Geneva, as the Bible which the exiles newly translated and issued with many marginal notes . . . it was read in every Presbyterian and Puritan home in both realms.' (p. 7). This time also saw the rise of the forces for covenanted reformation against the corruption and abuses of prelacy and the royal factions. Darkness was dispelled as people read this Bible and saw for themselves that there is no authority above the Holy Scriptures.
    "Although most people today have never heard of the GENEVA BIBLE, it was so popular from 1560 to 1644 that it went through 140 plus printings. The reason for its popularity among the faithful is obvious: the marginal notes promoted a full-orbed, nation-changing Protestantism!
    " 'By 1599, the GENEVA BIBLE added many Calvinist annotations for household use.' (Bremer, The Puritan Experiment, p. 12). A number of the notes argued for family worship and instruction by the head of the household. Puritanism in the British Isles is known as an effort to continue the Reformation of the church in the area of worship and church government. However, the Puritans also sought to reform the family life according to Biblical principles as a result of their efforts they 'were creators of the English Christian marriage, the English Christian family, and the English Christian home'." (J.I. Packer, A Quest for Godliness, p. 260) -- Publisher
    See the following:
    Calvin, John (1509-1564), et al. [John Knox, Theodore Beza, Miles Coverdale, William Whittingham, Anthony Gilby, and Martin Luther, and others], Gary DeMar (foreword), Marshall Foster (preface), 1599 GENEVA BIBLE (Tolle Lege Press), restoration, 1400 pages, ISBN: 0975484699 9780975484692 0975484613 9780975484616 0975484621 9780975484623. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
    1599 Geneva Bible Notes
    KING JAMES BIBLE WITH THE GENEVA BIBLE NOTES, 1672. Notes: This is a facsimile of the 1672 edition. This appears to be a superior text to the 1599 GENEVA BIBLE. A Christian classic. Considered to be among the ten greatest books in the English language. Available on the Puritan Hard Drive.

    Harris, R. Laird, Inspiration and Canonicity of the Bible: An Historical and Exegetical Study, ISBN: 1884416101.

    Hodges, Zane C. (editor), Arthur L. Farstad (editor), William C. Dunkin, et al., The Greek New Testament According to the Majority Text with Apparatus: Second Edition, ISBN: 0840749635 9780840749635.
    "The only complete edition of the GREEK NEW TESTAMENT that shows what the majority of Greek manuscripts in existence contain. All students of biblical Greek should use this edition to consider its thoughtful challenge to the eclectic text provided in all other Greek Testaments." -- Publisher

    James, Kevin, Corruption of the Word (Williamsburg, NM [Micro-Load Press, Box 92 St. Rt., Williamsburg 87942]: MicroLoad Press), ISBN: 0962442003 9780962442001.
    "This book developed from the discovery of the author that there were some very important differences in various versions of the Bible. When he asked fellow Christians and pastors why there were certain passages missing from the new versions, he was met with a shrug, or a lack of interest. James has done a wonderful job of isolating the differences between the advocates of the handful of maverick MSS B and Aleph, and those supporting the majority of the MSS. He gives many instances of heretical changes of the first three centuries which are repeated in the modern versions. And he names the MSS (usually 4 or 5), which contain those heresies. He shows that often these changes, especially omissions, were made to support their theory that Jesus was a created creature, or at best a secondary god.
    "The author has done a tremendous amount of work. He gives many comparisons. He does a good job of bringing out the many points seen in Burgon's works." -- Jay P. Green, Sr.

    Johnston, Peter J., and Jay P. Green (editor), Unholy Hands on the Bible: An Examination of Six Major New Versions, (Volume 2 of UNHOLY HANDS ON THE BIBLE).

    Madden, D.K., Remarks on the New King James Version and Revised Authorized Version (Petersburg, OH [Pilgrim Brethren Press, P.O. Box 171, Petersburg 44454]: Pilgrim Brethren Press, 1991).

    Martin, James, Origin and History of the New Testament, ISBN: 0837043018 9780837043012.

    Pickering, Wilbur N., The Identity of the New Testament Text, ISBN: 0840757441.
    "This is a shocking book -- at least it delivered a shock to my system. It is not often that one reads a book which re-orientates one's whole approach to a subject, but this is what this one has done for me. It is a frontal attack upon the Westcott and Hort theory of the New Testament text, the general soundness of which I had accepted without questions for forty years. Two or three years ago I had the first tricklings of doubt about it; then I chanced to read George Samon's SOME THOUGHTS ON THE TEXTUAL CRITICISM OF THE NEW TESTAMENT, which increased the trickle to a stream. Now with this book it has become a flood." -- John Wenham

    Robbins, John W. (1949-2008), Ecclesiastical Megalomania: The Economic and Political Thought of the Roman Catholic Church (Unicoi, TN: The Trinity Foundation), ISBN: 0940931753 9780940931756.
    "This book is a detailed examination of the official statements of the Vatican on economic and political matters. It demonstrates the collectivism and totalitarianism of the Roman Catholic Church-State. It is the only such book written by a Christian in the twentieth century.
    "This book explores the conflict between Roman Catholic social thought and human freedom, relying on official pronouncements from the Vatican to show that the political and economic theory of the Roman Church-State justifies feudalism, corporativism, liberation theology, the welfare state, and fascism.
    "Dr. John W. Robbins attended Grove City College (A.B. 1969), and The Johns Hopkins University (M.A. 1970, Ph.D. 1973). He has served as chief of staff for a Member of Congress [Ron Paul of Texas], editor of The Freeman magazine, Economist for The Heritage Foundation, and Professor of Political Philosophy in The Freedom School." -- Publisher
    Martin Luther, John Calvin, John Knox, Samuel Rutherford, John Owen, Thomas Manton, The Westminster Assembly, James Renwick, Archibald Mason, Christopher Ness, Francis Turretin, The Reformed Presbytery, David Steel, James R. Willson, Alexander M'Leod, William L. Roberts, James Aiken Wylie, Andrew Wilet, Henry Wilkinson, James Wylie, Patrick Fairbairn, James Aiken, Andrew Wilet, Alexander Hislop, Francis Nigel Lee, Arthur W. Pink, and so forth, and so on, have all believed and argued in print that the seated Pope is the Antichrist of the Bible.
    The Roman Church-State is "the world's oldest, largest, most powerful and most influential politico-ecclesiastical institution" and it "may also be the world's wealthiest." The Roman Catholic Institution is the ultimate "negative guide to the positive," the reformers ultimate "opposite guide to political and economic reform."

    Sproul, R.C. (general editor), "Preface," Reformation Study Bible, NKJV (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1995).

    Sturz, Harry A., The Byzantine Text-Type and New Testament Textual Criticism, ISBN: 0840749589 9780840749581.

    Symington, William (1795-1862), Messiah the Prince or, The Mediatorial Dominion of Jesus Christ (Pittsburgh, PA: The Christian Statesman Press [National Reform Association], 1999, 1884), ISBN: 0966004434 0921148054. The 1884 edition is available on the Puritan Hard Drive. Also available on Reformation Bookshelf CD #13, #25, and #26.
    "It was deemed essential to the salvation of men that their Redeemer should possess the powers at once of a prophet, a priest, and a king. These offices, while essentially distinct, are necessarily and inseparably connected with one another. Such a union has been by some utterly denied; and its denial has laid foundation for some capital errors, which have exerted a pernicious influence on the Christian church. By others it has been criminally overlooked; and the neglect with which it has been treated has occasioned vague and conflicting conceptions regarding the great work of man's deliverance from sin and wrath by the mediation of the Son of God." -- William Symington
    "It is the standard work on the kingdom of God in English! There is nothing else like it; it is one-of-a kind! It covers the necessity, reality, and qualifications of Christ's dominion over not only the church, but all nations too. Anything less is to rob Christ of His magnificent, majestic, mediatorial glory -- for He is the King of kings and Lord of lords. 'While books on the priestly work of the Redeemer, and especially on the Atonement, are numerous,' notes the introduction to the American edition, 'no formal and exhaustive discussion of the kingly office of the Messiah and its application to various classes of moral agents is elsewhere to be found. It is cause for satisfaction that the only treatise, as yet, upon this subject, is a work of signal ability, lucid in arrangement, reverent in spirit, and with hardly an exception, sound and judicious in its conclusion. Its very merits are probably, in part, the reason why no other work on the same subject has appeared, and until it is supplanted by a better work -- an event not likely soon to occur -- it will have a value peculiar to itself'." -- Publisher
    Chapters include "The Necessity of the Mediatorial Dominion," "The Universality of the Mediatorial Dominion," "The Mediatorial Dominion Over the Church," and "Over the Nations," plus much more.
    Symington, William, Messiah the Prince or, The Meditorial Dominion of Jesus Christ (1881)
    Symington, William, Messiah the Prince or, The Mediatorial Dominion of Jesus Christ
    Online free e-text of the 1999 Christian Statesman Press edition.
    Symington, William, Messiah the Prince or, The Mediatorial Dominion of Jesus Christ

    Westminster Assembly (1643-1652), The Westminster Confession of Faith (1646) [completed and first printed in 1646, approved by the Assembly, August 27, 1647, Session 23 -- compiler] (Glasgow, Scotland: Free Presbyterian Publication [133 Woodlands Road, Glasgow G3 6LE], 1994), ISBN: 0902506080 (casebound), and ISBN: 0902506358 (paperback). Among the ten greatest works in the English language. Available (THE WESTMINSTER CONFESSION OF FAITH (1646) with all its subordinate documents in searchable format) on the Puritan Hard Drive. Also available (THE WESTMINSTER CONFESSION OF FAITH (1646) with all its subordinate documents in searchable format) on Reformation Bookshelf CD #1.
    Westminster Confession of Faith (1646) With Scripture Proofs
    Westminster Assembly (1643-1652), The Confession of Faith, the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, With the Scripture Proofs at Large: Together With The sum of Saving Knowledge (contained in the Holy Scriptures, and held forth in the said Confession and Catechisms), and Practical use Thereof, Covenants National and Solemn League, Acknowledgment of Sins and Engagement to Duties, Directories, Form of Church-government, &c. of Public Authority in the Church of Scotland, With Acts of Assembly and Parliament, Relative to, and Approbative of the Same (1757) [the original version of 1646, prior to the changes of the "American Version" of 1789 -- compiler]
    " 'The product of Puritan conflict,' stated Shedd, reaching 'a perfection of statement never elsewhere achieved.' All that learning the most profound and extensive, intellect the most acute and searching, and piety the most sincere and earnest, could accomplish, was thus concentrated in the Westminster Assembly's Confession of Faith, which may be safely termed the most perfect statement of Systematic Theology ever framed by the Christian Church,' writes Hetherington. (The History of the Westminster Assembly of Divines, p. 345).
    "Concerning The Shorter Catechism, which is one of the items also included in this book, Mitchell notes: 'it is a thoroughly Calvinistic and Puritan catechism, the ripest fruit of the Assembly's thought and experience, maturing and finally fixing the definitions of theological terms to which Puritanism for half a century had been leading up and gradually coming closer and closer to in its legion of catechisms.' (Westminster Assembly: Its History and Standards, p. 431).
    "THE WESTMINSTER CONFESSION OF FAITH (1646) is the greatest of all the creeds of the Christian church. The church of Christ cannot be creedless and live. Especially in an age of doubt and confusion, it is her duty to define and proclaim the one true faith. Nowhere has the Reformed church done this so effectively as in the WESTMINSTER CONFESSION, and family of documents. This book represents Reformed thinking at its purest and best. It was intended, as part of the Covenanted Reformation taking place during its compilation, to be adopted as the binding confessional standard for every individual, family, court, church, and legislature in the British Isles." -- Publisher
    This is considered to be the definitive publication of the Westminster family of documents. It includes the following:

    1. "To the Christian Reader, Especially Heads of Families"
    2. "Mr. Thomas Manton's Epistle to the Reader"
    3. THE CONFESSION OF FAITH (1646), the full and original edition with Scripture proofs written out
    4. THE LARGER CATECHISM with Scripture proofs written out
    5. THE SHORTER CATECHISM with Scripture proofs written out
    7. "The National Covenant"
    8. "The Solemn League and Covenant"
    9. "A Solemn Acknowledgement of Publick Sins and Breaches of the Covenant; and a Solemn Engagement to all the Duties Contained Therein"
    12. "The Directory for Family-Worship, Approved by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, for Piety and Uniformity in Secret and Private Worship, and Mutual Edification"
    THE WESTMINSTER CONFESSION OF FAITH (1646) is said to be the finest summary of THE HOLY BIBLE available. It is recommended for daily devotions. See the following resources:
    2. "The Complete Scripture Index to the Westminster Confession (1646), Larger and Shorter Catechisms." Alternate title: SCRIPTURE INDEX TO THE WESTMINSTER STANDARDS. Available on Library of Presbyterian Heritage Publications [and] Protestant Heritage Press CD. Also available on the Puritan Hard Drive.
      Includes a unique, 100-page topical index to both the CONFESSION and the LARGER CATECHISM.
      Arguably the greatest tract ever created, all factors considered.
      Free downloadable PDF file.
    6. Westminster Shorter Catechism Project
      "Click on any of the individual questions below to get the answer and Biblical references, as well as links to works by John Flavel, Thomas Watson, Thomas Boston, James Fisher, and John Whitecross, and others."
    7. Commentaries on the Westminster Standards Including the Westminster Confession of Faith, The Larger Catechism, and The Shorter Catechism
    8. The Westminster Confession of Faith (1646), (The Westminster Standards), and Related Works: A Study Guide
    9. The Scottish Covenanted Reformation continued the work of The Westminster Assembly. David Steel (1803-1887), is considered to be one of the most faithful Covenanter ministers in America. Notice that the citation following is an authorized, complete edition of their final TESTIMONY.
      This is a new edition of the Ploughlandhead Testimony of 1761. It was the subordinate standard of the original "Steelite" Reformed Presbytery that was constitutes in 1840.
    10. Church and State
      Works listed here discuss the decline of the influence of Calvinism and the Covenanted Reformation in Great Britain and the United States. The various alterations to the Westminster Standards are also discussed.
    11. Heresies Defined and the Necessity of Heresies Explained, by George Gillespie, Scottish Commissioner to the Assembly of Divines at Westminster

    "The preface (found in the first volume), recounts not only a short history of the English Bible, but sets forth the great advantage to true Religion which accrues (contrary to the mysticism of the Anabaptists and the anti-intellectualism of the modern backsliding church), when faithful notes are 'bound in' with the Scripture text -- this bringing forth nothing different than the effect generated (through God's grace), by faithful preaching, faithful commentaries, faithful creeds, faithful covenants, faithful confessions, etc. Pointing out that this blessing from God was never more obvious than in the case of the GENEVA BIBLE and its marginal notes (and that the people knew it to be so when they were left with Bibles without annotations honoring to God), the preface further states, 'hence were divers of the Stationers and Printers of London induced (by the people -- RB), to petition the committee of the Honourable House of Commons, for license to print the Geneva notes upon the Bible, or that some notes might be fitted to the new translation: which was accordingly granted, with an order for review and correction of those of the Geneva edition, by leaving out such of them as there was cause to dislike, by clearing those that were doubtful, and by supplying such as were defective. For which purpose letters were directed to some of us from the Chair of the Committee for Religion (in 1648 -- RB), and personal invitations to others, to undertake and divide the task among us, and so cometh in our part, whereof we shall give the world a true and just account in that which followeth.' The detailed account which follows in the preface is fascinating, mentioning, among many other things, the divines' 'use of the Dutch Bibles set forth at Holland, by order of the States.'

    The diligence given, the energy expended, the obvious humility, and the fearful trembling before God's Word which is evident in these commentators makes this truly a classic Puritan work -- a work of great value! Just knowing, as Barker points out, that this commentary was prepared mostly by Westminster Divines, by order of Parliament, at the time of the Assembly." (Puritan Profiles, p. 37)
    certainly bodes well for the level of scholarship it contains. Moreover, with Gouge, one of the most respected English Covenanters at the Assembly playing a major role, the thoughtful student of Scripture and history ought to take note: for a theological feast of mature Puritan thought surely awaits those that sup at this table. Esteemed, by the mid-1640's, 'as the father of the London Ministers,' Gouge was elected as Assessor for the Westminster Assembly on Nov. 25, 1647. His detractors sometimes called him an 'arch Puritan.' (cf. Ibid., p. 35). Dr. Gouge's 'share of the useful work consisted of Kings, and the subsequent books down to Esther, inclusive.' (Smith, Select Memoirs of English and Scottish Divines, p. 534). Most of the others chosen to this work had similar credentials, though not all exhibit equal proficiency and some later backslid from attainments reached at this point. Nevertheless, when the commentators were first chosen, these Annotations were produced by some of the most qualified English Puritans -- as a historical high water mark for Puritan scholarship was beginning to crest. Furthermore, in prosecuting this work the divines note, 'therefore we have put ourselves to much more pains (for many months), in consulting with many more authors, in several languages, than at first we thought of, that (for the propriety of the original text, for pertinent and profitable variety of versions, for consonancy of parallel Scriptures, and for perspicuity in clearing of the darkest places), we might bring in such observations, as might not only serve to edify the ordinary reader, but might likewise gratify our brethren of the ministry, at least such among them, as have not the means to purchase, or leisure to pursue, so many books, as (by order of the Committee), we were furnished with all, for the finishing of the work, committed to our hands' (Preface). As the work wore on, however, it became apparent that the original intention (of printing these annotations as marginal notes in the Bible), would no longer fit the scope and length of commentary that had been produced. Thus, the notes were not added to the Scriptures directly, but rather published as a separate commentary (which we are offering here), -- except that we have divided the work into six volumes rather than the original two, because of logistics." -- Publisher

    Young, Robert (1822-1888), Young's Literal Translation of the Holy Bible, 2nd revised edition (3rd edition, 1898), facsimile reprint, (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1956, 1898, 1887, 1862), ISBN: 0801064821 9780801064821. A Christian classic. Considered to be among the ten greatest books in the English language.
    "YOUNG'S LITERAL TRANSLATION OF THE HOLY BIBLE is vitally significant in our day when a host of Bible versions and paraphrases present conflicting verbal images to the minds of readers. It equips Bible students to capture accurately the intent of the writers of Scripture. With this foundation, they can expertly compare Young's direct translation of the original Biblical authors with the modern paraphrases and translations that seek to express the Scripture in modern idioms. A book of 765 pages." -- CBD
    Jerome H. Smith used YOUNG'S LITERAL TRANSLATION OF THE HOLY BIBLE, which retains the Hebrew and Greek grammatical structure, and CONCISE CRITICAL COMMENTS: YOUNG'S BIBLE in the preparation of THE NEW TREASURY OF SCRIPTURE KNOWLEDGE. Thomas Scott used THE HOLY BIBLE, 1611 EDITION, KING JAMES VERSION in the compilation of the original TREASURE OF SCRIPTURE KNOWLEDGE.
    Young's Literal Translation of the Holy Bible
    Includes various comments about translation of Hebrew and Greek.
    Young's Literal Translation online
    This web site includes biographical information for Robert Young.
    Robert Young is a co-author along with William Barron Stevenson (1869-?), and Thomas Nicol (1846-?), of the ANALYTICAL CONCORDANCE TO THE BIBLE, ISBN: 0840749457.
    Robert Young, et al., compiled the ANALYTICAL CONCORDANCE TO THE BIBLE in preparation for his literal translation of the Bible,
    "Containing about 311,000 references, subdivided under the Hebrew and Greek original with the literal meaning and pronunciation of each; also index lexicons to the Old and New Testaments, being a guide to parallel passages; and a complete list of scripture proper names."

    Related WebLinks

    Bible Researcher

    The Deficiencies of the Geneva Bible

    Forensic Science and the Antichrist
    "In these days of ever-growing heresies, apostasies and rampant unbelief by professing Christians, the battle rages on several fronts. This ministry is especially dedicated to defending classic Reformation truths, not the least of which is the unanimous declaration of the Protestant Reformers that the Antichrist prophesied by Holy Writ was presently in their midst, reigning in the visible Church of God, II Thess. 2:4 [2 Thessalonians 2:4], under the guise of the Pope of Rome. One does not need to search secret tunnels under Oxford and Cambridge to discover this historic fact. This potent Protestant truth is manifest for all to see. Simply by reading the creeds of the Reformation, available on the Internet, in libraries and bookstores, it quickly becomes apparent that, in their days, no Protestant worthy of the name believed anything less."

    Geneva Bible (1560/1599)
    All the original Geneva Footnotes of both the 1560 and 1599 versions, and all with corrected spelling.

    The Geneva Bible, 1587 Edition

    The 1599 Geneva Bible Restoration Project

    The 1599 Geneva Bible, Tolle Lege edition, online
    In the version drop-down menu go to "-- English (EN)--," then select "1599 Geneva Bible." Page Options include footnotes, cross references, verse numbers, and headings.

    Geneva Bible

    The Geneva Bible -- An Historical Report, Patricia Serak
    "Those who are using the GENEVA BIBLE may be interested in Patricia Serak's webpage, 'The Geneva Bible -- An Historical Report,' which discusses in greater detail differences in succeeding editions.
    " 'The two other most significant editions of the GENEVA BIBLE are the 1587 Tomson New Testament edition and the use of the notes of Franciscus Junius on Revelation from 1599 on'."
    "From Serak's conclusion:

    While much has been written about the GENEVA BIBLE, there are still opportunities for further research. The richest area to be mined is the marginal notes. The greatest need seems to be an objective, comprehensive, and systematic analysis of the theology of the notes.
    While some work has been done on the note's theology, such as by David Daniell, in THE BIBLE IN ENGLISH, thoroughness is lacking. Systematically studying the theology of the notes could be illuminating in understanding the doctrinal development of Protestantism and contemporary dogmatic theology, such as covenant theology.
    Another way the GENEVA BIBLE notes could be mined is to compare them to the notes of popular contemporary study Bibles. A comparison of the notes could reveal areas of Protestant doctrinal drift.
    The true nature of the demise of the GENEVA BIBLE would also be an interesting historical analysis. Was it driven out by political and commercial interests or superseded by a better translation? Research on this topic could provide insights into the Bible publishing and marketing practices of our time. -- Patricia Serak

    Ministry Watch
    "Ministry Watchman holds Christian ministers and their ministries accountable to biblical standards of conduct by, where necessary, exposing internal graft, compromise, hypocrisy, tyranny, and corruption. Our primary focus is on those ministers who profess to hold to the Reformed faith traditions and teachings."
    Subjects as of June 2007: Vision Forum, Uncategorized, RC Sproul Jr, RC Sproul, Persecution Project, Patriarchy, Ligonier Ministries, Federal Vision, Doug Wilson, Doug Phillips, CREC, and Brad Phillips

    The Mystery of Prophecy Explained (multi-part series)
    "The subject of the Revelation, the final Word of God to us, is fraught with warnings concerning the adding to or taking away from that book. That is exactly what is occurring in our generation, unlike any prior generation."

    Reformed Presbyterian Veritas

    Robbins, John W., R.C. Sproul on Saving Faith
    "Rather than defending, or even explaining, the Biblical and Reformational doctrine of justification by faith alone -- Sproul does not describe it as Biblical, or correct, but merely as Luther's position and Luther's view, as though the idea of justification by faith alone had originated with Luther -- rather than defending justification by faith alone from the charge of antinomianism, as Paul does in Romans, Sproul denigrates justification by the pejorative label easy-believism. In so doing he tries to make Rome's murderous opposition to the Reformation understandable. This is inexcusable in any theologian, especially one who claims to be Reformed."

    A Significant and Very Scary Recent Example of Revisionism in Church History: Presbyterian Church in America and R.C. Sproul Guilty of Spiritual Sabotage, Rand Winburn

    Textual Criticism, a topical listing of annotated bibliography

    Unfaithful Reformed Ministries

    Why is the Antichrist Necessary?
    "There is an evil permeating professing non-Roman Catholic Christianity in the English-speaking world. This evil has been increasing for the past two hundred years and shows no signs of abating. What was once viewed the standard orthodox Protestant position regarding the prophetic interpretation of the Scriptures has today been nearly extinguished by those calling themselves Protestant, Reformed, Puritan, and Evangelical. The Historical-Continuous School of prophetic interpretation has been replaced by the Futurist, Preterist and Idealist schools. Simply stated, the Historical school has viewed the Revelation as the ongoing, continuous history of the Lord's Elect Church from the days of the Apostle John through the centuries comprising the rise, reign and rule of the Antichrist and his false church, even until the Second Coming of Christ in Judgment. We are then given a glimpse into what is to occur after the Judgments of Christ, when eternity is opened up to us. All but the Historical school place the Antichrist outside the Church, whereas the Historical school recognizes the Antichrist in the midst of the professing, visible Christian Church. This is no small disagreement. One must be right, the other wrong. Because the issue of the Antichrist is prophetic, those in leadership holding teaching and/or pastoring offices and who prophesy erroneously, no matter how sincere, are prophesying falsely. Thus, they are false prophets. False prophets are liars. Liars are not written in the Lamb's book of life, nor are they admitted into New Jerusalem to partake of the tree of life should they continue in their lies. Instead, their end is the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone." (Rev. 21:8,27 [Revelation 21:8,27]; Rev. 22:15 [Revelation 22:15])

    Books Considered to be Among the ten Greatest in the English Language

    How to Find a Book

    E-mail: Biblical Counsel: Resources for Renewal at

    Web Layout - Lettermen Associates
    Updated - September 6, 2016, Lettermen Associates